Double in the eyes: causes and treatment
Ophthalmologists often hear patients complaining that they have double vision. At the same time, a person cannot visualize a clear picture with both eyes. As a result, one object is perceived as two identical. Such a violation causes discomfort and indicates that not everything is in order with the organs of vision. In addition, there may be problems in the functioning of the nervous system.
Double vision is called diplopia. It leads to the fact that a person finds it difficult to navigate in space, cannot correctly calculate the distance to surrounding objects. Other pathological symptoms are dizziness, nausea, and rapid eye fatigue. In general, the quality of life of people who have double vision deteriorates significantly.
- Why double vision?
- Symptoms of double vision
- Diagnosis of causes
- How to treat double vision?
- Prevention measures
Why double vision?
Normally, an image from an object is projected onto identical areas of the retina. In the brain, the pictures are processed and merged into one. If the image is projected onto not identical areas of the retina, then the person will have double vision.
The cause of the violation is most often organic damage to the oculomotor muscles, or problems with their innervation. The eyeball will be misplaced, resulting in double vision.
Sometimes the cause of the violation is hidden in the wrong refraction of the rays by the optical structures of the eye. A similar situation is observed in diseases of the cornea and lens.
Double vision can be binocular (a person has double vision in 2 eyes, when looking at objects), as well as monocular, when he sees double in only one eye.
In some patients, such visual impairment is present on an ongoing basis, and some people suffer from double vision only periodically. In the latter case, the abuse of alcoholic beverages, injuries, and taking medications can lead to pathological changes. Unlike permanent, temporary split eyes go away on their own.
Depending on what kind of reason provoked the split in the eyes, the following types of diplopia can be distinguished:
- Neuroparalytic diplopia. In this case, double vision develops due to damage to the nerves responsible for eye movement.
- Strabogenic diplopia develops in people with squint.
- Restrictive diplopia develops when the orbit is injured with a displacement of the eyeball, as well as when the oculomotor muscles are infringed.
- Oculogenic diplopia develops after surgery on the organs of vision.
Diseases and disorders that can cause double vision:
- Pathologies in which the muscles responsible for the movement of the organs of vision are affected. These can be diseases such as: myasthenia gravis, ocular myositis, Graefe's disease, Graves disease, etc.
- Diseases that lead to disturbances in the functioning of the nerve fibers responsible for the movement of the muscles of the eyeball: multiple sclerosis, diabetes mellitus, polio, etc.
- A growing neoplasm in the area of the organ of vision. Moreover, it can have both malignant and benign origin.
- Eye contusions, orbital abscess, orbital wall injuries.
- Damage to brain structures: stroke, encephalitis, meningitis, traumatic brain injury. Sometimes people have double vision during migraine attacks, as well as with sudden surges in blood pressure.
- The resulting injury to the optic nerve.
- Carotid artery aneurysm.
- A growing tumor that puts pressure on the optic nerve.
- Diseases that adversely affect the functioning of the nervous system or the oculomotor muscles. This includes: rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, meningitis, poisoning of the body with botulinum toxins, etc.
Doubles in the eyes of people with squint.
- May cause double vision in the eyes of thyroid disease.
Sometimes a person has double vision in one eye if he has an anatomically incorrect structure. Injuries with the subsequent formation of scars on the cornea can also lead to a double image in the eyes.
People with dry eye syndrome often complain of double vision.
Video: why there is double vision in the eyes, the doctor-neurologist Sergei Fernandez de Rives will tell:
Symptoms of double vision
The picture seen by a person with double vision will differ, depending on the cause of the disorder.
If the patient begins to see double when he peers into the distance, then the condition of the lens must be checked. Most often, a similar problem occurs in people who are used to doing painstaking work, sitting at a computer for a long time and rarely focusing their vision on objects located in the distance.
If a person has double vision in only one eye, then this may be due to an injury suffered, with astigmatism, developing cataracts, as well as dry eye syndrome.
If a patient has double vision and dizzy, then it cannot be ruled out that he develops a pathology of the brain, which leads to an increase in intracranial pressure. Sometimes double vision combined with dizziness is a sign of a stroke.
Often the image in the eyes is doubled in people who have taken an excessive amount of alcohol. In this case, the disorder is caused by the slowed down work of the brain. It is unable to process the resulting images correctly, as a result of which they overlap.
Diagnosis of causes
There are many etiological factors that could lead to double vision. Therefore, you will not be able to diagnose yourself on your own. To find the cause of the violation, you must contact a specialist.
An ophthalmologist deals with issues of diseases of the organs of vision. If double vision was provoked by disturbances in the functioning of the nervous system, then a consultation with a neurologist may be required.
If you suspect a tumor of the eyeball, you will need to visit the oncologist's office.
The plan for examining a patient with complaints of double vision may be as follows:
- Determination of visual acuity in the ophthalmologist's office.
- Slit lamp eye examination.
- Performing electromyography and coordimetry.
- Endophony tests.
- Ultrasound of the eyeballs.
- Performing CT or MRI of the head.
- Laboratory research.
In childhood, double vision is often caused by squint. This pathology can threaten with complete loss of vision. Therefore, if a child complains that he has double vision, it is necessary to check his organs of vision as soon as possible.
How to treat double vision?
To get rid of double vision, you need to eliminate the provoking factor. Sometimes the causes of visual impairment can be very serious and require emergency medical attention.
Video: professor Dembsky L. K. "How to help with double vision?":
The operation is most often prescribed for those patients who have altered the work of several muscles responsible for eye movement. In the process of surgical intervention, the length of the muscles is corrected, if necessary, the tendons are sutured. Such manipulations allow you to keep the eye in the correct position.
If there is an opportunity to get rid of the problem with conservative methods, then it is used first. For the period of treatment, a person may be offered to wear corrective glasses that were developed according to individual parameters. Prismatic lenses allow the eye to focus normally. As a result, a person sees an ordinary, not a split image. However, the patient should be warned that wearing such lenses can cause visual impairment.
In order to improve visual acuity and get rid of partial diplopia, a person may be asked to perform gymnastic exercises aimed at training the eye muscles.
Video: gymnastics for the eyes with astigmatism:
Strabismus is treated with glasses or contact lenses. It is possible to use synaptic drugs, for example, Synoptophora. A good effect is given by software and computer treatment, accommodation training, vacuum ophthalmological massage. An operation is prescribed if conservative methods cannot cope with the problem. For children, surgery is performed at the age of 3-5 years. The procedure can be aimed at weakening or strengthening the oculomotor muscles. Sometimes a muscle or tendon transplant is required. The success of the operation is quite high and equates to 80-90%.
With dry eye syndrome, patients are prescribed the installation of artificial tear preparations. To eliminate inflammation, anti-inflammatory and immunotropic drugs are used. The operation is prescribed when complications develop, for example, with corneal perforation or with xerotic ulcers. The mild course of the disease lends itself well to correction. In severe cases, loss of vision is possible.
To reduce the likelihood of diseases that can lead to double vision, the following recommendations allow:
- It is necessary to give up bad habits, especially smoking.
- If work is associated with prolonged overstrain of the organs of vision, then you need to take breaks in it. At least every hour, you need to be distracted from the computer monitor and look into the distance.
- If you have to work with chemicals, your eyes must be protected with glasses.
- Do not rub your eyes with your hands.
- It is useful to do eye exercises at least once a day.
- It is important to ensure that the lighting in the workplace is adequate.
- If you have vision problems, you need to be regularly observed by an ophthalmologist.
If there are signs of deterioration in vision or double vision, it is necessary to consult a doctor and treat existing pathologies in time.
The author of the article: Degtyareva Marina Vitalievna, ophthalmologist, ophthalmologist