Types Of Herpes Virus - 1 (simple) Type, 2,3,4,5,6,7,8 Type Of Herpes, Symptoms And Treatment

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Video: Types Of Herpes Virus - 1 (simple) Type, 2,3,4,5,6,7,8 Type Of Herpes, Symptoms And Treatment

Video: Types Of Herpes Virus - 1 (simple) Type, 2,3,4,5,6,7,8 Type Of Herpes, Symptoms And Treatment
Video: Introduction to Human Herpesviruses (HHV) 2023, March
Types Of Herpes Virus - 1 (simple) Type, 2,3,4,5,6,7,8 Type Of Herpes, Symptoms And Treatment
Types Of Herpes Virus - 1 (simple) Type, 2,3,4,5,6,7,8 Type Of Herpes, Symptoms And Treatment

Description, symptoms and treatment of all types of herpes virus


  • Herpes simplex type 1
  • Herpes virus type 2
  • Herpes virus type 3
  • Herpes virus type 4
  • Herpes virus type 5
  • Herpes simplex virus type 6
  • Herpes virus type 7
  • Herpes virus type 8

Herpes (from Greek - "creeping") is a group of widespread diseases caused by viruses of the order Herpesvirales of the family Herpesviridae. The disease manifests itself in lesions of the skin, mucous membranes, nervous tissue, and sometimes internal organs. The clinical picture develops in states of unstable homeostasis. Basically, herpes is a dormant infection characterized by persistence (latent or latent carriage).

The danger of herpes has been proven with:

  • Pregnancy - provokes pathologies of the fetus and newborns, secondary infertility, premature birth, neonatal fetal death;
  • Immunodeficiency states of the body - activates the replication mechanism of the immunodeficiency virus, herpes is an indicator of HIV infection (exacerbates immunosuppression), causes autoimmune diseases;
  • Neoplastic (oncological) diseases - herpes simplex virus of the second type in association with mycoplasmas, chlamydia and other pathogens - a provocateur of the development of malignant pathologies;
  • Induction of atherosclerosis - negatively affects the neuropsychic health of a person.

Herpes simplex type 1

The herpes simplex virus combines the first and second serotypes of the herpes virus. The herpes simplex virus of the first type is designated as HSV-1 or HSV-1 (Herpes simplex virus 1). In the clinical literature, it is also called oral (oral) or labial (labial) herpes.

HSV-1 is the most common type of herpes that has clinical significance in medicine. Infection usually occurs in the first years of a person's life. The most typical localization of oral or labial herpes is lips and nasolabial triangle.

Under certain circumstances (immunodeficiency), the virus can also infect:

  • The mucous membrane of the genitals, mouth, nasal cavity and eyes;
  • The skin of the fingers and toes (most often - the area of the nail folds of the fingers);
  • Nervous system tissues.

Herpes simplex viruses of types 1 and 2 are characterized by:

  • Neurotropicity is a predominant damage to the cells of the nervous system due to the presence or formation of receptors in them that are complementary to viruses;
  • Neurvirulence is the ability to cause diseases of the nervous system;
  • Suppression of phagocytosis (a link of immunity) to an incomplete level.

Tropism to the nervous tissue and the ability of HSV to inhibit phagocytosis are factors indicating the ability of herpes simplex viruses to avoid the effects of the immune system, which makes latent carriage in nervous tissue possible. Persistence in the cells of the nervous system is an important protective and adaptive mechanism of herpes viruses, which allowed HSV-1 to get the maximum possible spread in the human population.

For viruses of a simple type, two phases are characteristic of being in the body - latent and manifest:

  • The clinical manifestation of HSV occurs 1-3 times a year, the pathogenesis on the lips develops and ends within seven to ten days. The frequency of relapses depends on the immune status of a person; people with immunodeficiency conditions are more likely to get sick;
  • The latent (latent) phase, invisible to the immune system, lasts for the rest of the life of the virus.

Herpes type 1 symptoms

The most common clinical form of HSV-1 in children is vesicular lesion of the lips, sometimes acute respiratory illness. In adults, in addition, there are lesions of the skin, conjunctiva and cornea of the eyes. With oral-genital contact, HSV-1 manifests itself in the form of genital lesions. Women are infected with genital HSV-1 much more often than men.

The general clinical sign of HSV-1 is intoxication syndrome:

  • Fever;
  • General weakness;
  • Headache;
  • Muscle and joint pain.

igg (IgG) positive


For the differential diagnosis of HSV-1 and HSV-2, laboratory methods are used, the purpose of their application is:

  • Establishing the type of pathogen based on the affinity for the corresponding immunoglobulin;
  • Differentiation of the pathogen, for example, HSV-1 from HSV-2;
  • Determination of the stage of the disease (acute, chronic, latent).

Approximate interpretation of the study results in the detection of IgM and IgG immunoglobulins:

  • IgM is determined by laboratory methods, starting from the fifth day of the disease, and IgG is determined only from the second week from the onset of the disease;
  • IgM circulates in the peripheral blood for up to three months, and IgG is present in the blood for many years, in the chronic course of the disease - for life;
  • IgM does not penetrate the placenta during pregnancy, and IgG in large quantities penetrates the placenta, that is, its detection in a pregnant woman who does not have a clinical manifestation of herpes means the body is ready to protect itself from accidental infection during pregnancy;

  • IgM is not able to neutralize the virus and is only a factor in triggering immune processes in the body, and IgG is able to neutralize the virus, therefore it is a factor in the body's defense.

Detection of IgG specific for HSV-1 in the peripheral blood in high titers during the clinical course of the disease using the PCR technique indicates the development of intense immunity to this disease.

The detection of IgG in low titers with a negative PCR reaction indicates a previous illness and that the herpes virus in the body is in a latent state.

Herpes simplex type 1 during pregnancy

Women are generally more susceptible to herpes simplex virus. It has been proven that the herpes clinic is provoked by conditions that weaken the body's immune system. Pregnancy and its manifestations (intoxication, hormonal changes) are undoubtedly factors that disrupt homeostasis. Herpes during pregnancy in the form of clinical manifestations can occur with a high degree of probability.

Herpes simplex virus type 1 is very dangerous for pregnant women because:

  • In the normal state of the body, it does not affect the organs of the genital area, meanwhile, during pregnancy, the development of pathogenesis can result in damage to the nervous tissues of the fetus (the virus penetrates the placental barrier);
  • During pregnancy, HSV-1 is extremely undesirable, especially with the primary development of clinical manifestations against the background of the absence of protective antibodies (specific immunoglobulins) in the blood, which are formed in response to illness. Moreover, antibodies to HSV-1 do not protect a pregnant woman from HSV-2 (genital herpes);
  • The herpes simplex virus that has entered the body in the first half of pregnancy can provoke deformities in the fetus;
  • HSV-1 or HSV-2, which has entered the body of a pregnant woman in late gestation, can cause the fetus to become infected during childbirth.

Treatment for herpes type 1

Treatment of viruses of this group has important features:

  • Total destruction of the virus is impossible;
  • There are no prophylactic drugs;
  • Viruses are not sensitive to antibiotics;
  • With a short-term course of HSV-1, drug treatment is impractical.

The only direct-acting drug is acyclovir. By the pharmaceutical industry, acyclovir is available in three formulations (tablets, ointment and solution).

The use of acyclovir in accordance with the instructions can significantly reduce:

  • The duration of the clinical course of the disease;
  • The frequency of relapses of the disease in a clinical form.

Herpes simplex virus type 2

Herpes simplex virus type 2
Herpes simplex virus type 2

Herpes simplex virus type 2 is called HSV-2 or HSV-2 (Herpes simplex virus 2) for short. In the clinical literature, it is referred to as genital or anogenital (localization of lesions in the anus and genitals). Under certain conditions, genital herpes can affect other parts of the body, even systemic lesions have been established with PVH-2. HSV-2 is usually sexually transmitted.

Distinctive features of the clinical course of the disease caused by the herpes simplex virus type II:

  • The number of HSV-2 seropositive persons increases with the onset of puberty and is directly proportional to the number of sexual partners;
  • Women are infected with HSV-2 six times more often than men;
  • Antibodies to HSV-1 do not prevent HSV-2 infection;
  • Genital symptoms (skin lesions in the genital area, perineum, anus, lower extremities and buttocks) in about 80% of cases are a consequence of HSV-2 infection;
  • Asymptomatic or atypical course of HSV-2 occurs in about 70% of IgG cases;
  • HSV-2, in contrast to HSV-1, is characterized by frequent relapses of clinical manifestations (up to 75% of patients with genital herpes suffer from it constantly);
  • HSV-2 in 15% of cases of the disease causes malignancy (malignant degeneration) of the tissues of the cervix in women and the prostate gland in men. Therefore, persons who are seropositive to CDF-2 are recommended to undergo regular examination for tumor markers;
  • HSV-2 in women is accompanied by a high frequency of gynecological diseases leading to a decrease in reproductive function.

IgG antibodies to herpes type 2

The principles of immunological diagnostics are identical to those used in HSV-1 studies. An examination of a woman planning a pregnancy for the presence of IgG to herpes of the second type helps to identify gynecological diseases and provide timely treatment, which increases the likelihood of a normal gestational period and the birth of a healthy child. A similar serological test for the determination of IgG is necessary for the father of the unborn child. Moreover, if IgG is detected in the blood, it is recommended to use PCR to make sure that HSV-2 is absent in the semen of the examined man.

Herpes type 2 during pregnancy

According to the information published in the available sources intended for neonatologists, a comparative characteristic of the two types of herpes simplex during pregnancy is given. The virus of the second type in pregnant women provokes miscarriages and polyhydramnios, increases the likelihood of miscarriage, and in men it is a common cause of infertility. The most formidable consequence of recovering from HSV-2 during pregnancy is neonatal herpes (NG).

Neonatal herpes is a neonatal disease caused by infection of the fetus with HSV-2 or HSV-1, with an unfavorable prognosis for the newborn. This disease occurs with approximately one case in two thousand births. The mortality rate of newborns, according to some reports, reaches 70%. Early detection and active therapy reduces mortality by up to 20%. The prognosis of negative development of neonatal herpes is higher in children infected with HSV-2.

Treatment for herpes simplex virus type 2

Treating HSV-2 is similar to treating herpes simplex type 1. In view of the more severe course of the disease, according to indications, the treatment regimen includes various types of immunocorrectors, agents that strengthen the body's defenses (vitamins, biostimulants), as well as physiological solutions to reduce the concentration of the pathogen in the blood. It is possible to use other drugs of different pharmacological groups.

Herpes type 3

Herpes type 3
Herpes type 3

Herpes zoster virus of the third type is the varicella-zoster virus or herpes zoster (VVO-OG, Human herpesvirus 3, HHV-3, Varicella-zoster (VZV). Herpes zoster virus enters the body of a susceptible person through airborne droplets or through household contact. causes chickenpox in childhood. After recovering from chickenpox, the child remains a lifelong virus carrier. The virus is localized in the tissues of the nervous system. Relapses of herpes Zoster in adults causes a disease called herpes zoster (OH).

The symptoms of VVO-OH in childhood are pronounced. Usually, the disease has a benign course (mostly complete recovery). The acute phase lasts up to two months.

The main symptoms of chickenpox are:

  • Severe itching of the skin;
  • High body temperature;
  • Extensive skin rashes (vesicles).

Localization of the rash coincides with the projection of the nerve trunks on the skin. After the disappearance of clinical symptoms, the virus goes into an inactive state and is localized in the nervous tissue. Zoster herpes virus carrier lasts for life. Relapses can occur in people with a decrease in the protective (protective) properties of immunity. In the classical view of epidemiology, zoster recurs and manifests itself clinically in persons over fifty years of age. In recent years, this pattern has been violated. Recurrence of the disease caused by herpes zoster is called herpes zoster (herpes zoster).

The main symptoms of shingles are:

  • Severe pain along the nerve trunks for 3-12 days;
  • Hyperthermia (increased general body temperature);
  • Swelling and redness of the skin, after 1-3 days - encircling rash in the form of vesicles;
  • After 2-3 weeks, the disease ends with recovery after scarring of the crusts at the site of the vesicles.

Complications of herpetic herpes are ganglionitis (inflammation of a nerve node) or ganglioneuritis (inflammation of several nerve nodes). Diseases are manifested by allergies, skin ulcers, conjunctivitis and eczema. Regular relapses of herpetic herpes are characteristic of immunodeficiencies.

Treatment of diseases caused by herpes of type 3 (chickenpox in children and shingles in adults) is carried out in a hospital or on an outpatient basis after differential diagnosis and determination of the individual characteristics of the pathogenesis in the patient.

Herpes type 4

Herpes type 4
Herpes type 4

Herpes simplex virus type 4 - Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or Epstein-Barr virus, Human Herpes Virus type 4. Epstein-Barr virus causes infectious mononucleosis. The clinical picture develops in persons with immunodeficiencies.

Infectious mononucleosis is a lesion of the mucous membranes of the oropharynx and lymph nodes, which is characterized by high fever, possible damage to the liver and spleen, and changes in the morphology of blood cells (atypical mononuclear cells). Usually people get sick with mononucleosis during adolescence or young age. Infection by airborne droplets or contact (including oral-genital). The incubation period is from 5 to 50 days.

The main symptoms of mononucleosis:

  • A sharp increase in body temperature up to 38-40 ° C;
  • Pain syndrome (headache, muscle pain, joint pain);
  • Feeling of chronic fatigue and drowsiness (persists up to several months after the disappearance of other symptoms);
  • Swelling and swelling of the oropharyngeal mucosa (laryngitis and pharyngitis);
  • Gray or white-yellow coating on the tonsils;
  • Papular rash on the skin and mucous membranes that lasts from one to three days and then disappears without a trace;
  • An increase in the number of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and the presence of specific (atypical) lymphocytes - mononuclear cells.

Diagnostics is complemented by the detection of DNA of the Epstein-Barr virus by PCR. Treatment is carried out under the supervision of doctors of different specialties. The Epstein-Barr virus sometimes provokes the development of a malignant disease - Burkitt's lymphoma.

Herpes type 5

Herpes type 5
Herpes type 5

Herpes simplex virus type 5 is cytomegalovirus (CMV) or HHV-5 (Human herpesvirus 5). Clinical symptoms of cytomegalovirus infection are rare. Basically, there is a sluggish virus carrier. Infection - airborne, contact (kissing, sexual contact, blood transfusion, intrauterine, through breast milk). Infection is confirmed by the discovery in human blood of giant cells - cytomegal. The clinical picture develops when immunity is weakened. The incubation period is up to 60 days.

Symptoms of cytomegalovirus infection are similar to those of a cold:

  • High fever, fatigue;
  • Pain syndrome (head, joints, throat);
  • Unlike mononucleosis, there is no inflammation of the tonsils and an increase in regional lymph nodes;
  • Damage to the kidneys, liver, spleen, pancreas, central nervous system, eyes.

Cytomegalovirus can have a significant negative impact on the course of pregnancy. It crosses the placental barrier, causing infection and malformation in the fetus. Currently, this is the most common cause of neonatal pathologies, and sometimes the death of newborns.

A child with congenital cytomegalovirus infection may suffer from:

  • Underdevelopment of the brain;
  • Damage to the organs of hearing and vision;
  • Delayed general development;
  • Inflammatory phenomena in the respiratory and digestive organs;
  • Skin rashes.

Diagnosis of herpes type 5

CMV is diagnosed based on:

  • Instrumental methods - ultrasound study of blood flow in the vessels of the umbilical cord and uterus, measurement of heart rate (heart rate), determination of oligohydramnios, delays in fetal development, pathologies of its internal organs;
  • Laboratory methods - detection of cells by electron microscopy, PCR analysis, serological studies to detect antibodies to CMV.

Treatment of a pregnant woman and the feasibility of maintaining pregnancy is determined by the doctor on the basis of a set of examinations. Primary infection after conception is a direct indication for artificial termination of pregnancy. General strengthening drugs, immunocorrection and symptomatic therapy are prescribed as the main therapy.

Herpes type 6 in adults

Herpes simplex virus type 6 is referred to as HHV-6 or HHV-6. This is the general name for the human herpes virus of two subtypes homologous to each other. In adults, the VCG-6A subtype is active in the form of one of the provocateurs of the development of multiple sclerosis.

Multiple sclerosis is a multifactorial autoimmune disease with a predominant lesion of the central nervous system, which is diagnosed in people aged 20 and older, very rarely in other age groups.

Key facts about herpes simplex virus type 6:

  • The presence of this type of herpes virus in the etiopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis has been proven;
  • The clinical picture of MS - chronic inflammation of the nervous tissues, including the myelin layer of the brain - demyelination, which is accompanied by degenerative processes in the nerve tissues;
  • Without treatment, multiple sclerosis inevitably leads to disability, social and psychological isolation of the patient.

There are four types of multiple sclerosis:

multiple sclerosis
multiple sclerosis
  • Primary progressive multiple sclerosis. A steady deterioration in the patient's condition is characteristic, a short-term calming of the process is possible, and then a rapid relapse;
  • Secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Periods of exacerbation after the first wave of the disease are characteristic;
  • Remitting-progressive multiple sclerosis (Latin remitto - to weaken). At a certain moment, the signs of the disease disappear, and then there is a sharp return and increase in symptoms;
  • Remitting-relapsing multiple sclerosis. It is characterized by periods of disappearance and recovery of symptoms, there is a long-term stable condition of the patient without visible signs of deterioration of health.

Herpes type 6 symptoms

Early symptoms of multiple sclerosis:

  • Fatigue, depression;
  • Unsteadiness of gait, impaired coordination of movement;
  • Change in sensitivity (temperature, vibration and tactile).

The main symptoms of MS, characterizing significant changes in the body, in addition to early signs that usually persist and worsen:

  • Cognitive disorders, rapid mood swings;
  • Visual disturbances (defocusing in the form of double vision, decreased visual acuity);
  • Difficulty with articulation when speaking (unusual pronunciation of words);
  • Dysphagia (violation of the act of swallowing);
  • Spasms and cramps
  • Deterioration of sensitivity (lack of pain response);
  • Fecal and urinary incontinence, constipation and diarrhea;
  • Erectile dysfunction.

The nature and degree of manifestation of symptoms of multiple sclerosis are diverse, which is associated with the unpredictability of foci of damage to the nervous tissue.

Treatment for herpes type 6

For the treatment of multiple sclerosis are used:

  • Corticosteroids (methylprednisolone, dexamethasone, and others);
  • Antioxidants, antiplatelet agents, angioprotectors;
  • Proteolysis inhibitors;
  • Plasmapheresis with drugs;
  • Immunomodulators such as Copaxone
  • Interferon production stimulants (Betaferon, Rebif, Avonesk);
  • Intravenous immunoglobulins, such as Sandoglobin.

Drugs of other groups may be shown, depending on the stage and form of the disease. Symptomatic therapy and medical and social rehabilitation of patients with multiple sclerosis prevents the development of complications.

Herpes type 7

Herpes type 7
Herpes type 7

Herpes simplex virus type 7 is referred to as HHV-7 or HHV-7. Often this type of virus is combined with herpes simplex virus type six. VCG-7 is a possible cause of chronic fatigue syndrome and cancer of lymphoid tissue.

Symptoms of herpes type 7

There are the following main symptoms of herpes type 7:

  • Weakness against the background of a lack of physical tension, increased nervousness;
  • Light physical activity is accompanied by rapid fatigue;
  • Excessive increase in suspiciousness;
  • Chronic depressive conditions;
  • Sleep disorders (insomnia);
  • Long-term (up to 6 months in a row) subfebrile body temperature;
  • Swollen lymph nodes.

Anamnesis and physical research methods are complemented by laboratory tests:

  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - detection of the genetic material of the virus,
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) - determination of IgG titers;
  • Immunogram with the definition of subpopulations of T- and B-lymphocytes (a decrease in the content of natural killer cells and an increase in circulating immune complexes).

Treatment for herpes simplex virus type 7 consists of antiviral therapy aimed at strengthening the immune system. No preventive measures have been developed.

Herpes type 8

Herpes type 8
Herpes type 8

Herpes simplex virus type 8 is referred to as HHV-8 or HHV-8. This pathogen affects lymphocytes, moreover, it can be in the body of healthy people for a long time in a latent state. Herpes simplex virus type 8 is transmitted by contact, during organ transplantation, through the placenta from mother to fetus, during pregnancy and during childbirth, when the fetus moves along the birth canal. The disease is intensified by radiation therapy.

Symptoms of type 8 herpes

The symptoms of herpes simplex type 8 should be considered given that HFG-8 causes a number of cancers:

  • Kaposi's sarcoma;
  • Primary lymphoma;
  • Castleman's disease.

Kaposi's sarcoma

Kaposi's sarcoma is an oncological disease characterized by the formation of multiple tumors due to malignant degeneration of blood vessels.

Kaposi's sarcoma is localized on:

  • Skin;
  • Mucous membranes;
  • Lymph nodes;
  • Internal organs.

There are four types of Kaposi's sarcoma:

  • Classic type. It occurs in elderly and senile men. The disease manifests itself on the skin of the hands, on the auricles and cheeks, on the forehead and the mucous membrane of the mouth, as well as on the genitals in the form of multiple symmetrical spots, nodules and plaques;
  • Endemic type. Widely distributed only in Africa;
  • Immunosuppressive type. It develops while taking immunosuppressants;
  • Epidemic type. It develops as a complication in AIDS patients. Characterized by a very rapid course of pathogenesis with damage to the lymph nodes and internal organs.

Treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma: surgical method (cryotherapy), medication (administration of interferon, cytostatics, antineoplastic and antiviral drugs), radiation therapy.

Primary lymphoma

This is an oncological disease with a predominant lesion of the serous membranes, which is characterized by the accumulation of fluids containing tumor cells in the body cavities. Primary lymphoma is treated only with chemotherapy.

Castleman disease

It is manifested by an increase in lymph nodes (subclavian and mesenteric, as well as in the lungs and on the neck). There are three types of Castleman disease: hyaline-vascular, plasma-cell and multifocal. Treatment of the disease is surgical or with the help of radiation therapy.


The author of the article: Kuzmina Vera Valerievna | Endocrinologist, nutritionist

Education: Diploma of the Russian State Medical University named after NI Pirogov with a degree in General Medicine (2004). Residency at Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry, diploma in Endocrinology (2006).

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