Nephrologist - Who Is He And What Heals? Appointment

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Nephrologist - Who Is He And What Heals? Appointment
Nephrologist - Who Is He And What Heals? Appointment
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Nephrologist

A nephrologist is a doctor who diagnoses, treats and prevents kidney disease.

Upon detection of such signs of renal pathology as unilateral and bilateral low back pain, the presence of blood or protein in the urine, an increase in the level of creatinine and leukocytes, edema syndrome. The diagnosis of kidney disease is complicated by the fact that in most cases they are asymptomatic, therefore they are detected already at the stage when surgical intervention is necessary.

Kidney diseases can be acute or chronic, their causes can be hereditary factors or transferred infectious and inflammatory diseases.

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Content:

  • What does a nephrologist treat?
  • When to see a nephrologist?
  • When is it necessary to consult a nephrologist for a child?
  • What happens at a nephrologist appointment?
  • Nephrologist-ordered tests
  • Preparing to see a nephrologist
  • Appointment with a nephrologist

What does a nephrologist treat?

nephrologist
nephrologist

The nephrologist carries out diagnostics and treatment, as well as prevention of such diseases:

  • Urolithiasis - the formation of stones from insoluble salts in the bladder, kidneys and ureter;
  • Arterial hypertension against the background of renal pathology - persistently high blood pressure is often a symptom of kidney disease.
  • Glomerulonephritis is an immune disease that is characterized by inflammation of the renal glomeruli, its symptoms are high blood pressure and swelling;
  • Amyloidosis - excessive formation of the amyloid glycoprotein due to violations of protein-carbohydrate metabolism, in severe cases leads to chronic renal failure (See also: Causes and symptoms of renal failure);
  • Nephritis is an inflammatory disease of the renal pelvis, in which their vessels, tubules and glomeruli are affected, often develops in children after infectious diseases - tonsillitis, tonsillitis, scarlet fever.

  • Pyelonephritis is an acute or chronic disease of the renal pelvis, most often the cause of its development is the activity of pathogenic microorganisms, in particular - Escherichia coli;
  • Primary or secondary nephropathy;
  • Acute or chronic renal failure
  • Medicinal damage - the occurrence of renal pathologies in connection with taking medications.

Surgical treatment of kidney diseases is carried out by a urologist, surgical intervention is required for the following pathologies:

  • Polycystic kidney disease, oncological neoplasms;
  • The formation of large stones with kidney stones;
  • Tuberculous kidney disease
  • Abnormal position of the kidneys, violations of their anatomical structure;

  • Complicated pyelophritis;
  • Nephroptosis.

The symptoms of these diseases are similar to those with which they turn to a nephrologist, therefore, additional consultation with a urologist is required to make the correct diagnosis and further treatment.

When to see a nephrologist?

With an asymptomatic course, kidney disease can remain undiagnosed for a long time, which leads to a number of serious complications from the urinary and other body systems. The most vulnerable in this case is the cardiovascular system, which suffers in the first place with kidney pathologies.

Therefore, you should pay close attention to the state of the body and, if the following symptoms appear, immediately consult a nephrologist:

  • Anuria - the absence of urination due to insufficient flow of urine into the bladder or its complete absence, which may occur or due to impaired renal function. With anuria, urine is either not excreted from the body, or it comes out in an amount of no more than 50 ml per day, which leads to venous stasis, increased stress on the heart and intoxication of the body.

  • Oliguria - urine is excreted from the body in insufficient quantities (about 400-500 ml at a rate of 1.5 liters), this condition is also characterized by an increase in the load on the cardiovascular system, as well as an increase in urine output at night.
  • Polyuria - frequent urination with the release of a large amount of urine (2-3 liters per day), can occur due to the use of drinks that stimulate urine formation, as well as due to endocrine system disorders or chronic renal failure.
  • One- or two-sided pain localized in the lower back
  • Hematuria or proteinuria is the presence of blood or proteins in the urine.

A visit to the nephrologist is also necessary, the following diseases were previously found in the patient:

  • Renal colic;
  • Urinary tract infections;

  • Acute inflammatory processes in the kidneys;
  • Chronic or acute renal failure.

High blood pressure can be a symptom of renal disease, therefore, if there are signs of hypertension, consultation with a nephrologist is necessary.

When is it necessary to consult a nephrologist for a child?

When is consultation needed
When is consultation needed

Kidney disease is often observed in children who have had infectious diseases (tonsillitis, tonsillitis, scarlet fever, acute respiratory infections).

Consultation and treatment with a nephrologist is necessary for the following manifestations:

  • Increase or decrease in the volume of urine up to 1/3 of the norm, allocated per day;
  • Changes in the characteristics of urine - color, smell, consistency;

  • Edematous syndrome - consultation with a specialist is necessary even if a slight swelling appears in the eye area;
  • The presence of impurities of mucus and blood in the urine, cloudy sediment;
  • Redness of the external genital organs, pain when urinating;
  • Nocturnal urination in children over 4 years of age.

What happens at a nephrologist appointment?

In the process of consulting with a nephrologist, the doctor interviews the patient, determines whether he has symptoms of kidney disease. The nephrologist may ask questions about the presence of diseases of the urinary system among the patient's relatives in order to identify a hereditary predisposition to renal pathologies. It is also necessary to inform the specialist about the place and nature of the work (in order to exclude pathologies associated with intoxication of the body), weight and date of birth (the nephrons that make up the kidneys are finally formed in the last stages of pregnancy), data on diuresis and blood pressure levels.

Nephrologist-ordered tests

  • Tests that determine the level of creatinine, urea, calcium and phosphate, blood and urine analysis for electrolytes;
  • A blood test to determine the erythrocyte sedimentation rate;
  • Analysis for C-reactive protein.

Additionally, the following instrumental studies may be needed:

  • X-ray examination of the kidneys - angiography;
  • Ultrasound of the kidneys and abdominal organs;
  • Radionuclide examination - scintography;
  • CT scan;
  • Kidney tissue biopsy.

Therapy of renal diseases by a nephrologist has two main directions:

  • Nephroprotective treatment is a universal option that allows you to restore kidney function in any possible pathology;

  • Specific treatment - therapy is aimed at treating a specific disease.

Preparing to see a nephrologist

  • Diagnosis by a nephrologist is carried out on an empty stomach, it is necessary to abstain from food for 12 hours before visiting a specialist;
  • It is also prohibited to drink alcohol and smoke 12 hours before visiting a nephrologist;
  • The liquid the day before the intake is limited to the minimum amount;
  • It is recommended not to take any medication during the day if it does not threaten your health. If the course of the drug cannot be interrupted, it is imperative to inform the doctor about this.

Appointment with a nephrologist

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