The benefits and harms of kombucha, how to grow it and how to care for it
Kombucha, aka Japanese or jellyfish mushroom, was brought to Russia by soldiers after the Russo-Japanese War. It is one of the best remedies for treating liver and gallbladder diseases. The fungus increases the activity of the digestive glands, effectively treats atherosclerosis and angina, normalizes blood pressure and sleep.
The body of the kombucha resembles a jellyfish, which is why it was nicknamed by the people. Above, the mushroom is absolutely smooth, and from the bottom there are countless yeast bacteria, which do the main work (prepare a healing and tasty tincture).
Kombucha is a biological substrate that contains yeast and acetic acid fermentation products. In appearance, it is a mucous layered film that floats on the surface of a nutrient medium, for example, juice or tea. The liquid in which the mushroom lives turns into a carbonated drink like kvass. The mushroom can fill any container and eventually reach a hundred kilograms!
- Useful properties of kombucha
- Kombucha harm
How to Grow Kombucha?
- Simple and fast way
- Tea brew recipe
- Rosehip recipe
- Vinegar recipe
- How to care for kombucha?
- Which side to put in the jar?
- How to properly divide a kombucha for reproduction?
- Kombucha diseases and solutions
- Can you drink Kombucha?
- Kombucha treatment
- Kombucha slimming
Useful properties of kombucha
The beneficial properties of kombucha have been known for a long time in eastern countries. Japanese geisha drank it to maintain a slim figure, used it to remove warts and remove age spots on the face and body, rinse it with a solution of hair after washing. In Indonesia, this natural medicine was used as an effective antidote for various poisonings.
The effects of kombucha reported by tea drinkers and Russian researchers:
- Reduces cholesterol;
- Regenerates the walls of blood vessels, thereby reducing the symptoms of atherosclerosis;
- Reduces blood pressure;
- Relieves inflammation;
- Relieves symptoms of arthritis, rheumatism and gout;
- Improves liver function;
- Normalizes intestinal activity, balances the intestinal microflora, cures hemorrhoids;
- Reduces obesity and regulates appetite;
- Cures bladder infection and reduces kidney calcification;
Stimulates all secretion glands;
- Protects against diabetes;
- Increases the body's resistance to cancer;
- Antibiotic against bacteria, viruses and yeast;
- Strengthens the immune system and stimulates the production of interferon;
- Relieves bronchitis and asthma;
- Reduces menstrual irregularities and hot flashes during menopause;
- Improves the health of hair, skin and nails;
- Reduces alcohol cravings;
- Reduces stress, nervous disorders and insomnia;
- Relieves headaches;
- Improves vision;
Increases overall metabolism .
The benefits of kombucha are due to the presence of a large number of biologically active substances in it: organic and carbonic acids (acetic, gluconic, glucuronic, citric, L-lactic, malic, tartaric, malonic, oxalic, amber, pyruvic, usnic), polysaccharides, proteins, sugars, aromatic oils, vitamins of group B1, B2, B6, B12 and C. 14 amino acids, biogenic amines, purines, pigments, lipids, some hydrolytic enzymes, ethanol, antibiotic active substances, carbon dioxide, phenol, as well as some tea polyphenols, minerals (manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, lead, cobalt, chromium), anions, DSL, as well as insufficiently known yeast and bacterial metabolites.
Vitamins per 100 ml
Vitamin B1 (thiamin)
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin)
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
Source: Mineral and water soluble vitamin content in the Kombucha drink 
Even in kombucha, bacteria with antibiotic properties were found. They are able to kill or significantly slow down the development of many disease-causing microbes. The most numerous prokaryotes in this culture belong to the bacterial genera Acetobacter and Gluconobacter.
The ethanol content in the drink increases over time, reaching a maximum value of 0.5 g per 100 ml . The maximum alcohol is reached on the 6th day, after which it decreases.
The protein content also increases in the range from 0.01 g to 0.3 g per 100 ml during 12 days of fermentation .
Kombucha is an antimicrobial drink
The antimicrobial activity of kombucha tea is largely attributed to the presence of organic acids, especially acetic acid, large proteins and catechins. It is known that acetic acid and catechins inhibit a number of gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.
For example, the drink exhibits antimicrobial efficacy against Entamoeba cloaca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, B. Cereus, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Shigella, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Leuconostoc monocytogenic, Staphylococcus aureus, Campyl Yersinia and C. albicans, but not for Candida . Moreover, kombucha cooked with green tea has the highest antimicrobial potential.
Kombucha is a source of antioxidants
The antioxidant activity of kombucha is correlated with its many claimed benefits, such as preventing cancer, enhancing immunity, and relieving inflammation and arthritis . The antioxidant activity of kombucha tea is due to the presence of tea polyphenols, ascorbic acid in it. The degree of activity depends on the fermentation time.
Kombucha is a hepatoprotector
Kombucha can prevent hepatotoxicity caused by various pollutants (paracetamol, carbon tetrachloride, aflatoxin B1, cadmium chloride, acetaminophen) by effectively reducing the physiological changes caused by liver toxicants .
Kombucha is a Cancer Cure
Chemoprophylaxis using a combination of dietary phytochemicals has been proposed as a successful approach to fighting various types of cancer with fewer side effects. For many years, kombucha lovers have seriously argued that kombucha has anti-cancer properties. Back in 1951, studies of the population were carried out by the Central Oncological Research Department and the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow .
It was found that kombucha causes a cytotoxic effect on renal carcinoma, lung carcinoma, osteosarcoma and prostate cancer, reducing the mobility, invasion and survival of cancer cells .
As a result of scientific tests, no negative effects of kombucha on the human body have been revealed. Its use as a wipe and for other external purposes is completely harmless to health. Kombucha drink can be consumed not only by adults, but also by children. With all this, its use is safe only if hygiene is observed and the correct preparation of tea infusion from natural tea using fresh water.
Despite all the beneficial qualities of kombucha, it should be used with caution. It cannot be used by people who have:
Increased acidity of gastric juice;
- Stomach ulcer;
- Fungal diseases;
- Individual intolerance to the components included in this product.
Despite the fact that nutrients are increasing every day, prolonged fermentation is not recommended due to the accumulation of organic acids, which can reach harmful dosages.
In general, kombucha infusion is absolutely harmless to the human body. The FDA and Kappa Laboratories, Miami, Florida, USA, conducted microbiological and biochemical tests and reported that kombucha is safe for human consumption .
However, it is better to refrain from drinking it for those who drive a car, since there is a small amount of alcohol in kombucha.
There are a number of reported cases of lead poisoning in which people used ceramic or earthenware to store kombucha . Therefore, be sure to use only glass!
The use of kombucha
Traditional medicine in many countries of the world has long been using the medicinal properties of kombucha. It is actively used for diseases of the intestines, kidneys, bladder, liver and nervous system, as well as for relieving headaches. It has anti-inflammatory and antibiotic effects, as well as normalizes the activity of the gastrointestinal tract, helps to reduce blood cholesterol and blood pressure. The fungus has established itself as an effective prophylactic agent for polyarthritis, rheumatic heart disease and atherosclerosis.
Its infusions are often used for chronic rhinitis, sore throat, tonsillitis. Many experts note that even with dysentery, such a drink can provide better quality assistance than some pharmaceutical drugs. Drinking a solution of kombucha helps to overcome insomnia, get rid of pain in the heart area. It should be noted that this natural medicine has a sedative effect, and also has a positive effect on the general well-being of patients.
How to Grow Kombucha?
Simple and fast way. To grow a kombucha, it is best to take the so-called "baby", that is, a mushroom shoot from people who breed it. The scion should be placed in a thoroughly washed and well-dried three liter jar.
In a separate bowl, you need to brew strong tea at the rate of 100 g per 1 liter of water and dissolve from 30 to 60 grams of sugar in it. Sugar must necessarily dissolve in advance, since large particles of sugar, when they get on the mushroom, can destroy it. Then you need to cool the tea leaves and carefully pour it into the container with the mushroom. The jar should be covered with clean gauze, which will allow the solution to breathe and protect it from dust. The drink will be ready to drink within 8-15 days.
If there is no ready-made mushroom, cook it yourself, but this will require patience.
The choice is based on:
- Tea ➤
- Rosehip ➤
- Apple Cider Vinegar ➤
Preparation. You need to cook kombucha clean. Dust and dirt should not be anywhere: neither in the workplace, nor on clothes, nor on dishes. It is recommended to sterilize the container for growing the mushroom. Be sure to scald spoons, funnel, sieve and other devices that will be used to prepare the drink with boiling water.
Tea brew recipe
- A three-liter jar is washed with warm water and soda and sterilized.
In a kettle with a volume of 1.5 liters, 4-5 tablespoons of black or green tea are brewed without additives. When the tea leaves cool, add 5 tablespoons of sugar to it and stir until completely dissolved.
- The solution is passed through a sieve and poured into a three liter jar.
- Cover it with gauze and put it in a dark place for 30-45 days.
After 2 weeks or a little earlier, a slight vinegar smell will appear from the can. It will persist until a thin film forms on the surface of the liquid - this will be the medusomycete.
Are mushroom stains mold? Sometimes the surface of a young mushroom is covered with gray or white spots. You don't need to worry, it's not mold. The spots are represented by colonies of microbes that form during the symbiosis of acetic acid bacteria and yeast.
The formed kombucha is removed from the jar, rinsed in clean water and placed in a new dish. The juvenile medusomycete is still quite weak, so dust, dirt or insects should not be allowed to enter the jar. To make the mushroom stronger, it is fed with sweet tea.
At first, the jellyfish will not float to the surface. You should not worry about this. Within a few days it will rise from the bottom of the can.
- Four tablespoons of rosehips are poured into 0.5 liters of boiling water and left to infuse for three days. The best container for preparing a drink is a thermos.
- The jar for the future jellyfish is washed with soda and poured over with boiling water.
- Pour rosehip infusion into it.
- Tea is brewed separately. For 250 ml of water, 1 small spoonful of dry raw materials is required.
- The cooled tea is poured into a jar to the rosehip infusion, add 5 tbsp. l. sugar, stir until completely dissolved.
After 24 hours, the solution is filtered, covered with gauze and left for 45-60 days. During this time, a young mushroom will form.
- To get a really healthy product, use only high-quality apple cider vinegar. It should not contain foreign impurities, such as dyes.
- The bottle should be opened and left in a warm place for 60-75 days. During this time, a precipitate will appear in it.
- The next step is to prepare the tea leaves. Sugar must be added to it.
- Vinegar is poured into a brewing jar and left for another 14 days.
- The jelly-like film that appears on the surface is the young Kombucha.
[Video] Instructions on how to grow a kombucha from scratch:
How to care for kombucha?
The recipe for preparing a new solution (what the mushroom eats) for an already existing mushroom. To prepare the base, 4 teaspoons of leaf tea are poured with boiling water and insisted for 20 minutes. Filter the drink, add sugar. It will take 120 g per liter of brewing.
! It is important to completely dissolve the sugar. If its grains fall on the delicate surface of the kombucha, it can burn and die.
The solution is brought to the required volume with cool boiled water. You cannot pour tap water into the jar, it is too hard. Only after the base for the mushroom is ready, the body is launched inside.
The jar must be filled to the top. For a small mushroom, use a container with a volume of 1 liter. As the medusomycete grows, it is changed to 2, and then to 3 liters.
Where to store? The mushroom can die in direct sunlight, so it is better to keep it in the shade. In addition, it is important to remember that in a cool room, it ceases to function. The best temperature for its dilution is + 25 ° C.
How often can the infusion be drained, and should the mushroom be washed? In summer, it is recommended to drain the infusions of kombucha every 2–4 days, in winter - after 4–6 days. Also, the mushroom must be washed with clean cool water every three weeks.
If the mushroom remains in solution, then its upper film begins to turn brown. With untimely feeding or complete cessation of nutrition, this living organism begins to hurt and, ultimately, dies, while sinking to the bottom. In this case, drinking its infusion is strictly prohibited.
How to cover the jar? Do not cover the dishes with a lid. To protect it from dust and insects, use only gauze folded in several layers. The fungus cannot exist without oxygen.
Storage. The finished drink can be stored in the refrigerator for up to six months. It has a high content of lactic and gluconic acid, so it does not spoil. Over time, the infusion only tastes better. A healing drink from an adult kombucha is poured every 3-7 days.
Which side to put the kombucha in the jar?
The upper surface of the fungus is smooth and dense, while the lower surface is loose and fibrous. It is in it that colonies of beneficial microorganisms live, which enrich the usual tea leaves with vitamins and microelements. In order not to break their symbiosis, the bottom of the fungus should not be touched.
Lower it with the fibrous part down. The smooth side should be on the surface.
How to properly divide a kombucha for reproduction?
If friends have a ready-made kombucha, then you can ask them for a part of the overgrown organism. With proper care, a healthy and strong mushroom will form from a small piece within a few weeks. It has an amazing ability to grow quickly, but too large a mushroom loses its beneficial properties, so it is divided and distributed among several banks. Care must be taken to avoid damaging it.
You can start dividing only after the thickness of the mushroom reaches 70 mm. Too often it should not be disturbed, otherwise the new layers will not have time to get saturated with vitamins and minerals.
Instructions for dividing kombucha:
- Wash the hands.
- Drain all the liquid from the jar, remove the mushroom and place it on a plate.
- Find the places where the layers move away from each other.
- Separate them gently with your fingers.
- Rinse the layer with clean water.
- Place the separated layers in a new sweet tea solution.
The base of the mushroom that gave birth to the offspring will immediately begin to enrich the drink with nutrients. It will take 14-20 days for this process to start in a new bank. You cannot cut the kombucha. The use of any sharp metal objects can lead to death of the body. The layers are separated only with fingers in the places of their greatest divergence.
You cannot cut the kombucha. The use of any sharp metal objects can lead to the death of the body. The layers are separated only with fingers in the places of their greatest divergence.
Features. It is very easy to separate the top of the mature mushroom. If, when you try to remove the layer, it comes off with difficulty, then the time has not come yet.
Sometimes the fungus separates the daughter plate on its own. In this case, the base sinks to the bottom of the can, and after a few days or even hours a thin film appears on the surface. It needs to be removed and placed in a new jar. With proper care, a new healthy mushroom will grow out of the "baby".
Kombucha diseases and solutions
Kombucha is also susceptible to diseases and adverse environmental influences, like any other living organism, and in most cases the owners themselves, carelessly caring for the mushroom, become the cause of its diseases. For example, in the process of replacing the nutrient mixture, kombucha can suffer various kinds of mechanical damage - cuts, tears, punctures, etc.
Of course, in most cases, this does not affect the vital activity of a symbiotic colony of living microorganisms capable of regeneration, therefore, mechanical damage is conditionally related to diseases of kombucha. However, if there is a large area of damage, it is recommended to place the mushroom in a small amount of a nutrient solution, which would only slightly cover the damaged surface, until it is completely restored.
Brown spots appeared on the mushroom. Brown spots on the mushroom indicate that tea leaves or undissolved sugar have fallen on its surface. In this case, it is necessary to separate the affected layer and further filter the tea solution through several layers of gauze or a special sieve. Sugar is stirred in tea until it is completely dissolved, and only after that the body of the mushroom is poured with a nutritious mixture.
The appearance of green algae. If the technological process is disturbed, blue-green algae may appear in the kombucha solution. They cover the walls of the can or float in the thickness of the solution, giving it a cloudy color. This is possible when the temperature in the room drops below 18 ° C, when direct sunlight falls on the jar or when the pH (7.5–8.5) of the nutrient medium is high. After washing the mushroom and correcting all violations, the algae no longer multiply.
Flies in the summer. In the summertime, Drosophila flies bother with their presence. They are attracted to substances produced during the fermentation of sugar by yeast. Flies lay larvae in the body of the fungus, which then feed on the waste products of the fungus. That is why it is recommended to cover the tin of infusion with gauze and glue the edges of the vessel with adhesive tape.
Kombucha mold is another of the diseases that interfere with this useful product. Most often, young fungi that have not yet developed a sufficient acidity level (pH) of the drink are exposed to mold infestation. Mold appears only on the surface of the fungus, which is in contact with air. It is best to replace the mushroom in this case, but if there is no such possibility, and the mold has just appeared, then you should try to save it. To do this, rinse the mushroom under running water, and then rinse with boiled vinegar. The container must be sterilized and filled with fresh nutrient solution. Usually the reason for the appearance of mold is a violation of the temperature regime or the smoke of the room from constant smoking.
Other possible problems with medusomycete:
The mushroom splits into layers. This is a natural process. Most likely, the owner simply missed the time when the offspring had to be removed manually. The detached layer is simply removed.
The drink does not ferment. To solve this problem, place the jar in a warm place and add sugar.
The mushroom became dark in color. This is due to its long-term presence in one solution. The infusion must be drained, the mushroom must be rinsed and filled with fresh tea leaves.
Can you drink Kombucha?
Kombucha effectively helps against many diseases; it can be drunk by both adults and children. At the same time, the infusion of the mushroom is a natural antibiotic and an absolutely natural product, devoid of all those disadvantages that are inherent in synthetic drugs. With the regular use of tea mushroom infusion, you can not only strengthen the immune system and cleanse the body, but also improve the condition of the skin, hair, nails, lose weight, and normalize metabolism. This delicious and refreshing drink is excellent for relieving hangover.
How to drink kombucha properly?
Typically, kombucha drink is consumed separately from food. It should be drunk no earlier than 3 hours after eating or 1 hour before a meal. An infusion of the mushroom, drunk on an empty stomach (from 1 to 1.5 cups), will prepare the digestive system for further digestion of food, half a glass of the drink before bedtime will disinfect the stomach and set you up for sleep. Traditional healers recommend drinking from 1/3 liter to half a liter of strained infusion every day 2-3 times a day.
Kombucha infusion can be prepared not only with tea leaves, but also using various herbal mixtures. Nettle with blackberry, plantain, strawberry, linden blossom, birch leaves, coltsfoot would be a good addition to tea. Add 1-3 teaspoons of chopped herbs to 1 liter of the nutrient mixture. A tasty and healthy drink is obtained with rose hips. Such a solution is usually filtered one hour after brewing and the mushroom is poured over it.
For the preparation of the nutrient medium, it is not recommended to use herbs containing a lot of essential oils, such as chamomile, sage, pepper, wild currant. As a result of the processing of essential oil by the mushroom, it will change its qualities and properties, and it is not known how. And this can be bad for your health.
[Video] How to flavor kombucha with different berries and fruits?
Since ancient times, kombucha was considered an elixir for many diseases. Not so long ago, it was grown in almost every Soviet family. Nowadays, not only fans of traditional medicine know about the beneficial properties of the mushroom - they are confirmed by modern clinical studies.
Kombucha nail treatment
There is such a disease as onychocryptosis - this is when the nail grows into the lateral part of the nail fold. This usually happens on the big toe. In the early stages, the disease is accompanied by inflammation of the soft tissues, and in the late stages, purulent discharge appears. If the disease is started, then in the future it is simply impossible to do without surgical intervention.
Very good results with timely treatment are given by natural medicines based on folk recipes, including kombucha. It is used in the form of compresses. First of all, we peel the mushroom, then wrap the sore finger with it and cover it with cling film, put on a simple sock, and then also a woolen sock. The ingrown toenail softens after just three such procedures, and you can remove it yourself.
There are many ways to care for your hair with kombucha. Preparations from it help to strengthen the hair, make it thicker and accelerate its growth; the mushroom is used in the treatment of various diseases of the scalp. In case of hair loss, the infusion of kombucha should be rubbed into the hairy surface with light massaging movements. For a richer and more intense color, as well as for the hair to become soft and shiny, it is recommended to rinse the hair with the mushroom infusion after shampooing.
To improve the internal condition of the hair, infusion of kombucha can be drunk daily before meals. This will not only help strengthen the hair, but will also have a beneficial effect on their growth. If you need to get rid of dandruff, then do the following: divide the hair into strands and lubricate the roots along the parting line with a piece of gauze dipped in the mushroom infusion. Rinse after 30-40 minutes. It is advisable to carry out this procedure after each shampooing.
To strengthen hair, you can also mix one tablespoon of honey with one glass of mushroom infusion. The mixture should be slightly warmed up, not boiling, and mixed thoroughly. Apply the mask evenly to damp hair. After 20-30 minutes, you can rinse your head with chamomile infusion.
From nail fungus
Fungal nail infection is a chronic disease that steadily destroys the nail plates and threatens to spread to the people around them, primarily to family members. The disease is the gateway to many other infectious diseases, it leads to allergization of the whole body, the development or worsening of the course of diseases such as bronchial asthma, allergic dermatitis, eczema and others.
That is why the fungus cannot be triggered, especially since the disease is easily treated with kombucha. To do this, a thin plate is separated from the mushroom and tied to a sore finger at night. From above, the lotion is covered with cellophane and several socks are put on so as not to stain the bedding, as juice will flow from the mushroom. The first reaction is likely to be painful, but if you overcome it, you can get rid of the disease once and for all.
In the morning, the compress should be removed, the leg should be washed in warm water, the dead pieces of skin should be cut off and the entire damaged surface should be treated with brilliant green or a solution of potassium permanganate. The procedure should be repeated every other day, and so on until the signs of the disease completely disappear. This usually takes up to seven sets. After the end of the course of treatment, the procedure can be repeated for prevention. The new nail will grow slowly, but it will be smooth and healthy.
Today gastritis is the most common disease of the gastrointestinal tract. The disease is characterized by damage to the gastric mucosa and its inflammation. The causes of the disease can be unhealthy diet, excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages, smoking, prolonged use of toxic drugs, etc.
A mixture of kombucha and honey will help relieve pain and heaviness in the stomach. The first 7-10 days when taking mushroom infusion, a light diet is recommended, then you can gradually add spices and bitterness to food, for example, barberry, dill, hops. Tea kvass is consumed 3 times a day, 100 ml.
Infusion: Chopped chestnut bark must be added to boiling water at the same time as tea infusion. It should be infused for 20-30 minutes, then strain and use for two weeks, a quarter of a glass of kombucha infusion 3 times a day, 1 hour before meals.
Kombucha is good because it is able to normalize metabolism in the human body, including carbohydrates. It is this feature that is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, it is not possible to use the mushroom for all forms of the disease; it is best to consult with your doctor about this. Just one glass of kombucha infusion per day, divided into 3-4 servings, will significantly improve the functioning of the whole body, mobilize internal reserves to fight the disease, and ensure a gradual decrease in blood sugar levels.
Patients with diabetes mellitus are advised to dilute the mushroom with mineral water or herbal tea when drinking the drink, while adding only 70–80 g of sugar to two liters of tea is enough. In addition, in the course of its life, Kombucha processes sugar without residue.
With a stomach ulcer
With increased acidity and stomach ulcer, you should not drink Kombucha. As an exception, you can use an infusion of mushroom with honey, prepared on the basis of only black tea. Honey neutralizes the effects of acid, eliminating exacerbations.
Kombucha drink is very healing and tonic, it can also be used by children. It replaces carbonated drinks well. Although it is undesirable to teach children to tea kvass from an early age. Even a minimal amount of alcohol and caffeine with their regular use will negatively affect the child's body. For kids, the best drink is clean water, and dessert - compotes, juices, fresh fruit puree, fruit drinks.
Tea kvass can be consumed during pregnancy only if the woman does not have allergic reactions to polysaccharides and acids that are part of the kombucha. Regular use of this healing drink will help strengthen the body's defenses and keep the woman feeling well.
It is possible and even necessary to use the infusion during lactation, also provided that the mother and the baby are not allergic to the components that make up the kombucha.
Kombucha is a very good and unique weight loss aid. It means that it enhances the therapeutic effect in combination with other drugs. However, positive results will be achieved only when nutrition is correct and healthy. For weight loss, you need to drink six glasses of kombucha daily: one glass one hour before meals, one glass two hours after. The course of treatment lasts three months, and after each month a week break should be taken.
To achieve a greater effect, you can prepare the mushroom infusion on slimming teas. It is very useful and tasty with herbal teas. Drinks prepared on the basis of kombucha normalize the body's metabolic processes, improve the functioning of the cardiovascular and hematopoietic systems. A person gets rid of edema and body fat, becomes more attractive and slimmer.
Contraindications to the use of kombucha
It is not recommended to take an infusion of kombucha for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type I diabetes mellitus). Do not consume the infusion in large quantities, undiluted or fermented. Consultation with the attending physician is recommended for those people who have acute forms of diseases of the internal organs, and those who are undergoing drug treatment.
The author of the article: Sokolova Nina Vladimirovna | Phytotherapist
Education: Diploma in "General Medicine" and "Therapy" received at the Pirogov University (2005 and 2006). Advanced training at the Department of Phytotherapy at the Peoples' Friendship University of Moscow (2008).
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