Causes, symptoms and stages of psoriasis
- What is psoriasis?
- Stages of psoriasis
- Psoriasis symptoms
- Causes of psoriasis
- Is psoriasis transmitted?
- How is psoriasis treated?
- Prevention of psoriasis
What is psoriasis?
Psoriasis is a fairly common chronic skin disease characterized by a monomorphic rash in the form of pink-red nodules that have a loose, silvery-white scaly surface. The disease lasts for years, there is an alternation of periods of relapse and remission.
As a rule, this disease causes the appearance of dryish red spots, raised above the skin surface, but in some people with psoriasis, there are no visible skin lesions. These patches, called psoriatic plaques, in most cases form for the first time in places that are subject to pressure and friction - the buttocks, knee and elbow folds.
However, they can also be located and occur on other areas of the skin, including the palmar surface of the hands, scalp, genital organs, and the plantar surface of the feet. Psoriasis is a chronic disease characterized, as a rule, by an undulating course. The patient may have both periods of improvement and remission (caused by therapeutic methods or unexpected), and periods of exacerbation or relapse (most often provoked by unfavorable external factors - stress, alcohol consumption).
The severity of the disease in different patients, or even in one patient during periods of exacerbation and remission, can vary widely - from local small lesions to complete coverage of the body with psoriatic plaques. Often, over time, there is a progression of the disease (especially in the absence of treatment), an increase in the area of the lesion with the involvement of new skin areas, exacerbations become more frequent and heavier. Some patients may have a continuous course of the disease without unexpected remissions.
The nails on the hands or feet are also often affected. Damage to the nails can occur in the absence of skin lesions and be isolated.
Stages of psoriasis
There are such stages of psoriatic skin lesions:
- Progressive stage of psoriasis;
- Stationary stage of psoriasis;
- Regressive stage of psoriasis;
Progressive stage of psoriasis
Stationary stage of psoriasis
Regressive stage of psoriasis
The staging of psoriasis is based on the activity of the inflammatory process. The pattern of clinical manifestations is that the more pronounced the redness of the skin, the more active it is.
The classic symptoms of psoriasis include raised areas of the skin that are red and covered with a silvery scaly crust. They usually form on the elbows and knees. Several types of psoriasis are known. Their symptoms can come in different combinations and vary in intensity. The most common symptoms of psoriasis are:
- Bright red psoriatic plaques, often covered with scaly, silvery crusts. They can occur everywhere, but, as a rule, their localization sites are elbows, feet, lower back, knees, hands. Approximately 90% of people with psoriasis have this symptom.
- Small bleeding areas where scaly skin peels off or breaks off completely.
- Violation of the condition of the nails is a very common symptom, especially in the case of severe forms of the disease. Small dimples appear on the nails, the end of the nail separates from the nail bed, and the toenails or in some cases on the hands become yellowish discolored.
- Itching, especially with spontaneous outbreaks or with localized plaques, for example, under the buttocks, or breasts.
Also, symptoms of psoriasis can be:
- Similar plaques, located in the same places on both sides of the body.
- Outbreaks in which a large number of plaque-like plaques appear.
- Joint pain, tenderness, swelling.
The course of this disease can be divided into several stages. The first stage begins with an exacerbation, when there is a constant increase in the number of fresh rashes. The second stage is a stationary stage, in which the picture of rashes remains, they do not become less or more.
Regression is the third stage, characterized by the absence of rashes. A person affected by psoriasis feels suffering not only from external manifestations - red papules and crumbling scales. Patients are forced to experience discomfort from itching that appears periodically.
The general condition of the body in psoriasis remains unchanged, the disease does not affect the usual way of life, does not require being in any specific conditions. But nevertheless, this is a serious, aesthetically unattractive skin disease, and if you do not control the process of its development, this will entail a lot of inconveniences and restrictions, such as, for example, the inability to wear clothes with short sleeves or sunbathe on the beach.
There is also a danger of increased itching, when scratching, difficult-to-heal wounds are formed. Left unattended, psoriasis can threaten to spread to the joints, leading to psoriatic-type arthritis, in which the joint parts of the bones hurt or swell.
Causes of psoriasis
Psoriasis cannot be contracted through a handshake or through household items and personal hygiene items. The disease appears between the ages of 18 and 25. It manifests itself in large spots on the skin, located anywhere on the human body.
A fairly common cause of exacerbation, development or occurrence of the disease is stress. Psoriasis can be triggered by emotional distress of varying degrees. To date, the reliable causes of psoriasis are not known.
Possible reasons for the appearance of psoriasis include disorders of the endocrine system, changes in immunity, severe shocks and hereditary predisposition, although this area has not been fully explored.
The only thing that can be identified for sure is the mechanism of the onset of psoriatic rash. It is based on an immune imbalance. It is a failure in the normal functioning of the immune system, in which the cells and antibodies of the body begin to show aggression against their own tissues. And since the skin belongs to one of the mirror images of the general state of health, then most often it is she who is affected by any autoimmune reactions.
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The following factors can lead to the occurrence of such a strong immune imbalance in the body:
- Genetic predisposition. The risk of developing psoriasis is much higher in the immediate family, especially the first line;
- Severe stress or constant neuropsychiatric stress;
- Endocrine system diseases;
- Metabolic disorders, vitamins and minerals. Especially in this regard, it is worth dwelling on the deficiency of silicon in the body;
- Intestinal parasites;
- Viral infections.
There is no need to dwell separately on all the above reasons, since there is more than enough information of this kind in various sources. It is worth pointing out those new elements that have been established by scientists in relation to the etiology of psoriasis.
Numerous studies have revealed a direct link between infection with parasites that live and reproduce in the intestines, and the incidence of psoriasis. It turned out that the number of carriers of parasitic infections is much higher among patients with psoriasis than on average in healthy people.
A special role among these pathogens belongs to roundworms, lamblia, whipworms, bovine and pork tapeworms. Their role in the development of the problem is explained by the fact that with a long existence in the intestine, there is a constant release of toxic products of their vital activity into the blood. They have high allergenic properties that lead to immune imbalances. The result is psoriasis.
Silicon deficiency in the body
Another important point among the causes of this disease can be considered a silicon deficiency in the body. This pattern was established on the basis of spectral analysis of the blood of patients with psoriasis.
It turned out that this trace element plays a very important role in the body, in particular in the structure of the skin, blood vessels and connective tissue. Poor soil and impaired absorption from the intestines can lead to its lack. Again, the main role in this belongs to intestinal parasites, the growth of which takes up almost all the silicon that comes from the external environment.
Read more: Silicon water - a remedy for 100 diseases
Hemoscanning as a diagnostic method
A new direction in the diagnosis of psoriasis, which is widely advertised almost everywhere, is blood hemoscanning. Various sources provide the most contradictory data. The primary task of this article is to critically analyze all possible options and draw constructive conclusions from the abundance of information. About everything and in order.
The essence of the hemoscanning method is the visual assessment of blood. This procedure requires a special electron microscope with a high degree of magnification, and just one fresh drop of blood from the person being examined. In this case, the assessment is made instantly, since the blood is placed under a microscope, and the resulting image is displayed on the monitor screen. Thus, it is possible to consider the structure and relationship of corpuscles and plasma, to identify signs of changes characteristic of psoriasis. The patient can be present during this study, listening to the comments of the diagnostician. The method belongs to the diagnostic techniques of alternative medicine.
Based on the data described above, we can conclude that the method is simply the most ideal for the diagnosis of almost all diseases. Indeed, without unnecessary numerous studies, in a short time you can get detailed information about your health. This is the moment that is alarming in relation to its reliability. This is used by many fraudsters who, thanks to him, promote their drugs and dietary supplements. But at the same time, one should not forget that the method actually has a fairly good scientific basis and really helps to roughly determine the presumptive qualitative changes in the blood that are characteristic of many diseases. Psoriasis is on their list.
Hemoscanning is a fairly good method for monitoring treatment and controlling the activity of the inflammatory process in psoriasis. It is unacceptable to use it as the only method. It must be complemented by various diagnostic methods of traditional medicine.
Classical diagnosis of psoriasis
Psoriasis is diagnosed by a dermatologist or therapist based on external signs. The disease is easily recognizable by the characteristic location of the lesions on the body. Usually, a clinical examination is enough, the diagnosis is always unmistakable, since a patient with psoriasis has skin changes typical only for psoriasis. If the picture of the disease is unclear, especially at an early age, then additional research may be required, namely a skin biopsy.
In this case, a small piece of skin is taken and a pathologist examines a tissue sample and gives a conclusion. A blood test for psoriasis is not taken, because the blood retains its physical properties. An exception is severe psoriasis, which spreads over the entire surface of the body, contributing to dehydration of the body and a violation of the water-salt balance of the blood.
If the patient has pain or swelling of the joints, he is prescribed an examination for psoriatic arthritis. Any specialist in diseases of the skeletal system, after an X-ray and a blood test, will prescribe the correct treatment, it is desirable that this be a timely measure
Is psoriasis transmitted?
The question of the possibility of transmitting psoriasis from sick people to healthy people does not lose its relevance. This is due to the fact that patients with common forms of psoriasis look very noticeable against the background of the total mass. Not everyone understands that this disease is strictly individual and should not cause concern for others. This raises a lot of questions of different types:
- Is psoriasis contagious by contact? Numerous studies have found that psoriasis is not transmitted by direct contact under any circumstances.
- Is psoriasis sexually transmitted? Sexual relations with patients with psoriasis are absolutely safe, since this disease is a purely individual feature of the ailing organism.
- Is psoriasis transmitted to children during pregnancy? Pregnancy and childbirth are not directly related to the transmission of the disease from mother to child.
- Is psoriasis inherited? Genetic predisposition is one of the causes of psoriasis. The risk is higher, the closer relatives are sick with psoriasis.
How is psoriasis treated?
Treatment of the disease should be carried out by a qualified physician and take place individually for each patient. Treatment depends on the patient's age, general health, profession (influence of professional factors), gender and personal characteristics of the patient. The nature of the course of the disease, its stage are established, provoking factors are eliminated (alcohol consumption, drug intolerance, allergic diseases).
Attention is drawn to the general condition of the patient (psychological and physical). Normalization of the environment, rest, short hospitalization or changes in work schedule can make changes in the course of the illness. If signs of psoriasis are found, it is recommended to seek urgent medical attention. It is the doctor who prescribes various drugs and other therapeutic methods of influence.
One of the newest and most effective methods of treating psoriasis is genetically engineered biological drugs (GIBP), the second common name is biology.
The principle of action of these drugs is to act on various molecules that cause inflammation and contribute to the formation of plaques, damage to nails and joints. The first GIBPs acted on the tumor necrosis factor, reduced the manifestations of psoriasis, but at the same time weakened the anti-infectious (especially anti-tuberculosis) and antitumor immunity of the organism. Modern drugs block IL-17, which is responsible for the appearance of psoriatic plaques. The effect on interleukin IL-17a is targeted and does not significantly affect the normal functioning of the body's immune system. Such drugs are well tolerated by patients.
How to use genetically engineered biological drugs? GIBPs were developed quite recently, not even two decades have passed since their appearance. Unfortunately, psoriasis cannot be completely cured, however, with the help of long-term constant use of the GIBP, it can be brought into long-term remission. This is exactly the option when a person with psoriasis can lead a normal life without the presence of manifestations of the disease.
Treatment begins with several frequent injections (induction of therapy), then only maintenance injections are required once at a certain period of time.
Often an obstacle to the treatment of GIBP psoriasis is their high price. But already now there are drugs that are affordable for self-purchase.
Medical therapy can be represented in the form of a table like this:
(indicated in severe cases or lack of effect from local treatment)
(indicated in all cases of psoriasis alone or in combination with other methods)
(Assigned differentiated and individually)
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Essential minerals and vitamins for psoriasis
Silicon for psoriasis. In recent years, the issue of silicon deficiency has been increasingly discussed as one of the causative mechanisms for triggering psoriasis. Therefore, it is advisable to include drugs based on it in the treatment complex at any stage of the development of the disease. The mechanism of their action is concluded in two directions. On the one hand, after absorption in the intestine, silicon is transported to the affected skin, improving its structure, on the other hand, it acts as a sorbent, absorbing all antigenic complexes from the systemic circulation and removing them with feces.
Vitamin D for psoriasis. Calcium is an extremely important micronutrient for the successful fight against psoriasis. But it is practically not absorbed without vitamin D. Therefore, preparations based on it are necessarily included in the treatment process. It is best to take them after transferring the active phase of the disease to stationary or remission. The role of calcium and vitamin D is that they stabilize cell membranes, reducing the release of inflammatory mediators into the blood. Before taking specific funds, it is better to familiarize yourself with their composition, since most of them contain both of these components.
Fish oil for psoriasis. Any inflammation is accompanied by pronounced acidification of the environment and cell death. Antioxidants are needed to restore them better and bring the immune system into balance. The omega-3 acids found in fish oil are among the most powerful. Therefore, it is highly desirable to include them in the complex of therapeutic measures for psoriasis.
Lecithin for psoriasis. The result of psoriatic inflammation is massive epithelial cell death. To quickly restore them, phospholipids are needed, which act as the basic building material of all body tissues. One of the most potent sources of these compounds is lecithin. By including drugs based on this substance, you can achieve a faster relief of inflammatory manifestations and restoration of the skin (see also: lecithin is a unique product).
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Prevention of psoriasis
First, you need to know if you have psoriasis - self-medication is more than dangerous, you can only aggravate the disease. Secondly, one should constantly monitor the condition of the skin, try to avoid combing itchy areas, refrain from drinking alcohol.
The patient's diet should be balanced, it is necessary to exclude refined foods, spicy foods, sweets. It is imperative to guard against colds, because weakened immunity negatively affects the course of the disease. Alas, there is no universal remedy for the treatment of psoriasis, the offered ointments, creams, pills need to be purchased only by prescription of the attending physician, but, as a rule, their choice is limited.
It is possible, as a quick help, rather to relieve itching and redness, use ointments containing corticosteroids, they act superficially. But ointments, which include tar and salicylic acid, have anti-inflammatory, exfoliating and absorbing properties. Means based on vitamin D are characterized by excellent qualities; their actions are aimed at slowing down the process of cell division, and even stopping it.
Psoriasis treatment is carried out individually with each patient. The doctor is faced with the difficult task of choosing an effective, suitable treatment for a particular person. It is recommended for the psoriasis patient to be seen by the same specialist so that he can choose between different existing therapy options. It is important to understand and remember that it is impossible to cure psoriasis, but you can control the course of the disease.
The author of the article: Kuzmina Vera Valerievna | Endocrinologist, nutritionist
Education: Diploma of the Russian State Medical University named after NI Pirogov with a degree in General Medicine (2004). Residency at Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry, diploma in Endocrinology (2006).