Cataract Of The Eye - Causes, Symptoms, Prevention And Eye Drops For Cataracts

Table of contents:

Video: Cataract Of The Eye - Causes, Symptoms, Prevention And Eye Drops For Cataracts

Video: Cataract Of The Eye - Causes, Symptoms, Prevention And Eye Drops For Cataracts
Video: Lanosterol Eye Drops for Cataracts 2023, March
Cataract Of The Eye - Causes, Symptoms, Prevention And Eye Drops For Cataracts
Cataract Of The Eye - Causes, Symptoms, Prevention And Eye Drops For Cataracts

Causes, symptoms and prevention of cataracts, eye drops

What is a cataract?


Cataract of the eye is a disease characterized by either complete or partial opacification of the substance of the lens of the eye or its capsule. Pathology is accompanied by a decrease in vision, or its loss.

Despite the fact that cataracts are most often found in adults over 50 years of age, this disease is typical for any age. There are several types of cataracts. These include traumatic, congenital, complicated and radiation cataracts.

The development of cataracts can be somewhat delayed, however, the older the person, the more likely it is to find this vision pathology.

According to world statistics, there are about 17 million people in the world of cataract patients. And most of them are over 60 years old. At 75, 26% of men and 46% of women have cataracts. And among those whose age has already passed 80, the level of cataract disease reaches 90%.


  • Cataract symptoms
  • Signs of cataracts
  • Causes of cataracts
  • What to do if a cataract appears?
  • Stages of age-related cataract
  • Complications of cataracts
  • How to cure cataracts?
  • Eye drops from cataracts
  • Prevention of cataracts

Cataract symptoms

Cataract has several degrees of damage and, depending on this, the symptoms will vary, however, the main ones include:

  • The appearance of double vision in the eye, in the case when the second is closed at this time. This is an early symptom, as the disease progresses, it disappears.
  • Blurred images, blurred images, which cannot be corrected with contact lenses and glasses. At the same time, both close and distant objects are poorly visible. Patients describe such vision as blurred, with the formation of a veil.
  • The appearance of flares and glare, occurring mainly at night.
  • Increasing the sensitivity of the eye at night. In general, night vision deteriorates. All light sources seem to the patient too bright, irritating to the eyes.
  • When looking at light sources, a person with cataracts sees halos around him. A person with a clouded lens is not able to drive a car, or it is difficult for him, as he is blinded by the headlights of oncoming traffic.
  • The perception of color is disturbed, they all become paler. It is especially difficult for a person to perceive shades of purple and blue.
  • Improvement in vision, which is temporary. This symptom is characterized by the fact that a person who previously wears glasses, with the development of the disease, can refuse them. However, this time period is short and vision will begin to deteriorate again.
  • If a person often needs to change glasses for vision, there is reason to think about cataracts, since this disease tends to progress and quickly reduce visual acuity.

Symptoms of cataracts are stripes and flickering spots or various balls. The ancient Greeks called this disease a waterfall, because with a cataract, a person has the feeling that his eyes are covered with a veil, and he looks as if through a fogged glass.

With cataracts of the eye, it is difficult to read, write, work with small details. As the cataract matures, the pupil becomes white instead of black.

Signs of cataracts

Signs of cataracts
Signs of cataracts

The first sign that allows the doctor to suspect a cataract in a person is the patient's age over 60 years. In this case, the clinical picture has characteristic features. On examination, the ophthalmologist observes opacities that can be located in different parts of the eye: in the peripheral lobe of the lens, or opposite the pupil. Opacities are grayish, sometimes with a white tint.

Depending on what type of cataract belongs to, the ophthalmologist will observe a varied clinical picture, accompanied by the following signs:

  • Anterior cataract appears as a white spot with well-defined boundaries. When it is slightly pushed forward and pointed, then such a cataract is called anterior pyramidal.

  • If the opacity is located at the posterior pole of the lens and is presented as a round white ball, then it is said about the posterior polar cataract.
  • Central cataract is determined by such features as: spherical appearance, location - the center of the lens, diameter - 2 mm.
  • Fusiform cataract can be judged by its shape. Such opacity is presented in the form of a thin spindle, it is located along the entire length of the lens.
  • Zonular congenital cataract looks like a cloudy nucleus with transparent layers.
  • Clouding of the entire lens, liquefaction of its masses and further formation of a dense bag are signs of a dense soft cataract.
  • Diabetic cataract is characterized by the appearance of white, flake-like opacities. They are located on all surfaces of the lens, often there is a change in the iris.
  • Tetanic cataract is characterized by the same symptoms as its diabetic type and is determined by the signs of the disease that caused it (hypofunction of the parathyroid glands).
  • Toxic cataract most often manifests itself as opacities located under the lens capsule, with subsequent spread to the cortical layers.
  • Senile cataract has many signs and depends on the degree of progression of the disease: initial, swelling, mature and overripe.

These are the most common signs that characterize a cataract and attribute it to one type or another.

Causes of cataracts

Causes of cataracts
Causes of cataracts

There are several positions that determine the etiology of the onset and development of cataracts. Among them are the following:

  • Diabetes mellitus, leading to the development of diabetic cataracts and other pathologies of the thyroid gland. In particular, titania, muscular dystrophy and others.
  • Smoking and long-term alcohol abuse.
  • Eye injuries.
  • Taking drugs related to the group of corticosteroids.
  • Prolonged exposure to sunlight on the eyeball.
  • The age of the person. The older he gets, the lower the body's ability to resist toxins from the external environment. In addition, the level of antioxidants inherent in nature decreases.
  • Retinal detachment, iridocyclitis, chorioretinitis, Fuchs's syndrome, glaucoma and some other diseases lead to disruption of lens metabolism and the development of cataracts.
  • Severe infections, such as malaria, typhoid, smallpox and others.

  • Anemia.
  • Poisoning of the body, in particular thallium, naphthalene and other toxic substances.
  • Skin diseases, which include eczema, Jacobi poikiloderma, scleroderma, neurodermatitis.
  • Eye burns.
  • Myopia of 3 high degree.
  • A hereditary factor cannot be ruled out.
  • Down's disease.
  • Congenital cataracts often occur against the background of the fact that the pregnant woman has had severe infections, for example, rubella, toxoplasmosis, flu, etc.
  • Working in hot shops where there is a high risk of eye irradiation.

According to some sources, in more than 20 million people worldwide, this disease was the beginning of blindness.

Poor ecology, poisoning with various toxic drugs, ultraviolet or radiation exposure, as well as microwave and smoking can also become the cause of cataracts.

What to do if a cataract appears?

First of all, when the first symptoms of cataract appear, you should consult a doctor. An ophthalmologist deals with the diagnosis of this problem. Using a slit lamp, he will examine and test the patient's visual acuity. This will reveal the pathology of the lens of the eye. To determine complications in the fundus, the ophthalmologist will conduct a study of it, having previously dilated the pupil with the help of drops.

When diagnosing a cataract, you should not delay treatment, even if your vision is not impaired. It should be understood that this disease tends to progress, and the more the lens becomes cloudy, the worse the person will see.

Developing cataracts affect the patient's quality of life and ultimately lead to complete blindness if not treated. In addition, prolonged neglect of therapy can lead to the growth of opacity, increased intracranial pressure and the development of glaucoma. Further, the dying off of the optic nerve, which ceases to radiate nerve impulses to the brain.

According to statistics, 12% of patients are subject to rapid progression of cataracts and the process of complete opacity takes an average of 6 years. A slightly larger proportion of patients, 15%, will completely lose sight after 15 years. The majority of patients, which is 70%, will need surgical intervention on average in 6-10 years.

So, the only correct answer to the question: “What to do if a cataract appears?” Is to go to an ophthalmologist for diagnosis and start treatment as soon as possible.

Stages of age-related cataract

Stages of age-related cataract
Stages of age-related cataract

There are 5 stages of cataract:

  1. anterior and posterior capsular cataracts;
  2. perinuclear layered cataract;
  3. nuclear cataract;
  4. cortical cataract;
  5. complete cataract.

The initial stage of cataract is characterized by the appearance of lens opacity not in the optical zone.

The opacity completely covers the lens in mature cataracts. With this form of the disease, a person can only distinguish between light illumination. Lens clouding occurs at the periphery, that is, outside the optical zone.

There is an immature cataract, which is characterized by opacity in the central part of the optic zone of the eye. In this case, visual acuity is impaired. An immature cataract manifests itself in such a way that opacities move into the central optic zone. In immature cataracts, clouding of the lens leads to a noticeable decrease in visual acuity.

There is also an overripe type of cataract. In this case, the lens becomes milky-white, since the substance of which it is made liquefies.

How fast does a cataract mature?

Studies show that, on average, twelve percent of people who have cataracts progress to very serious disease within four or six years. Fifteen percent of patients experience a slow onset of the disease over ten to fifteen years. In seventy percent of patients, cataract progression occurs within 6-10 years. Mandatory surgical intervention is required.

Complications of cataracts

If the cataract was not diagnosed and treated in time, then it can lead to complications such as:

  • Complete blindness or amaurosis. It is cataract that is in the first place among diseases leading to absolute loss of vision. At the same time, blindness does not come abruptly, it approaches gradually. If you start treatment on time, then this complication can be avoided. The diagnosis of amaurosis is made when vision is completely lost.
  • Lens dislocation. This complication is characterized by the fact that it is completely displaced and detached from the holding ligament. At the same time, vision deteriorates sharply, and the lens itself is subject to mandatory removal.

  • Phakolytic iridocyclitis, which manifests itself in inflammation of the ciliary body and iris. A person experiences severe pain in the eye and head, the vascular mesh becomes cyanotic or red, the pupil does not move well. When the acute process is eliminated, the question arises of removing the lens.
  • Phakogenic glaucoma is characterized by a secondary increase in pressure within the eye due to the enlargement of the lens. The lens needs to be removed and pressure reduction therapy is performed.
  • Obscuration amblyopia. This complication often manifests itself in children and becomes a consequence of congenital cataracts. It is characterized by the fact that the retina, which does not receive signals from the outside, atrophies and ceases to function, although it was healthy before. Treatment of this complication is only surgical.

To avoid such formidable complications, the disease must be diagnosed and treated in time under the guidance of professional doctors. Seek help when the first symptoms appear.

How to cure cataracts?

How to cure cataracts
How to cure cataracts

In order to cure a cataract, you can not delay contacting a doctor. Therapy can be conservative, in some cases, surgical intervention is indicated. As for medications, doctors prescribe drops to the patient, which improve metabolism inside the lens. Stimulation of metabolism helps to slow down the formation of turbidity. If there is a break in the therapeutic effect, then the disease begins to progress again.

In most cases, a surgical method is used to treat cataracts. Modern medicine has reached such heights that a person does not even have to go to the hospital. Most of the operations are performed on an outpatient basis and after a short period of time the patient goes home.

The methods that are used for the surgical treatment of the disease are varied. The previously used method of intracapsular extraction of turbidity has gone into history, as it is fraught with the development of complications and often led to injuries to patients. A more modern method of surgical intervention is extracapsular cataract extraction, during which the opaque masses are completely removed. In this case, the lens capsule is preserved and replaced by a flexible and rigid intraocular lens.

An even more modern method is the removal of clouded masses using ultrasound. Then an intraocular lens is inserted. This method of surgical intervention is called phacoemulsification. The procedure itself takes little time and is completed in 10 minutes. In this case, a person does not need the introduction of general anesthesia, local anesthesia is sufficient. After phacoemulsification, the patient is prescribed drops and observation by an ophthalmologist at the place of residence.

In order for the postoperative period to end faster and not cause complications, the patient is prescribed special drops:

  • Floxal, Oftaviks, Torbeks have an antibacterial effect.
  • Help relieve inflammation Diclof, Indocollir.
  • If the eye experiences increased dryness, then tear substitutes are prescribed, for example, Oksial or Sistane.
  • Drops containing hormones include Maxidex and Oftan-dexamethasone.

To avoid complications, it is necessary to follow the recommendations of an ophthalmologist, which boil down to a ban on lifting weights and being in dusty rooms. You should also beware of hypothermia and walking in windy weather.

Do not start your illness, because with advanced forms of the disease, a complete loss of vision is possible, which cannot be returned. With an advanced cataract, the lens swells, and this becomes an obstacle to the outflow of fluid inside the eye.

On the subject: Vision restoration - how to improve vision naturally?

Eye drops from cataracts

For the treatment of cataracts, a variety of drops are used, aimed at stopping the development of the disease and preventing complications after surgery. All of them can only be prescribed by an ophthalmologist. Self-treatment of the disease is unacceptable.

Oftan Katakhrom


This drug is used to treat cataracts and contains substances such as nicotinamide, citrome C, adenosine and others. The use of this agent contributes to the normalization of metabolism in the lens, activation of the processes of recovery and oxidation. The drops act as an antioxidant. The advantages of using the product are that they are not absorbed into the bloodstream, and the effect occurs in less than a minute.

You can use drops while carrying a child, but only after consulting a doctor. The most common side effects are allergic reactions, some tingling and burning sensation in the eyes. Dizziness, increased blood pressure, and nausea may occur very rarely. Sometimes a person suffers from fainting and shortness of breath.

You can not use the product in children under the age of majority, as well as with increased sensitivity to the components that make up the drops. It is important to refrain from wearing soft contact lenses. If irritation arises, then until it disappears, you should not drive a car and work with other potentially dangerous equipment.

Cataract is a disease that develops slowly but steadily. If a pathology is suspected, the treatment should be chosen by a competent doctor. Its main task is to decide which method of therapy is most effective in each specific case: conservative or operative. If a decision is made to treat cataracts conservatively, the doctor selects medications that slow the progression of the disease.

Often the doctor recommends eye drops with vitamins, as well as antioxidant, metabolic effects. For example, Oftan Katakhrom, which is produced in Finland and has been sold on the Russian market for more than 10 years, has proven itself well. It is an eye drop with proven antioxidant and metabolic effects that slows down the development of cataracts thanks to its combined formulation of vitamin, antioxidant and energy source.


Drops used to treat cataracts, which help to absorb proteins that form in the lens of the eye. In addition, Quinax promotes the activation of enzymes contained in the moisture of the anterior chamber of the organ of vision. The advantage of drops is that they have low absorption, have no side effects and do not interact with other drugs. Drops can be used during pregnancy and in children only after consulting a doctor.

It is important to use the remedy for a long time, even if the therapeutic effect occurs in the shortest possible time. Do not bury Quinax without first removing your contact lenses. After applying the drug, you should wait at least 15 minutes and only then put the lenses in place. If temporary visual impairment occurs after instillation, you should refrain from work associated with eye strain. The use of drops is indicated for senile, congenital, traumatic and secondary cataracts.


Drops used for the treatment and prevention of cataracts, triggering regenerative processes in the tissues of the eye. Taufon helps to normalize the metabolism in the eyeball, improves metabolic processes. With cataracts, the course of treatment should be at least 3 months. As side effects, the possible occurrence of allergic reactions is distinguished.

Drops can be used for traumatic, senile, radiation and other types of cataracts. It should not be used in childhood, as well as in the presence of hypersensitivity to the main active ingredient (taurine). Available at the pharmacy without a prescription.

Vizomitin "Drops of Skulachev"

Drops are used to prevent dry eye syndrome, often prescribed in the postoperative period. They help to produce their own tears, improve the composition of the tear film. The duration of use depends on the severity of the symptoms and is determined by the attending physician. If necessary, the drug can be used with other eye drops, including for the treatment of cataracts. However, it is worth maintaining the interval between deposits of at least 5 minutes.

Side effects other than allergic reactions are not observed. Do not use while breastfeeding or while carrying a fetus. After opening the bottle, the drops remain usable for 30 days. The age limit is 18 years. Requires a prescription to purchase.

Eye drops 999 for cataracts and glaucoma

Preventive and therapeutic agent capable of relieving eye strain from the eyes, removing cataracts, toning the elements of the eye, and reducing intraocular pressure. It should not be used in case of severe eye pain, if an allergic reaction occurs. If there are eye infections, then you must first consult with an ophthalmologist.

It should be understood that the drug is not able to replace drug treatment, and serves as a prophylactic agent with a certain healing effect.

Prevention of cataracts

Prevention of cataracts
Prevention of cataracts

When there is a risk of developing cataracts, it is important to use comprehensive preventive measures. These include the use of drops (Quinax, Taufon, Vitsetin, etc.), after prior consultation with a doctor.

The rest of the preventive measures are as follows:

  • Mandatory visit to the ophthalmologist at least 2 times a year.
  • Wearing sunglasses that can block UV light from entering the lens of the eye.
  • Eating antioxidant-rich foods and fruits and vegetables.
  • Regular measurements of blood sugar levels and timely treatment of diabetes.
  • Compliance with safety measures when working with potentially hazardous substances, in hot shops, chemical laboratories, etc.
  • Frequent hand washing, which makes it possible to somewhat protect the organs of vision from getting into them infections of various origins, which reduces the risk of developing cataracts.
  • Getting rid of bad habits.

However, doctors note that there are no universal methods of disease prevention. Therefore, persons over 65 need to regularly visit an ophthalmologist and, if a clouding of the lens is detected, treat this pathology in a timely manner. As for people who have not crossed this age limit, they need to visit a doctor at least once every 4 years and follow a balanced diet.


The author of the article: Degtyareva Marina Vitalievna, ophthalmologist, ophthalmologist

Popular by topic

Interesting Articles
How To Remove The Smell Of Garlic From The Mouth? The Most Effective Methods
Read More

How To Remove The Smell Of Garlic From The Mouth? The Most Effective Methods

How to remove the smell of garlic from the mouth?The smell of garlic from the mouth after its use is felt by others for up to 3-4 days. In order not to give up an exceptionally useful product, you need to know the tricks of how to get rid of the smell of garlic from the mouth

Choleretic Herbs For Gallstones And Bile Stasis
Read More

Choleretic Herbs For Gallstones And Bile Stasis

Choleretic herbs for gallstones and bile stasisContent:Calamus rootAnise fruitBlack elderberryHighlander serpentineDandelionMarshmallow rhizomeWormwoodPeppermintDill (seeds)ParsleyStrawberries (leaves)CelandineIf a person suffers from stagnation of bile, he is shown the use of herbs that eliminate this stagnation

Ginger - Beneficial Properties And Use Of Ginger Root, The Harm Of Ginger. Ginger Treatment, Ginger Tea For Children And For Weight Loss
Read More

Ginger - Beneficial Properties And Use Of Ginger Root, The Harm Of Ginger. Ginger Treatment, Ginger Tea For Children And For Weight Loss

The benefits and harms of ginger root, its use and treatment with ginger teaContent:Beneficial featuresGinger harmGinger rootGinger for coldsGinger for childrenGinger teaSlimming gingerGinger + honey + lemonGinger treatmentContraindicationsHealing gingerGinger, in addition to the well-known taste and its use as a seasoning, also has a healing effect