General Urine Analysis: Norm And Interpretation Of Results

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General Urine Analysis: Norm And Interpretation Of Results
General Urine Analysis: Norm And Interpretation Of Results

General urine analysis: norm and interpretation of results

General urine analysis
General urine analysis

Urine is a biological fluid, the end result of the natural process of human life. It is formed in the kidneys in two complex stages: glomerular filtration and reabsorption of water in the renal tubules. Together with urine, urea (a product of protein metabolism), uric acid, electrolytes, vitamins, hormones are excreted from the body. Based on the results of a laboratory study of urine, the doctor can assess the condition of the kidneys and their functionality, the work of the gastrointestinal tract, the cardiovascular system and many other organs. That is why OAM is included in the list of diagnostic tests that must be performed both in the presence of symptoms of malaise and for preventive purposes, as part of regular health monitoring.


  • How to collect a urine test correctly?
  • Indications for the purpose of the study
  • Table of norms of the general analysis of urine
  • Daily urine output and urinary frequency
  • Decoding the results of a general urine test

    • Color
    • Clarity
    • Smell (Smell)
    • Relative density (SG)
    • Acid-base reaction (pH)
    • Protein (PRO)
    • Glucose (GLU)
    • Leukocytes (LEU)
    • Erythrocytes (BLD)
    • Hemoglobin (Hb)
    • Bilirubin (BIL)
    • Urobilinogen (UBG)
    • Ketone Bodies (KET)
    • Nitrite (NIT)
    • Epithelial cells
    • Cylinders
    • Salt crystals
    • Bacteria, fungi and parasites
    • Slime

Usually, it is the doctor who directs the patient to a general urine analysis, decoding the results in adults and children is also the prerogative of a qualified specialist: a therapist, pediatrician, urologist, nephrologist. But any person in our time can independently undergo a complete examination of the body, including OAM. When the form with the results is in hand, it will be difficult to understand it without having a medical education. We will provide you with all the information you need for this in a concise and accessible form: the norms of the general urine analysis in the table, the decoding of the indicators and a list of possible reasons why the result deviates from the ideal.

However, we emphasize that this information is for informational purposes only and does not obviate the need for professional advice. In addition, the figures given in different sources differ slightly, laboratories may use other units of measurement, so it is better to still seek help from a doctor.

How to collect a urine test correctly?

How to collect a urine test correctly
How to collect a urine test correctly

To get the most reliable results of the study, you must follow the rules for collecting urine for analysis. If a person is healthy, this liquid is sterile, but it may contain microorganisms from the surface of the urogenital organs, or from contaminated containers. Adults are able to collect urine themselves; sick bedridden people and children, especially the smallest, may need outside help.

To be able to take urine from an infant, he must first be breastfed, since the saturation process is directly related to the emptying of the bladder. You can also lightly massage the baby's tummy or lower the baby's legs into a container of warm water - this will almost certainly lead to reflex urination. Of course, collecting urine from boys is much easier due to the structural features of the external genital organs. And for girls, you can buy special soft containers with sticky edges at the pharmacy.

So, for the successful collection of urine for a general analysis, you must adhere to the following rules:

  • The procedure is performed immediately after a night's rest, in the morning, on an empty stomach;
  • It is better if the last emptying of the bladder occurred at least 6 hours before collection;
  • First, it is necessary to wash the external intimate organs with a soapy solution, rinse thoroughly and wipe dry;
  • The volume of liquid required for research is from 50 to 100 ml;
  • The first few drops should not be drawn into the reservoir. You need an average portion of urine. The fact is that the first fluid contains epithelium that has moved away from the mucous membrane of the urethra, which can distort the results of the study;
  • Dishes for collecting urine must be thoroughly washed, even better - sterilized and then dried. The neck of the container should be wide and the lid should be tightly closed;

  • Urine for analysis is not removed from any other container (a baby pot, for example), it is collected directly into a specially prepared container;
  • After collection, urine should not be stored longer than 60-90 minutes. During this time, it must be delivered to the laboratory;
  • On the eve, you should give up vegetables and fruits containing coloring pigments (for example, carrots or beets), as well as chocolate and alcoholic beverages;
  • It is imperative to inform the doctor about all medications taken constantly, since some drugs affect the composition of urine.

Women are not advised to take OAM during menstruation, as menstrual blood can enter the container when urine is collected and distort the test results. If an analysis is urgently needed, you should use a tampon or close the vagina with sterile cotton wool before urinating.

Indications for the purpose of the study

Indications for the purpose of the study
Indications for the purpose of the study

OAM is certainly carried out as part of a preventive examination, annual medical examination, gaining access to certain types of activities, pregnancy management, and primary hospitalization of the patient. In addition, any person on his own initiative can pass a general urine test and independently decipher the results, but it is better to entrust this task to a qualified doctor.

OAM becomes a mandatory diagnostic test in the following cases:

  • Signs of an inflammatory process in the genitourinary system - a pathological change in the color and odor of urine, a violation of the urination regime, pain in the lower back or lower abdomen;
  • Symptoms of endocrine pathologies - sudden changes in weight, sweating, thirst, hirsutism, drowsiness, irritability;
  • Suspicion of the presence of an oncological process in the body;
  • Disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular system and other organs for the first time;
  • Any existing somatic diseases (pancreatitis, diabetes, hepatitis) - OAM serves to control the treatment process.

If the decoding of the results of the general urine analysis shows a significant deviation from normal values, the patient is assigned additional studies, for example, an ultrasound of the kidneys, urine analysis according to Zimnitsky or Nechiporenko.

Table of norms for general analysis of urine in adults and children


Indicator and unit of measure






from straw to dark yellow

from straw to dark yellow

from straw to light yellow








characteristic, unsharp

characteristic, unsharp

characteristic, unsharp


Relative density (specific gravity)





Acid-base reaction





Protein, g / l



negative (absent)


Glucose, mmol / l



negative (absent)


Leukocytes, pcs. in sight





Erythrocytes, pcs. in sight





negative (absent)

negative (absent)

negative (absent)


Bilirubin, ╬╝mol / l





Urobilinogen, mg / l





Ketone bodies (acetone), mmol / l



negative (absent)



negative (absent)

negative (absent)

negative (absent)

Ep. cl.

Epithelial cells, pcs.





Cylinders, pcs.





Salt crystals, pcs.





Bacteria, fungi and parasites

negative (absent)

negative (absent)

negative (absent)



negative (absent)

negative (absent)

negative (absent)

Daily urine output and urinary frequency

Daily urine output and urinary frequency
Daily urine output and urinary frequency

The term "daily urine output" refers to the volume of urine excreted by a person during the control 24 hours. This indicator depends on many factors: age, kidney function, hormonal status, and simply on how much fluid the patient drank. Although diuresis and frequency of urination do not appear in the interpretation of the results of OAM, violations in these processes just become the most frequent reason for the examination.

Norms of daily urine output by age:

  • 1 month - 320-340 ml;
  • 1-2 years - 460-480 ml;
  • 2-5 years old - 550-570 ml;
  • 5-8 years old - 670-690 ml;
  • 8-11 years old - 840-860 ml;
  • 11-18 years old - 1000-1100 ml;
  • Adults - 1400-1800 ml.

Diuresis and urinary frequency disorders


What it is?

Why does this happen?


Increase in daily urine volume up to 2000 ml or more

  • Diabetes mellitus and insipidus;
  • Taking diuretics;
  • A large amount of liquid drunk per day;
  • Convergence of edema;
  • Polyuric stage of acute renal failure.


Reduction of the daily urine volume to 300-600 ml

  • Dehydration due to heat, lack of water, prolonged vomiting, or diarrhea;
  • Edema, fluid retention in internal organs against the background of liver cirrhosis (ascites), pericarditis, exudative pleurisy;
  • Toxic kidney damage;
  • Oliguric stage of acute renal failure.


Decrease in daily urine volume up to 50 ml or complete absence of urine output

  • State of shock (anaphylaxis, cardiogenic or traumatic shock);
  • Massive blood loss;
  • Crash syndrome (prolonged compression of the kidneys);
  • Transfusion of inappropriate donated blood;
  • Blockage of the urinary tract with calculi;
  • Acute renal failure, glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis.


There is urine in the bladder, but spontaneous emission is difficult or impossible

  • Adhesions in the urethra;
  • Acute or chronic prostatitis, adenoma, prostate cancer;
  • Disruption of the innervation of the bladder due to trauma, surgery, neurogenic infection, difficult labor, multiple sclerosis.


Nocturnal diuresis prevails over daytime

  • Diabetes mellitus and insipidus;
  • Benign prostatic dysplasia;
  • Inflammatory and neoplastic kidney pathologies.


A complex disorder that combines a pathological change in urine volume, a violation of the frequency and control of urination, as well as the pain of this process

  • Inflammatory and oncological diseases of the genitourinary system;
  • Kidney or bladder stones;
  • Neurogenic disorders;
  • Climax;
  • Endometriosis;
  • Alcoholism.


Difficulty, slow urination with interruptions and a feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder

  • Urinary tract stricture;
  • Blockage of the bladder neck, ureter, or urethra with calculi;
  • Infectious diseases of the genitourinary system;
  • Oncological processes;
  • Endocrine pathologies;
  • Neurological and psycho-emotional reasons.


Frequency of urination over 6 times a day

  • Inflammatory or neoplastic process in the genitourinary organs;
  • Excessive fluid intake.


Frequency of urination less than 3 times a day

  • Nervous reflex disorders;
  • Dehydration of the body;
  • Renal failure;
  • Fluid retention in internal organs, edema.


Urinary incontinence

  • Childhood, lack of urinary control skills;
  • Weakening of the pelvic floor muscles in postmenopausal women;
  • Neurogenic disorders;
  • Stress

In fact, phenomena such as ishuria, stranguria, pollakiuria, olakiuria and enuresis are types of dysuria or are part of a complex of urinary disorders. They can be observed at any age and with a number of diseases that cannot be considered within one table.

Decoding the results of a general urine test

Decoding the results of a general urine test
Decoding the results of a general urine test

Within the framework of OAM, a sequential study of the following characteristics of urine is carried out:

  • Physical properties (color, odor, transparency, specific gravity);
  • Chemical composition (protein, glucose, leukocytes, erythrocytes, nitrites, etc.);
  • Impurities and sediment (mucus, salt crystals, bacteria, fungi, parasites).

Let's take a quick look at each indicator so that deciphering the results of a general urinalysis is not difficult.


The color intensity of urine will be influenced by a derivative of bile pigments, which occurs as a result of the degradation of hemoglobin and is called "urochrome". Certain diseases can affect the intensity of its formation.

In addition, the color of urine may change due to the intake of certain medications and the use of a number of foods:

  • Intense red, pink or scarlet, or a meaty look. All this indicates that erythrocytes are present in the biological fluid. Possible pathologies: nephropathy, inflammation of the urinary bladder, urolithiasis, porphyria inherited, lead poisoning, severe toxicosis. Redness of urine can be triggered by the following drugs when taken orally: Rifampicin, Amidopyrine, Sulfazole, Phenacetin, Red Streptocid and any iron-containing drugs. With an alkaline reaction, urine has a pinkish tint when phenolphthalein is excreted by the kidneys;
  • Intense yellow color with noticeable darkening. This shade indicates that a person does not consume enough liquid, or sweats a lot, as a result of which the urine becomes highly concentrated. Also, the dark yellow color of urine is observed when carrots are included in the diet. Possible pathologies: heart muscle disease, liver disease. Eating disorders: starvation and lack of milk for a breastfed baby. Another reason why urine can turn dark yellow is dehydration against a background of high body temperature, with diarrhea or vomiting;
  • Saturated yellow urine with green or brown tint. Possible pathologies: all liver diseases, hemolytic anemia, obstructive jaundice. This color is due to the high content of bile pigments and bilirubin in the released fluid;
  • Urine color is closer to green. This shade indicates that there is pus in it (leukocyturia). With an alkaline reaction, such urine will have a grayish or dirty brown color;
  • Blackening of the fluid, or a brown-black tint indicates the following pathologies: hemoglobinuria (release of hemoglobin from the vascular bed and entering the urine), melanoma, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, melanosarcoma (color is achieved due to the content of melanin in the urine). Also, this color of urine can be in case of intoxication with naphthalene oxy derivatives;
  • White or whitish color of urine gives the content of phosphates, lymph and fats in it. Such violations may indicate lipuria, phosphaturia, the presence of oncological lesions of the urinary system, as well as kidney damage by mycobacterium tuberculosis;
  • Too pale or clear urine may indicate the presence of pathologies such as diabetes insipidus or impaired kidney function. It is also possible to clarify urine while taking diuretics and when consuming a large amount of fluid;
  • Dark yellow or light brown urine will be given by taking Biseptol, Metronidazole and products containing bearberry;
  • A greenish brown color will result in treatment with Indomethacin or Amitriptyline;
  • Rich yellow color with a possible orange tinge, imparts the intake of vitamins B and C, multivitamin supplements and foods high in beta-carotene (for example, apricots, carrots, persimmons)

[Video] Dr. Berg - What is the color of urine talking about? How to find out about health problems:



Normally, urine does not have any impurities and is completely transparent. If this is not the case, then even before decoding the results of the general analysis of urine, it is safe to assume that the indicators are not in order.

When turbidity is observed in the biological fluid after its separation, possible reasons lie in the following:

  • The composition contains protein, which is a deviation from the norm and may indicate the development of nephritis or amyloid dystrophy of the kidneys;
  • Erythrocytes are present, which is typical for oncological diseases of the urinary system, urolithiasis, prostatitis, nephropathy;
  • Bacterial, fungal or protozoan microorganisms are found, which may indicate pyelonephritis, cystitis, candidiasis and other infectious diseases of the genitourinary system;
  • There are many epithelial cells in the field of view, which may also indicate the development of inflammation;
  • An abundant precipitate of crystalline salts is observed, and this threatens with urolithiasis;
  • Mucus is visible, which means either an inflammatory process, or kidney stones, or improper collection of urine for analysis.


Naturally, urine, like any biological fluid, despite its sterility, has a specific smell. However, in some diseases, it can change. For example, if the smell of ammonia comes from urine, this may indicate inflammation in the urinary or reproductive system, or the process of tumor decomposition. Urine smells like acetone when the blood glucose is high, and diabetes can be indicated by an odor resembling the aroma of pickled apples.

Even before the deciphering of the results of a general urine analysis in adults and children, a pathological odor attracts the attention of a laboratory assistant and indicates deviations from the norm. In addition, many people go to a doctor for the first time and are referred to AOM for this very reason.

Relative density (SG)

The relative density or specific gravity of urine is an extremely important indicator. Depending on the data obtained, one can judge the functioning of the kidneys, namely, their ability to dilute and concentrate.

Laboratory assistants determine the specific gravity of urine, based on the concentration of salts, electrolytes, uric acid, protein, sugar. For this, a device called the "urometer" is used. A once-recorded deviation in the specific gravity of urine from the norm is not a cause for alarm, but such a patient will need further examination.

Hypersthenuria is an increase in urine density, hypostenuria is a decrease, and isostenuria is a condition in which the density of urine is equal to the density of blood plasma and is 1010-1011.

The specific gravity of urine is increased - reasons:

  • Swelling, fluid retention;
  • Ascites with cirrhosis of the liver;
  • Toxicosis of pregnant women;
  • Nephrotic syndrome;
  • Diabetes.

The specific gravity of urine is lowered - reasons:

  • Renal failure;
  • Diabetes insipidus;
  • Prolonged fasting;
  • Drink plenty of fluids.

Acid-base reaction (pH)

Acid-base reaction
Acid-base reaction

Normally, the reaction should be either slightly acidic or alkaline, and ranges from 5 to 7 pH. If this indicator deviates from the norm when decoding the results of a general urine analysis, then this may indicate a violation in the human diet or the presence of any pathology. In addition, the longer urine is at room temperature, the higher the alkaline reaction will be. The composition of urine also changes, which negatively affects the results of the study.

When urine pH is less than 5.0 (acidic reaction) - causes:

  • Power supply errors. The human menu is dominated by meat products;
  • Acidosis in acute renal or heart failure;
  • Coma caused by a drop in insulin levels in the blood against the background of diabetes mellitus;
  • Nephritis in the acute stage;
  • Kidney damage by mycobacterium tuberculosis;
  • Gout;
  • Decrease in the content of potassium ions in the blood;
  • Therapy with ascorbic acid and corticosteroids.

When urine pH is more than 7.0 (alkaline reaction) - causes:

  • The menu mainly contains vegetables, or a person drinks large amounts of alkaline mineral water.
  • Alkalosis against the background of severe vomiting or with pulmonary hyperventilation syndrome;
  • Inflammatory diseases of the urinary and reproductive systems in the acute stage;
  • Increased serum potassium concentration;
  • Chronic renal failure;
  • Administration of adrenaline, sodium citrate, bicarbonates, aldosterone.

Protein (PRO)

If protein in urine is found in small quantities, then this may be due to emotional distress, high physical exertion, for example, while participating in sports competitions, taking a cold bath or shower. When protein is found in large quantities, it indicates a serious health problem. For example, alpha-2-microglobulin speaks about the dysfunction of the kidney tubules as a result of their damage. The protein bodies of Bens-Jones testify to multiple myeloma or Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia.

Proteinuria is a condition in which a person has an abnormally high concentration of protein in their urine.

Pathologies of the body, depending on the amount of protein found in the urine:

Mild degree (up to 0.5 g / day)

  • All diseases, accompanied by a violation of the tubular transport of organic elements and electrolytes - tubulopathy.
  • Urolithiasis;
  • Interstitial nephritis.

Average degree (up to 2.0 g / day)

  • Glomerular nephritis in acute and chronic form.

High degree (more than 2.0 g / day)

  • Aggravation of glomerular nephritis;
  • Amyloid renal dystrophy.

Glucose (GLU)

The amount of glucose in the urine depends on the blood sugar level. It is the analysis of urine for glucose that makes it possible to suspect diabetes mellitus in a person. And those patients who have already been diagnosed with this need regular examinations to monitor the treatment process and prevent complications.

Important: glycosuria or glucosuria is a disorder in which too high a concentration of sugar is found in the urine.

Glucose in urine is increased - reasons:

  • Diabetes;
  • Pancreatitis in the acute phase;
  • Graves' disease;
  • Hypercortisolism;
  • Blood poisoning;
  • Brain tumors;
  • Chromaffinoma;
  • Poisoning of the body with morphine, chloroform, phosphorus, strychnine.

Increased urinary glucose is not always a threat. An increase in its level is possible with excessive consumption of sugar-containing products, or while carrying a child.

Leukocytes (LEU)

The higher the content of leukocytes in the urine, the stronger the inflammatory process in the body, namely, in the urinary system. The deviation of this indicator from the norm when decoding the results of a general urine analysis, both in adults and in children, indicates either cystitis or pyelonephritis. When more than 60 leukocytes are found in the field of view, this indicates pyuria. It is leukocytes in urine that make it possible to suspect a chronic inflammatory process, and not the presence of bacteria, which are not always detected. In addition to leukocytes, lymphocytes and neutrophils can be found in urine.

Important: leukocyturia is a condition in which a person has an abnormally large number of leukocytes in the urine.

Leukocytes in urine are increased - reasons:

  • Cystitis;
  • Pyelonephritis;
  • Urethritis;
  • Glomerulonephritis;
  • Kidney tuberculosis.

Erythrocytes (BLD)

Normally, erythrocytes in urine cannot be present, or they are detected in a minimal amount when deciphering the results of a general urine analysis, which may be associated with increased physical exertion or with inaccurate collection of urine during menstruation.

Erythrocyturia or hematuria is a condition when blood is found in a person's urine. This always indicates a serious problem and requires additional examinations.

The degree of erythrocyturia:

  • Light, with less than 20 erythrocytes;
  • Moderate - from 20 to 200 in the field of view;
  • Expressed - more than 200.

Red blood cells can be leached, or without visible changes, depending on which part of the urinary system they enter the urine.

Blood in urine - causes:

  • Any damage to the kidneys - bruises, tears, tears;
  • Urolithiasis;
  • Inflammation of the urinary system: cystitis, urethritis, glomerulonephritis;
  • Cancer of the prostate, kidneys, bladder.
  • Nephropathy in the acute and chronic phase;
  • Urolithiasis;
  • Kidney infarction;
  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia;
  • Hemorrhagic diathesis;
  • Liebman-Sachs disease;
  • Hemorrhagic fever;
  • Amyloidosis;
  • Poisoning with benzene, aniline and other poisons;
  • Kidney damage by mycobacterium tuberculosis;
  • Fatty nephrosis.

Hemoglobin (Hb)

Hemoglobin is responsible for carrying oxygen to cells. It is located inside the red blood cells. If they are destroyed in large quantities, then hemoglobin is released, and the liver and spleen do not have time to process it. Therefore, part of the hemoglobin is excreted by the kidneys. Myoglobin is a protein that has a structure similar to hemoglobin. It is formed during myocardial infarction and is partially excreted by the kidneys. That is why such an indicator as hemoglobin occupies an important place among other indicators in deciphering the results of a general urine analysis and must correspond to the norm, that is, be completely absent.

Hemoglobinuria is a condition in which a person has hemoglobin in their urine. This term should not be confused with erythrocyturia or hematuria, because it characterizes several other disorders.

Hemoglobin in urine - causes:

  • Burns;
  • Malaria;
  • Hemolytic disease;
  • Transfusion of incompatible donor blood;
  • Violations of the integrity of muscle tissue, namely, contusion with the formation of a hematoma, prolonged compression syndrome;
  • Overdose with phenol, sulfa drugs, mushroom poisoning.

Bilirubin (BIL)

In the urine, an element such as bilirubin cannot normally be found, since it is excreted by the intestines, entering there with bile. However, if the level of this element in the blood increases, the kidneys come to the rescue of the intestines. Accordingly, the presence of an increased indicator of the content of bilirubin in the urine when deciphering the results of the analysis indicates serious pathologies.

Bilirubinuria is a condition in which too much of the bile pigment bilirubin is found in the patient's urine.

Bilirubin in urine is elevated - reasons:

  • Liver diseases: cirrhosis, hepatitis, liver failure;
  • Cholelithiasis;
  • Parenchymal and obstructive jaundice;
  • Malaria;
  • Hemolytic and sickle cell anemia;
  • Toxic hemolysis is the destruction of red blood cells.

Urobilinogen (UBG)

Urobilinogen is an element that is formed from bilirubin in the intestines. From there, it returns to the bloodstream and enters the liver, where it is again excreted by bile. When the liver is unable to process all of the urobilin bodies, they enter the bloodstream and then the kidneys. Therefore, an increase in this indicator relative to the norm in the framework of decoding the results of a general urine analysis speaks, first of all, of problems with the liver or intestines.

Important: urobilinuria is a condition characterized by a pathologically high level of urobilin bodies in human urine.

Urobilinogen in urine is elevated - causes:

  • Liver failure;
  • Intestinal diseases of an inflammatory nature - enterocolitis and colitis;
  • Death of erythrocytes (hemolysis);
  • Cirrhosis of the liver;
  • Hepatitis;
  • Sepsis.

Ketone Bodies (KET)

Ketone Bodies (KET)
Ketone Bodies (KET)

Ketone bodies are the result of fat metabolism and are not normally produced. Therefore, the norms of the general analysis of urine in adults and children imply an almost complete absence of these elements. Ketone bodies are represented by three components: acetone, beta-hydroxybutyric acid and acetoacetic acid.

Ketonuria is a pathological condition in which a person has too many ketone bodies in their urine.

Ketone bodies in urine are elevated - reasons:

  • Depletion of the body as a result of prolonged fasting;
  • Adherence to a carbohydrate-free diet
  • Hormone-active tumors of the brain or adrenal cortex;
  • Diabetes mellitus (decompensated);
  • Poisoning the body;
  • Severe toxicosis in the second half of pregnancy - gestosis, preeclampsia, eclampsia;
  • Acetonemic syndrome in a child;
  • Dysentery;
  • Acromegaly.

Nitrite (NIT)

These compounds are found in urine when the human body is attacked by disease-causing bacteria. In the course of their vital activity, microbes convert nitrates that have entered the body with plant food into nitrites. Consequently, within the framework of decoding the results of a general urine analysis in adults and children, an indicator such as nitrites acts as a kind of infectious test, because these substances should not be normally present.

Nitrituria is a condition in which a patient's urine contains nitrite salts formed from nitrates.

Nitrite in urine - causes:

  • Any inflammatory diseases of the urinary system of bacterial origin (cystitis, urethritis, pyelonephritis).

If nitrite salts are found in urine, the person will be sent for additional examination - urine culture for flora, blood test, ultrasound of the pelvic organs, and so on.

Epithelial cells

Epithelial cells may be present in small amounts in urine. It contains cells of squamous, renal and transitional epithelium, which depends on their origin. If there are a lot of cells, then this indicates the development of an inflammatory process, or intoxication of the body.


Cylinders are protein formations that envelop the renal tubules in certain pathologies. Some of them come out with the urine and are found in the analyzes, then when decoding the results, you can suspect a number of pathologies of the urinary system, and not only.

Type of cylinders and their origin

Possible pathology

Granular (from renal tubules)

  • Degenerative processes in the renal tubules;
  • Nephrotic syndrome;
  • Nephropathy.

Hyaline (from renal tubules)

  • A pronounced drop in the level of acidity of urine;
  • Increased physical activity;
  • Work at high ambient temperatures;
  • Glomerulonephritis;
  • Nephropathy while carrying a child;
  • Intoxication of the body;
  • Postural proteinuria.

Waxy (from granular and hyaline cylinders)

  • Nephrotic syndrome;
  • Amyloid dystrophy of the renal tissue;
  • Diseases of the renal tubules of a chronic course.

Epithelial (from the epithelium lining the tubules)

  • Pathologies are similar to those that occur when waxy cylinders are found.

Erythrocyte (from erythrocytes)

  • Kidney infarction;
  • Blockage of the renal vein by a blood clot;
  • Glomerulonephritis.

Pigmented (from bilirubin, hemoglobin, or myoglobin)

  • Increased myoglobin or hemoglobin levels.

Leukocyte (from leukocytes)

  • Inflammation of the kidneys;
  • Lupus nephritis.

Salt crystals

Normally, electrolyte and salt ions are always present in the urine, but they are in a dissolved form. If there is an excessive amount of salts, then they precipitate and contribute to the development of urolithiasis. Even before decoding the results of a general urine analysis, the laboratory assistant will notice the presence of this sediment and carefully study its composition, since each type of salt indicates a certain violation in the body.

Salt name

Possible pathologies

Phosphates, which are formed from phosphoric acid

  • Burnet's syndrome;
  • Fanconi's primary isolated syndrome.

Urates, which are formed from uric acid

  • Leukemia;
  • Gout;
  • Hepatitis of viral origin;
  • Erythremia;
  • Chronic renal failure
  • Diathesis is uric acid.

Oxalates, which are formed from oxalic acid

  • The prevalence of plant foods in the diet;
  • Diabetes;
  • Kidney inflammation;
  • Alcohol intoxication.

Bacteria, fungi and parasites

The presence of bacteria, yeasts, parasites or protozoa in the urine indicates an inflammatory process of the corresponding etiology. Normally, a person should not have pathogens in urine - this biological fluid is sterile. If, according to the results of a general analysis, potential causative agents of diseases are found in the patient's urine, an additional examination is necessary - sowing on the flora, this will help to establish a specific type of microbe and prescribe adequate therapy.


Mucus should not be determined according to the results of a general urinalysis. If it is found, then this indicates an inflammatory process in the urinary or reproductive system. However, there are cases when the patient simply violated the urine collection technology - he took a dirty container. In this case, the study must be repeated in compliance with all sanitary and hygienic rules, which are described at the beginning of the article.

Usually, people independently detect adverse changes in the urine and seek the advice of a doctor. However, even if there are no visible problems, it is necessary to donate urine for a general analysis at least once a year. This will allow you to notice violations in the body in time, start treatment and prevent possible complications. Take care of yourself and be healthy!


Article author: Mochalov Pavel Alexandrovich | d. m. n. therapist

Education: Moscow Medical Institute. IM Sechenov, specialty - "General Medicine" in 1991, in 1993 "Occupational Diseases", in 1996 "Therapy".

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Leg pain in the elderlyWith age, people more and more often complain of such unpleasant ailments as tired legs and pain in the legs. In some, joints are sensitive to changes in the weather, in others, the foot burns after walking. To reduce these phenomena or completely get rid of them, first of all, it is necessary to establish their cause

Lower Back Pain Radiates To The Leg
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Lower Back Pain Radiates To The Leg

Lower back pain radiates to the legBack pain radiating to the leg is a typical manifestation of lumboishalgia. This disease is very serious and is accompanied by severe consequences, so it is not recommended to start it and self-medicate. Without the correct, complete course of treatment, the pain, as a rule, does not go away and only gets worse over time

Why Legs Hurt - Why Heels, Calves, Feet, Toes Hurt, Why Legs Hurt In The Morning
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Why Legs Hurt - Why Heels, Calves, Feet, Toes Hurt, Why Legs Hurt In The Morning

Why do legs hurt?Foot problems bother us quite rarely - especially when it comes to young people. If something hurts, many often write it off as self-evident factors, such as excessive walking and do not pay attention. However, when a problem arises with the legs, it immediately becomes clear how much they affect our mood and life in general