Causes, degrees and methods of improving vision with myopia
What is myopia?
Myopia is an eye disease in which a person has poor vision of objects located in the distance, but sees well those objects that are close. Nearsightedness is also called myopia.
According to data provided by the World Health Organization, many people suffer from this problem - up to 30% of the world's population. Moreover, the peak of its development falls on children in puberty.
In our eyes, there is a cornea and a lens. These components of the eye are capable of transmitting rays, refracting them. And an image appears on the retina. Then this image becomes nerve impulses and is transmitted to the brain through the optic nerve.
If the cornea and lens refract the rays so that the focus is on the retina, then the image will be clear. Therefore, people without any eye diseases will see well.
With myopia, the image is blurry and indistinct. This can happen for the following reasons:
- if the eye is greatly lengthened, then the retina moves away from the stable location of the focus. With myopia in humans, the eyes reach thirty millimeters. And in a normal healthy person, the size of an eye is twenty-three to twenty-four millimeters; - if the lens and cornea refract light rays too much.
According to statistics, every third person on earth suffers from myopia, that is, myopia. It is difficult for such people to see objects that are far from them. But at the same time, if a book or notebook is located close to the eyes of a person who suffers from myopia, then he will see these objects well.
- Myopia symptoms
- Causes of myopia
- Myopia degrees
- Complicated myopia
- "False" myopia
- Methods for improving vision with myopia
- Prevention of myopia
- Exercises for prevention
Is myopia a minus or a plus?
Often, upon hearing the diagnosis of myopia for the first time, patients have a natural question: "What glasses are required for vision correction - minus or plus." In order to better see objects located in the distance, it is necessary to wear glasses marked with a minus. Thus, it will be possible to correct the distance between the retina and the focus.
The lenses that are used in glasses to correct myopia are called scattering, or negative. They have a concave shape. Determine the number of minuses, or in another way - the power in diopters can only be an ophthalmologist. It depends, first of all, on the state of vision and the degree of myopia - low, moderate or severe.
Myopia symptoms are considered to be rapid eye fatigue when driving a car or playing sports games. If these are the symptoms that bother you while wearing glasses or contact lenses, then you should get a doctor's examination and possibly change your glasses or lenses.
Myopia develops already in childhood. Children at school begin to see distant objects poorly and squint.
In order to improve vision, nearsighted people should wear lenses or glasses with a minus value. It is often necessary to change lenses as vision deteriorates. But it should be remembered that glasses will not change the development of myopia, they only change the refraction of light.
Causes of myopia
There are several reasons that a person begins to see objects located in the distance worse:
- Genetic predisposition to the development of myopia. It is important to consider whether one or both parents suffer from myopia. If both the father and the mother are susceptible to pathology, then in 50% of cases, it will also occur in the child before he comes of age. If the parents are healthy, then the risk of developing the disease is significantly reduced and amounts to 8%.
Lack of nutrients, vitamins, minerals in the body. First of all, B vitamins and vitamin C, as well as trace elements such as magnesium, zinc, copper, and manganese, affect vision. All of them are necessary for the proper development and formation of the tissues of the sclera of the eye.
- Any eye strain caused by prolonged and continuous visual work. This can also include such reasons as: incorrectly selected or located lighting, lack of interruptions in work at the computer, non-observance of the minimum distance to books, notebooks, telephones, TVs, etc.
- Lack of correction when the first symptoms of myopia appear. If you ignore the signs of the disease, then myopia will progress and lead to a significant deterioration in vision.
- Incorrectly fitted glasses or contact lenses to correct vision in case of onset myopia.
- A congenital cause, such as weakness in the muscles in the eye, which are responsible for changing the curvature of the lens.
- Some vision diseases, for example, strabismus, astigmatism and others.
- Increased intracranial and intraocular pressure.
- Other reasons, which include multiple infectious diseases, disruptions in the hormonal system, birth and traumatic brain injury. All those conditions that cause weakening of the body and disrupt the flow of nutrients to the eye.
There are several degrees of myopia, which is defined in the distance from the focus away from the retina:
- 1 degree. The first, or small degree of myopia, refers to a distance not exceeding 3 diopters. As for the eye, its length increases by an average of 1.5 mm from the accepted norm. A person does not experience problems when looking at objects at close range, however, when looking into the distance, objects are slightly blurred.
- 2nd degree. The second degree of myopia is the distance between the focus and the retina of the eye, in the range from 3 to 6 diopters. In this case, the length of the eye increases by an average of 3 mm. With an average degree of myopia, the vessels inside the eyeball are stretched, have less thickness. Often this condition provokes the onset of degenerative processes on the retina. Close up, a person can see objects clearly, but at a distance not exceeding 30 cm. When removed, their contours become indistinct, and the picture itself is blurred.
- 3 degree. With the third degree of myopia, the distance from the focus to the retina exceeds 6 diopters. This is the highest degree of myopia. In this case, the eye undergoes significant changes, the retina and blood vessels become thinner, to such an extent that the sclera becomes visible. Vision is reduced so that a person can only make out fingers located at arm's length.
The higher the degree of myopia, the more extended the eye and the more stretched its vessels. This leads to the development of serious complications and complete blindness.
Myopia, as a rule, does not greatly affect a person's activities and capabilities, since this visual defect can be easily corrected with the help of lenses and glasses. But it also happens that myopia is very pronounced and requires serious intervention.
If you have to constantly change glasses for stronger ones, then this means that myopia is progressing. This means that the eyeball is enlarged. In turn, this leads to the fact that visual acuity decreases. Since there may be defects in the retina, its detachment is also possible. The enlargement of the eyeball can occur constantly throughout life, in connection with this, vision will also deteriorate.
With such a complex form of myopia, serious consequences are possible, including complete loss of vision.
In ophthalmology, there is such a thing as pseudomyopia or "false" myopia. This condition, unlike true myopia, is completely curable. However, it is important to seek medical attention when the first symptoms appear.
Most often, school-age children suffer from pseudomyopia. It occurs due to the fact that the load on vision, namely on the accommodative muscle, increases significantly. If there is a spasm, the person loses the ability to see clearly objects located in the distance. There may also be sensations of pain in the eye sockets, head, temporal region. Eyes get tired quickly.
Infectious diseases, rheumatism, tuberculosis, vegetative-vascular dystonia, hysteria and other reasons can precede the development of false myopia.
If false myopia was noticed during the first year, then you can quickly get rid of it. In the event that a person delays referring to a doctor, the disease can turn into true myopia.
Treatment depends on the underlying causes of the condition. It is imperative to normalize food and daily routine. Particular attention must be paid to the work area and proper lighting. It is necessary to minimize the load on vision and on the body as a whole. If there is a doctor's recommendation, then it is worth using glasses or lenses for correcting vision, taking medications to improve eye nutrition, and performing specialized sets of exercises.
Methods for improving vision with myopia
In order to improve vision, if the diagnosis was "myopia", you must strictly follow all the prescriptions of the doctor. Treatment of myopia is a complex process that can only be dealt with with the help of an ophthalmologist.
Modern methods of improving vision are diverse and patients have a lot to choose from:
- Laser correction of myopia.
- Optical correction of myopia.
- Surgical methods. Used when the disease is highly developed. It is possible to replace the lens with an intraocular lens, to install an actual lens.
- Medical treatment of the disease.
- Correction of nutrition to improve the blood supply to the eye and the supply of nutrients to it.
Laser vision correction for myopia
Laser correction is a modern, safe and effective way to get rid of the problem. This treatment will eliminate the need for glasses and contact lenses. The essence of the intervention boils down to the fact that a person changes the shape of the cornea, making it flatter, due to which its optical power decreases. That is, with the help of a laser, it is possible to create the effect of wearing glasses, as if located inside the eyes. As a result, the light rays after refraction in the lens of the eye are focused on its retina.
There are such methods of laser correction as LASIK (creation of corneal parameters according to a template), Super LASIK (creation of individual parameters of the cornea) and PRK (used for thin corneas and low myopia). Each method has its own distinctive features and is used depending on the financial capabilities of a person and the condition of his eyes.
Glasses are most often used to correct the vision of a person suffering from myopia. Due to the installation of diffusing lenses in them, they weaken the optical system of the eye, and the image is pushed back to the retina. Sometimes it is required to wear glasses with cylinders, in the event that myopia is complicated by astigmatism.
It is better to use glasses with double glasses. They are divided into two parts and allow you to see objects equally well, both at a distance and at a short distance.
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Prevention of myopia
Any disease, including myopia, is easier to prevent than to cure. Therefore, it is important to prevent myopia from an early age.
To do this, the following recommendations must be followed:
- Maintain a distance of at least 30 cm between the eyes and the monitor, book, tablet, etc. This will reduce the effort required to focus the vision and prevent the development of both temporary and permanent myopia.
- The eyes must be given rest. The longer the eyesight is stressed, the higher the risk of developing myopia. Therefore, be sure to take a break after 40 minutes of visual work.
- You should not read while lying on your back or on your side, or in a moving object (in a car, train, subway, etc.). The accommodation device will have to readjust every second in order to capture the image, which will inevitably lead to its overvoltage. If you read lying down, then one eye will always be further away from the object than the other, which also causes eye strain.
- It is important to keep your back straight at all times. Correct posture will allow you to look at the object of vision from the desired angle.
- Due consideration must be given to adequate lighting. This will relieve eye strain. Sunlight is optimal for the human eye. But since it is not always possible to achieve such lighting during work, it is important to use artificial light. Be sure to install a desk lamp when working in the evening.
- It is important to protect your eyesight from the damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation.
- Proper nutrition is an equally important factor in the prevention of myopia. A daily intake of minerals and vitamins will allow the organ of vision to function better and avoid overwork.
Vitamins for the eyes with myopia
In order to avoid the development of myopia, it is important to consume vitamins that contribute to the preservation of vision. If this is not possible, then you should use special complexes that a doctor may recommend.
The most relevant eye vitamins for myopia are:
- Thiamin or vitamin B1. It affects the functioning of the nervous system as a whole, and its lack will lead to the fact that the eyes will quickly get tired, binocular vision will worsen, which increases the risk of myopia.
- Riboflavin or vitamin B2. Its lack negatively affects the elasticity of blood vessels, provokes their ruptures, including those that are located in the eyeballs. Increased fatigue and tension of the accommodative muscle are manifestations of insufficient intake of riboflavin in the body.
- Niacin or vitamin B3. With its lack, the blood supply to the optic nerve worsens.
- Priridoxine or vitamin B6. Its deficiency causes inflammation of the optic nerve and provokes conjunctivitis.
- Cyancobolamine or vitamin B12. Without it, the eyes water and get tired faster.
For the prevention and treatment of myopia, the intake of all vitamins is important, and especially those belonging to group B.
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Exercises for prevention
There is a certain complex for the prevention of myopia. It includes methods such as improving blood circulation in the tissues of the eye, general strengthening of the body, this is especially useful for a child, strengthening the sclera, activating the functions of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems.
Since people who suffer from myopia have a very developed habit of sitting incorrectly, placing the text close to the eyes, you need to pay attention to corrective exercises.
Also, in order to increase the tone of the eye muscles, the "mark" exercise is often used. For this exercise, a mark is made on the glass at eye level, three to five millimeters in size. A person should stand farther from the glass, about thirty centimeters from it, then turn their attention to any object outside the window, but so that this object is on the line of the drawn mark. After fixing your gaze on this object, you need to look at the mark on the glass and then back. So repeat several times.
Do these exercises twice a day for half an hour. If vision does not improve and there are few changes, then you need to systematize the exercises and repeat them for about fifteen days with interruptions.
In the first two days, you need to do the exercise for three minutes. Then in the next two days - five minutes, and on the remaining days - seven minutes until the end of the entire course.
The author of the article: Degtyareva Marina Vitalievna, ophthalmologist, ophthalmologist