Dislocation Of The Ankle Joint (ankle)

Table of contents:

Video: Dislocation Of The Ankle Joint (ankle)

Video: Dislocation Of The Ankle Joint (ankle)
Video: Ankle Fracture Dislocation Reduction 2023, March
Dislocation Of The Ankle Joint (ankle)
Dislocation Of The Ankle Joint (ankle)

Dislocation of the ankle joint (ankle)

Dislocation of the ankle
Dislocation of the ankle

Ankle dislocation is the displacement of the ankle joint due to a ruptured ligament. It happens that the joint is not fully displaced, and the ligaments are not completely torn. This condition is called subluxation in medicine. It happens that the ligaments remain intact, but the joint is displaced, this condition is called dislocation without muscle rupture.

Ankle dislocation is a fairly common situation. People of retirement age are at risk, due to the fragility of bones. Also, athletes often suffer from dislocations due to the nature of their professional activity and women who prefer wearing high-heeled shoes. But no one is immune from getting such an injury both at home and at work.


  • Types of ankle dislocations
  • Causes of ankle dislocation
  • Ankle dislocation symptoms
  • Ankle Dislocation Treatment
  • Recovery and lifestyle after ankle dislocation
  • Consequences of the postponed dislocation of the ankle joint

Types of ankle dislocations

In medical practice, it is customary to distinguish the following types of ankle dislocations:

  • Incomplete or partial tearing of the ligaments. Most often, it is the anterior peroneal muscles that are injured, but sometimes the deltoid, calcaneofibular, and tibiofibular muscles also suffer.

  • The ankle muscle tear is strong. This type of dislocation is characterized by the fact that the leg does not lose its mobility, but nevertheless a swelling is formed, when feeling the damaged area, a person complains of painful sensations. Most often, blood accumulates in places of damage.
  • Complete rupture of ligaments with dislocation of the joint. This condition is accompanied by severe swelling and painful sensations. A person is unable to step on his foot. Internal bruising is clearly visible in the ankle area.

In any of these conditions, the victim should be shown to the doctor as soon as possible.

Also, due to the occurrence, dislocations can be divided into two groups:

  • Acquired, which are post-traumatic (those that were formed due to an injury), pathological (those that are the result of joint pathology), paralytic (those that appear as a result of severe muscle paralysis), habitual (those that occur regularly).
  • Congenital.

Causes of ankle dislocation

Among the direct causes leading to a dislocated ankle are the following:

  • Careless turn.
  • The fall.
  • Sloppy landing on the foot.
  • Hit.

But besides this, there are a number of factors that contribute to the formation of such an injury:

  • High arch of the foot.
  • Weak ligaments that loosen with age due to lack of regular training.
  • Underdevelopment of the peroneal muscles.
  • Even a slight sprain.
  • Neuromuscular disorders.
  • Walking disorders. If the foot is positioned incorrectly, the muscles weaken over time, which can lead to dislocation of the joint.

Also, some diseases can cause weakening of the ligaments, a decrease in bone density, as well as an increase in the load on the leg:

  • Obesity, and as a result, diabetes mellitus.
  • Oncological diseases.
  • Tuberculosis.
  • Osteomelitis and arthrosis.
  • Inflammation of ligaments and tendons.
  • Muscle paresis.
  • Congenital pathologies leading to the fact that during intrauterine development in the fetus, the correct formation of the ankle is disturbed. But it should be noted that such dislocations are extremely rare.

Ankle dislocation symptoms

Ankle dislocation symptoms
Ankle dislocation symptoms

The symptoms of dislocation are very similar to those of an ordinary injury. That is why it is necessary to consult a doctor for a more accurate diagnosis.

But with a dislocation, all the symptoms are more pronounced:

  • Sharp, persistent pain. It increases with palpation of the damaged area. In this case, the pain may not appear immediately, or it may not be too intense. But after a while it will grow.
  • Inability to stand up due to severe pain.
  • Significant swelling and swelling in the leg and foot.
  • When injured, a characteristic crackle or click was heard.
  • The formation of a bright hematoma, located not only on the lower leg, but also on the foot.

Diagnosis of ankle dislocation

When referring to a traumatologist of a patient complaining of characteristic pain in the ankle, the doctor will first of all make a visual examination and palpate the damaged area.

To clarify the diagnosis, the doctor will most likely prescribe an X-ray scan, or an ultrasound scan. The picture is taken in two projections. Sometimes, when there is a risk that the sprains have chipped, arthrography of the ankle may be prescribed.

Ankle Dislocation Treatment

Naturally, when a dislocation occurs, the doctor is often not around. Therefore, it is worth knowing how to provide first aid yourself. To begin with, it is necessary to remove shoes and socks from the sore leg in order not to squeeze the resulting edema. After that, you should put the injured limb on a pillow or roller and use any bandage or bandage to fix it in one position.

Even an ordinary scarf may be suitable for this purpose. If a bandage is applied, it is better to first wrap the affected joint with a layer of cotton wool. Do not overtighten the bandage. It should fit snugly to the leg, but not block the blood flow in it. At intervals of a couple of hours, ice can be applied to the joint to relieve symptoms and relieve swelling.

A complete list of measures for the treatment of ankle dislocation is to apply an immobilizing bandage, which allows the limbs to rest in one position. In the first three days, you can apply cold, after which warming compresses are used. For this purpose, you can always use special ointments for bruises and sprains. Besides the healing effect, they relieve pain and swelling to some extent. They can include any analgesics, metnol (for cooling) and alcohol (for warming up).

Sometimes it may be necessary to reposition the dislocated joint. It should be understood that this is a complex and responsible event that can only be carried out in a medical institution. Doctors use local or epidural anesthesia to put the joint back in place. When the bone is repositioned, another X-ray is needed for control. Sometimes a small incision must be made to perform the adjustment manipulation. If the dislocation is repeated several times, then this can lead to the fact that the patient will need a complete replacement of the joint.

If the reduction of the bone was successful, but for this an incision was made, then the patient is discharged from the clinic on day 5, when the swelling subsides. But at the same time, a plaster cast will be applied to the leg, which will have to be worn for at least a month.

After the pain has passed, you can start visiting the pool. It is very helpful in strengthening the muscles of the ankle.

Ankle Dislocation Treatment
Ankle Dislocation Treatment

But even if the dislocation seems quite minor, you should still show the damaged area to the doctor. It is on time that the prescribed therapy and examination by a professional will give a positive result in aggregate. If the painful sensations are poorly tolerated by the victim, then ibuprofen or ketoral can be used to eliminate them. It is advisable to take it twice a day, in a dosage appropriate for body weight and age.

Analgin, pentalgin, aspirin can also help. It should be understood that a serious sprain is several times worse than a fracture in its consequences. That is why every experienced doctor, before prescribing this or that treatment, always determines the degree of their damage. If in light sprains it is enough to apply a regular bandage, then in heavy sprains, the leg is immobilized. The length of the bandage can even be up to a month. If the leg is left untreated, the ankle joint can become chronically unstable.

As an aid for the treatment of dislocation, the following procedures can be distinguished:

  • Appointment of electropharesis.
  • The imposition of paraffin applications.
  • Diadynamic therapy.
  • Cryotherapy.
  • Reception of foot baths with radon.

Folk remedies are effective, which help recover a sore leg faster.

For treatment, you can use the following tools:

  • Reception of foot baths, decoctions of various herbs are used as filling for them. Infusions of celandine and calendula have proven themselves quite well.
  • You can make an effective compress at home and taken in equal proportions of laundry soap, ammonia, oil and camphor dry. It is necessary to apply on a sore spot and hold for at least 15 minutes.

  • You can make lotions with apple cider vinegar diluted in half with water.
  • It is also recommended to apply grated fresh potatoes and make healing clay wraps.

Recovery and lifestyle after ankle dislocation


To restore and strengthen the ligaments, doctors without fail recommend physical therapy.

The complex includes:

  • Whenever possible, the patient should perform an active movement of the toes.
  • Rolling from toes to heels and back.
  • Walking with the heels pointed inward and outward.
  • Rolling a cylinder or any object that replaces it.
  • Exercise on a stationary bike.
  • Swimming.
  • After the muscles of the ankle are strengthened, you can move on to more active exercises - to running and jumping.

In any case, before giving the injured leg a heavy load, you should first consult with your doctor about whether this will harm the joint. UHF is most often prescribed as physiotherapy procedures. Electric field treatment is performed in 10 sessions, lasting a quarter of an hour.

Depending on the degree of joint injury, a full load of the leg can be given in mild cases after a month, and in severe cases - after three months. Naturally, it is quite problematic for a person to stay for such a long time, therefore it is possible to use crutches. In this case, it is advisable to wear special shoes or instep supports for up to a year.

Preventive measures that must be followed in order to protect yourself as much as possible from dislocation of the ankle joint are as follows:

  • Wearing shoes as stable as possible, with low heels.
  • Compliance with safety precautions when playing sports and at the workplace and caution when moving on slippery surfaces.
  • Use of bandages, elastic bands and other devices during sports activities.
  • Sports activities to strengthen the muscles of the lower extremities.
  • If there is a suspicion of dislocation of the joint, immediately seek medical help.
  • Timely treatment of diseases that lead to the risk of ankle dislocation.

With regard to the prognosis, if you quickly seek professional help, it is favorable. If all the appointments made by the attending doctor are followed with accuracy, then the recovery will take place in the shortest possible time. When stretched slightly, the sick leave is usually closed within a week. If the ligament is severely damaged or torn, and the joint had to be inserted using surgical methods of treatment, then the doctor leaves the patient on sick leave until the end of the rehabilitation period.

Consequences of the postponed dislocation of the ankle joint

It often happens that an ankle injury is accompanied by a complete separation of the ligament and ankle fractures. In such cases, timely seeking medical help from a crane is important, because a delay or self-treatment can lead to the fact that the tendons and ligaments do not heal correctly, the foot is deformed, which guarantees its instability.

Against this background, the following problems may arise:

  • Regularly recurring dislocations of the ankle.
  • The progression or onset of the development of diseases such as arthrosis or arthritis.
  • Formation of scar tissue of dense consistency.
  • Formation and growth of bone osteophytes.
  • Difficulty in mobility of the damaged joint after it heals.
  • Inflammation of the soft tissue surrounding the ankle.
  • Hemarthrosis, which is chronic.
  • Complete or partial muscle atrophy, poor circulation in the limb.

It should be understood that neglected cases can only be rehabilitated by surgery, otherwise a person may remain disabled forever.


Author of the article: Kaplan Alexander Sergeevich | Orthopedist

Education: diploma in the specialty "General Medicine" received in 2009 at the Medical Academy. I. M. Sechenov. In 2012 completed postgraduate studies in Traumatology and Orthopedics at the City Clinical Hospital named after Botkin at the Department of Traumatology, Orthopedics and Disaster Surgery.

Popular by topic

Interesting Articles
Salmonellosis - Causes And Symptoms Of Salmonellosis
Read More

Salmonellosis - Causes And Symptoms Of Salmonellosis

SalmonellosisSalmonellosis causes and symptomsWhat is Salmonellosis?Salmonellosis is a polyetiological infectious disease caused by various bacteria of the Salmonella group (Enterobacteriaceae family of the Salmonella genus). The disease can be asymptomatic or in severe septic forms

Tularemia In Humans - The Causative Agent Of Tularemia, Symptoms, Treatment And Prevention
Read More

Tularemia In Humans - The Causative Agent Of Tularemia, Symptoms, Treatment And Prevention

Tularemia in humansWhat is tularemia?Tularemia is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium francisella tularensis. It enters the human body when bitten by sick animals or after eating contaminated meat. There are also known routes of transmission through untreated water and when processing the skins of slaughtered livestock

Ureaplasmosis - Causes And Symptoms Of Ureaplasmosis - Ureaplasma And Pregnancy
Read More

Ureaplasmosis - Causes And Symptoms Of Ureaplasmosis - Ureaplasma And Pregnancy

UreaplasmosisCauses and symptoms of ureaplasmosisWhat is ureaplasmosis?Ureaplasmosis is a disease caused by special microorganisms Ureaplasma urealyticum. These microorganisms are Gram-negative microbes that do not have a cell wall.Causes of ureaplasmosisThis infection enters the human body in two ways:- During sexual contact with a sick person or a carrier of the infection- At birth, if the mother is sick, microbes enter the child's genital tract at birth and rema