Toxoplasmosis In Humans - Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis

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Video: Toxoplasmosis In Humans - Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis

Video: Toxoplasmosis In Humans - Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis
Video: Toxoplasmosis | Acquired vs Congenital | Signs, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment 2023, March
Toxoplasmosis In Humans - Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis
Toxoplasmosis In Humans - Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis

Toxoplasmosis - the first symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by protozoa (toxoplasma). In adults, the disease is most often asymptomatic, but at the same time it harms the body. Toxoplasmosis is especially dangerous for pregnant women, since the infection can provoke congenital malformations of the fetus.


  • How is toxoplasmosis transmitted?
  • Forms and symptoms of toxoplasmosis
  • Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis
  • Toxoplasmosis treatment
  • Prevention

How is toxoplasmosis transmitted?

Toxoplasma carriers are domestic cats that become infected by eating poultry and raw meat. A person becomes infected from his pet through contact with his feces. This often happens when the hygiene rules are not followed when cleaning the litter box.

How is toxoplasmosis transmitted
How is toxoplasmosis transmitted

You can also become infected with toxoplasmosis by eating meat that has not undergone sufficient heat treatment. Another option for the transmission of infection is the transfusion of diseased blood to a healthy person.

The most dangerous form of toxoplasmosis is the one that is passed from mother to child.

How is toxoplasmosis transmitted
How is toxoplasmosis transmitted

Forms and symptoms of toxoplasmosis

The symptoms of toxoplasmosis depend on the form of the disease.

They can be distinguished as follows:

  • Acute form of toxoplasmosis. If a person's defenses are not reduced, then the disease will not give any pathological symptoms. Rarely in people, lymph nodes increase in size, possibly an increase in body temperature. A person may experience pulling pains in the right side under the ribs. On palpation, the doctor notes an increase in the liver and spleen in size. If the disease is not complicated by any other processes, then after 7-14 days it goes away on its own, and the person develops immunity to infection.

  • A common form of toxoplasmosis. People with weakened immunity suffer from this disease. First of all, this applies to HIV-infected patients with cancer, as well as those who are undergoing chemotherapy. Toxoplasmosis will cause inflammation in various organs and tissues. Muscles, lungs, heart suffer. Severe inflammation leads to the fact that they cease to function normally.

  • Cerebral toxoplasmosis. With this type of infectious process, the patient has an inflammation of the brain. It most often develops in people with a failure of the immune system. The patient complains of symptoms such as: headache, high body temperature, deterioration of sensitivity, etc. In a severe disease, a person may fall into a coma, or paralyze him.

  • Ocular form of the disease. Most often, Toxoplasma affects the eyeballs when the disease is transmitted from mother to child. The first symptoms of infection appear in adolescence or adolescence. A person complains of pain in his eyes, bright spots, flashes appear in the field of vision, blindness may develop.

  • Congenital toxoplasmosis. The child becomes infected while still in the womb. The disease can cause miscarriage, frozen pregnancy, death of the baby immediately after birth. Sometimes the symptoms of the congenital form of the disease do not manifest themselves for a long time, for example, as is the case with ocular toxoplasmosis. However, sooner or later, the infection will make itself felt.

Symptoms of the disease in children

Symptoms of the disease in children
Symptoms of the disease in children

If a small amount of Toxoplasma enters the child's body, then he is able to cope with the infection on his own. The parasites are coated and blocked. In this form, they are not able to harm the health of the child. Since there are no symptoms, the fact of infection remains undetected.

If the infection has an acute course, then it will give such clinical signs as:

  • Hyperthermic reaction of the body. In this case, the body temperature rises to high levels.
  • Damage to the spleen and liver.
  • Yellowing of the skin.
  • Swollen lymph nodes.
  • Deterioration of vision.
  • Skin rashes.

How does toxoplasmosis manifest in pregnant women

For pregnant women, toxoplasmosis is the most dangerous infection. It is passed on to the fetus during intrauterine development. This leads to the fact that he has various structural anomalies. Therefore, when it is possible to identify an infection in the early stages of pregnancy, it is urgently interrupted.

Symptoms of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women:

  • An increase in body temperature to subfebrile levels.
  • Headache.
  • Increased fatigue.
  • An increase in lymph nodes in size.
  • Joint and muscle pain.

If a woman experiences the listed symptoms, then she needs to inform the doctor about them. When it is too long to terminate the pregnancy, treatment will be prescribed. The sooner this happens, the better.

Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis

Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis
Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis

To determine the presence of toxoplasma in the body, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is required to detect specific antibodies. The study makes it possible to detect immunoglobulins in the blood, which appear in response to the penetration of infection. Depending on the type of immunoglobulins identified, it is possible to understand whether a person is a carrier of toxoplasmosis, or whether his disease is in the acute phase.

Immunoglobulins are classified into early and late immunoglobulins. Type M antibodies appear in the body during the acute phase of the disease (in the first 7 days). Within 30 days from the start of the infection, they are gaining peak values, and after 2-3 months they completely disappear. In newborns initiated children, such antibodies are detected in 75% of cases, and in adult patients - in 97% of cases. A negative analysis indicates that the acute phase of the disease has passed, but this does not exclude the fact that the infection in the body has existed for a long time.

Immunoglobulins G appear in the body 2-3 days later than immunoglobulins M. Over time, they do not disappear, since these protein complexes provide the patient with immunity for life. If, after some time, Toxoplasma gets into the human body again, the disease will not develop.

The circulation of immunoglobulins G in the blood indicates that the acute phase of the disease has ended, and the body itself has specific protection for the disease. Additionally, the patient is assigned an analysis to determine the activity of IgG. This will determine their ability to neutralize Toxoplasma.

Also, the determination of the DNA of protozoa in the blood can confirm the fact of infection. The method for their detection is called PCR. This is a highly accurate study that has a minimal margin of error.

The infection is most severe in newborn babies who were infected during fetal development. Therefore, pregnant women need to be especially careful about their health and undergo an examination if signs of infection appear.

Decoding the results

It is difficult to independently interpret the test results, since the reference values differ in different laboratories. Exceeding the acceptable threshold of immunoglobulins indicates infection.



Assessment of results



There is no infection in the body, but if a woman is at risk, then she should be tested regularly during pregnancy.



The person has developed lifelong immunity to infection. If such a result was obtained in a pregnant woman, then it is necessary to take blood and urine for analysis, as well as determine the activity of immunoglobulins G. If they are highly active, this indicates that immunity was formed even before pregnancy.



The infection is acute. During pregnancy, the risk of infection of the fetus is high, in order to make sure that the results are reliable, the analysis is repeated.



There is a possibility of an acute infection, but it must be borne in mind that immunoglobulins M remain active for 3 months and up to 2 years.

Assessment of the activity of immunoglobulin G



Result evaluation

Less than 40

Low activity

The infection is in an acute phase. If we are talking about a pregnant woman, then a second analysis is required.


Transient values

Informal result. The analysis is repeated after 14 days.

Over 60

High activity

The person has developed immunity to toxoplasmosis. He is either a carrier of the infection, or he has a chronic form of the disease, which does not pose a threat.

Toxoplasmosis treatment

Toxoplasmosis treatment
Toxoplasmosis treatment

If a person becomes infected in adulthood and his health is satisfactory, then he does not need treatment. Immunity can cope with Toxoplasma on its own.

Therapy is prescribed for pregnant women, since in such cases there is a high probability of infection of the fetus and the birth of a child with a congenital form of the disease. Also, treatment is indicated for all patients with a weakened immune system.

Drugs that can be used to get rid of a person from Toxoplasma:

  • Pyrimethamine (Daraprim) and Chloridine.
  • Delagil, Trichopolum, Aminoquinol.
  • Sulfadiazine.
  • Prednisolone.
  • Clindamycin.
  • Spiramycin.

If the patient needs toxoplasmosis therapy, then the treatment is carried out exclusively in a hospital setting. In addition to antibiotics of the tetracycline group and sulfonamides, the patient is prescribed vitamins, minerals, antihistamines. Sulfonamides can be combined with drugs such as: Lincomycin, Metacyclin, Erythromycin. Sometimes patients are shown taking combined drugs: Biseptol and Poteseptil. They are taken for 10 days, 1 tablet 2 times a day. The course will need to be repeated 2-3 times.

Fansidar's reception has proven itself well. The patient is prescribed a tablet once every three days. To achieve a positive result, you will need to take 5-6 tablets.

The doctor should select the therapy. Self-medication is unacceptable. The doctor determines the duration of the course, and also prescribes the optimal dose. Categories of persons who are subject to therapy: children, patients with weakened immunity, patients with pronounced symptoms.

Coping with chronic toxoplasma is difficult because the infection does not respond well to drugs. Therefore, you need to focus on improving immunity and eliminating the main symptoms of the disease. Patients with a chronic form of the disease are prescribed Pyrimethamine in combination with sulfonamides (Sulfapyridazine, Sulfadimezin, Bactrim). The drugs are taken in courses of 5 days with an interval of 5-7 days. The number of courses can be two or three. The daily dose of Pyrimethamine is 50 mg. For one course, the patient will have to take 250 mg, and for the entire time of treatment, 500-750 mg. The dose for pregnant women should not exceed 500 mg.

Sulfonamides are prescribed at 2-4 g per day, in parallel, patients are shown taking Tindurin. The course should be repeated 2-3 times.

Treatment with corticosteroids lasts 10-14 days. Patients are administered 1.5-2 mg / kg of body weight. These drugs are indicated for taking in the case when a person has damage to the brain or organs of vision. To increase immunity, Wobenzym is prescribed.

The chronic form of toxoplasmosis requires careful selection of medicines. Only a multicomponent scheme will solve the problem. If the disease is diagnosed in pregnant women in the early stages of development, then an abortion is indicated for her.



Preventive measures to prevent the development of the disease:

  • Contact with domestic cats is not recommended during pregnancy. Do not excavate.
  • If there is a cat in the house, then you should not give it raw meat. You need to make sure that she does not catch rodents.
  • The meat must be thoroughly fried or boiled.
  • Foods that a person eats raw should be thoroughly washed.
  • After cutting the meat, the knives and the board should be washed and disinfected.

Toxoplasmosis is an infection that can pose a serious health threat. Therefore, when her symptoms appear, you need to consult a doctor and receive treatment. This measure is especially relevant for pregnant women and children.


Author of the article: Danilova Tatyana Vyacheslavovna | Infectionist

Education: in 2008 received a diploma in General Medicine (General Medicine) at the Pirogov Russian Research Medical University. Immediately passed an internship and received a diploma of a therapist

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