Speech therapist is a doctor-teacher who treats patients with problems of speech and diction, by means of special training and education.
Speech therapy is a pedagogical science that studies the types of speech defects, the nature of their origin, mechanisms, features and symptoms of speech disorders.
In accordance with the available data on the nature and mode of speech disorders, corrective methods for overcoming them and methods of prevention are being developed, which are based on the means of special teaching the skills of correct pronunciation. Speech therapy is closely related not only to pedagogical science, but also sotolaryngology and psycholinguistics.
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- The essence of the speech therapist's activity
- What does a speech therapist treat?
- Speech therapist treatment process
- When is it worth going to a speech therapist?
- When to see an adult speech therapist?
- Appointment to a speech therapist
The essence of the speech therapist's activity
A speech therapist specializes in eliminating speech pathologies in both children and adults. The essence of his activities is to clarify the options for staging sounds, in teaching correct pronunciation, word formation skills, the rules of competent expression of thought and perception, and expanding vocabulary.
The elimination of defects is carried out due to a certain effect on the organs of speech with the help of special exercises and breathing exercises, due to which speech errors are corrected, getting rid of stuttering, stammering during a conversation.In addition, various types of exercises are used in the speech therapist's work to help memorize the stated information, consolidation of the results obtained in the course of the work done. These classes additionally stimulate the development of attention, thinking and memory.
A speech therapist should have some knowledge in psychology, since his activity is focused on working with children and with patients who have suffered psychological trauma, the consequence of which is speech disorder. The restoration of speech in such patients largely depends on a competent approach on the part of a specialist.
What does a speech therapist treat?
The work of a speech therapist is aimed at getting rid of multiple pathologies of the speech apparatus:
- Aphonia - violations of the sonority of speech, while maintaining the ability to pronounce sounds in a whisper;
- Dysphonia - voice disorders, which are characterized by hoarseness, hoarseness.
- Dislalia- violations in the pronunciation of some sounds, characterized by lisp, burr;
- Logoneurosis stuttering;
- Takhilalia, bradilalia - violations of the speed of pronunciation;
- Dyslexia - Difficulty learning reading and writing skills;
- Rinolalia - nasalness;
- Speech impairments typical of people with hearing problems;
- Speech disorders that have arisen after suffering injuries or operations.
Speech therapist treatment process
Methods for correcting speech pronunciation in children and adults are different.
Elimination of speech defects in babies is carried out in a playful way, and the choice of methodology depends on the nature of the violations and is determined individually for each case. In this case, it is very important to determine the root cause of the disease. This may be the wrong attitude towards the child on the part of adults - incorrect speech formulation (deliberate "lisping"), stressful situations, congenital pathologies or infectious diseases. Creating a child-friendly environment is the key to a successful recovery. And in this case, parental support plays a major role.
In the treatment of speech defects in adults, it is also important to know what causes contributed to the development of speech problems, how much they affected the vocal apparatus. So, for recovery after surgery on the larynx, the method of "esophageal speech" is used - the formation of sounds through the esophagus.
For disorders caused by stroke, paralysis, an integrated approach is used to gradually, gradually restore vocal speech.
Comprehensive treatment consists of a series of different exercises, massages and other procedures that must be performed regularly. An important condition for achieving a result in this case is patience and diligence both on the part of the speech therapist and the patient. Only joint efforts will lead to positive dynamics.
When is it worth going to a speech therapist?
- If the child mispronounces any letters. The development of this pathology can be facilitated by the underdevelopment of the speech apparatus or a short bridle located under the tongue.
With delayed development of speech or with its complete absence. Numerous factors may have contributed to the development of this condition.
- Very slow or fast paced conversation, confusion or skipping. This could be due to damage to the hearing aid. The treatment may require the help of an ENT.
- Postponed surgical interventions to remove congenital anomalies of the face or oropharynx. Surgical treatment makes it necessary to accustom the facial muscles in combination with the vocal apparatus to work in a new way.
- With cerebral palsy. In these cases, the untimely provision of speech therapy assistance leads either to a lack of speech, or to its lack of expression.
In addition to all of the above, there are age-related features of the child's development, if you deviate from which, you should be alarmed and contact a speech therapist:
In a year, a child should pronounce at least a few words, understand elementary requests such as give or take away, understand praise or censure for bad behavior, disobedience.
- At 1 year and 4 months, the child uses the words mom and dad as intended.
- At two years old, the baby can identify parts of the body, fulfill the requests of adults.
- At the age of 2.5 years, children should catch the difference in the words big, small, adult, child.
- At the age of 3, he understands and teaches small poems, fairy tales, can tell his age, last name, first name and patronymic, count to ten, distinguish colors.
- By the age of 4, the child himself names the colors, knows how to concentrate and listen to long stories and fairy tales, retell them.
When to see an adult speech therapist?
The notion that adults do not need the help of a speech therapist is unfounded.
On the contrary, there are various indications for visiting a specialist, namely:
- Disorders of speech after suffering attacks of stroke, paralysis of the facial muscles or muscles of the larynx.
- Speech disorders as a result of psycho-emotional shocks.
- Operations to remove the larynx, vocal cords also lead to the need for the help of a speech therapist.
- Many adults lisp, lisp or stutter when pronouncing, believing that these speech defects are already incurable. But this is a delusion. There are many ways to correct these shortcomings.
To correct speech deficiencies, you can use a combination of several techniques: massages, physiotherapy, acupuncture, taking medications to raise muscle tone.
Appointment to a speech therapist
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