2023 Author: Josephine Shorter | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 07:22
Callus on the toe - causes and treatments
Calluses on the toes are not uncommon, they appear very often, since the lower limbs are subjected to constant stress. This happens when the foot is deformed when wearing uncomfortable shoes, during sports, that is, with any mechanical effect on the skin of the toes.
Corn is a protective function of the skin during prolonged and intense friction. Oddly enough, but corn in some cases is even useful. It is impossible to imagine what the fingertips of a professional guitarist or the palm of a gymnast would look like if there were no blisters. Wounds alone, of course, would not have been enough. Very often, calluses appear from wearing poor-quality and uncomfortable shoes. Unfortunately, we cannot completely refuse to wear such shoes, but for several hours a day you can just walk barefoot, this is in our power. During this time, our feet will rest, this will help to avoid calluses.
A corn is not always a harmless accumulation of epidermal cells. Sometimes such skin growths can significantly worsen a person's quality of life, they cause pain, can disrupt gait, become inflamed and fester. To prevent unwanted complications of corn, you need to take appropriate measures immediately after detecting the first signs of its appearance.
In order to prevent calluses, it is very important to choose your shoes carefully. Even if it seems to you that this pair of shoes suits you very much, you need to consider how comfortable it is: are the shoes soft, do they fit in the size and shape of the foot? What is the sock of the shoe, is it comfortable? Taking into account all the nuances, this will help you avoid various inconveniences with your fingertips or with already earned calluses. It is very important not to forget that the leg must "breathe".
- Causes of the appearance of calluses on the legs
- Dry calluses on the toes
- Water calluses on the feet
- Core calluses on the feet
- First aid for calluses
- Complications of calluses
- Callus treatment
- How to quickly cure calluses on the leg?
- Prevention of corns
- What kind of shoes should you wear?
Causes of the appearance of calluses on the legs
Calluses on the feet are the result of improperly selected shoes. Calluses that form on the soles, in the area of the toes or in the interdigital folds of the feet cause a lot of discomfort due to pain. Microbes penetrate the cracks that form, which can lead to erysipelas or other diseases.
Some types of corns are characterized by deeply growing "roots". Getting rid of calluses is not so easy, it takes a lot of effort and time. Therefore, the formation of corns is best avoided.
Callus is a highly proliferative response called keratinocytes. The skin in the damaged area becomes rigid, loses elasticity and normal sensitivity to external influences.
Wet corn is a protective reaction of the body, which leads to stratification of the epidermis and the accumulation of inflammatory exudate in the resulting space. The main pathological factor that will lead to the formation of both dry and wet calluses is constantly repeated pressure or friction on a certain area of the finger.
There are many indirect reasons that can provoke the appearance of calluses on the legs, among them:
- Mechanical or external reasons:
- Wearing tight shoes that rub your toes.
- Wearing shoes with heels when the main load is on the forefoot.
- Wearing shoes on your bare feet.
- Wearing socks and stockings made of tough synthetic materials.
- Engaging in sports that lead to increased foot friction and increased stress on it. These include ballet, gymnastics, running.
- Connective tissue diseases: atrophy of adipose tissue, consequences of bruises, cicatricial atrophy.
Diabetes. With this disease, serious disorders occur in the body, which negatively affect the condition of the skin of the legs. As a result, calluses appear in places of excess pressure, although such an effect would not cause any pathological changes in a healthy person. Corns in people with diabetes take a long time to heal, they can become infected and fester.
- Age-related changes in the skin. The older the person, the less moisture remains in the skin, it becomes thinner and drier. The loss of its former elasticity leads to the fact that a person more often has corns.
- Skin diseases: psoriasis, eczema, fungal infections of the feet, the presence of plantar warts, dermatoses, etc.
- Systemic diseases: rheumatoid arthritis or psoriatic arthritis.
- Disorders of the skeletal system: Morton's foot, flat feet, dislocation of the joints of the toes, post-traumatic deformities of the bones. Posture disorders are important.
- Neurological pathology. With the pathology of peripheral nerves, the sensitivity of the skin decreases, so a person may simply not notice that there is excessive friction on a certain finger. As a result, he will often have calluses. In addition, the weak innervation of the feet leads to hyperkeratosis. Such skin lacks elasticity, which is an additional risk factor for corns.
- Deficiency of vitamins in the body.
- Increased sweating of the legs.
- Overweight, in which there is excessive pressure on the foot as a whole. In addition, it is more difficult for obese people to choose shoes for themselves.
- Postponed surgical intervention.
Calluses on toes are common among both healthy young people who play sports and older people with chronic illnesses.
Dry calluses on the toes
Dry calluses of the feet are limited foci of thickening of the stratum corneum of the epidermis. Such calluses have clear boundaries and approximately the same thickness over the entire surface. Most often, these calluses are yellow. They can be found on any toes, but are predominantly found on the little toes. Depending on the location of the dry callus and the friction applied to it, it can be painful.
Dry calluses are divided into hard and core. A hard callus is a closed growth that most often does not cause painful sensations. Slight discomfort may appear when pressing on the affected area of the skin. A favorite place for localization of such a callus is the lateral surfaces of the fingers. Core calluses will be discussed below.
Dry callus symptoms:
- The color of the corn is yellow, or yellowish white, or gray.
- The surface of the corn can be either smooth or rough.
- The corn has a round or oval shape.
- While pressing on the callus or walking, the person may experience pain. This is especially true for corns with a core.
- The surface of dry calluses is not sensitive enough compared to the rest of the skin
- Sometimes cracks are visible in the thickness of the callus, and sometimes the skin pattern is subtle.
Some calluses may itch when exposed to external influences.
Water calluses on the feet
Watery or soft calluses are most commonly found on the skin between the toes, although they can form anywhere. In the area of their concentration, conditions of high humidity are always created, the skin macerates, becomes soft.
Callus is a bladder that contains a clear intercellular fluid.
- At an early stage of the development of watery blisters, an area of swelling and redness appears on the skin. It hurts a little.
- If the source of friction is not eliminated, a bubble will appear on the skin, which will be filled with liquid. This bubble will be the callus.
- It hurts a lot, even a slight touch on its surface is painful. The skin in this area is very tense.
- If the corn is injured, it will burst. The liquid contained in the bubble will begin to leak out.
- If the walls of the bladder are completely torn off, then a weeping wound will remain on the skin. It will hurt.
The rupture of the watery callus opens access for the pathogenic flora, therefore, the likelihood of infection and suppuration increases significantly. If bacteria enter the wound, the skin around the callus turns red. The pain will be pulsating, it occurs even when no external pressure is exerted on the callus. If liquid remains in the bladder, it becomes cloudy. Yellow crusts may appear around the corns. A rise in body temperature is possible.
Improper treatment of watery corns can cause it to become dry and even sticky.
Core calluses on the feet
Core corn is an area of skin hyperkeratosis that has clear boundaries. The size of the corns is usually small. It has a rounded shape and smooth edges. If we consider the frequency of localization of core calluses precisely on the toes, then they are found mainly on the lateral surfaces of 2-5 fingers.
It is necessary to distinguish core callus from plantar warts, since they have a number of similar signs. In addition to the focus of hyperkeratosis, the taproot has a hard translucent root. It is located in the center of the corn. Its basis is dense horny masses.
If you press on the callus, a person will feel a sharp pain, as this will compress the nerve endings that penetrate the dermis. They are located between the rod and the bony process of the fingers or foot. By the way, if you press on the plantar wart, it will also respond with pain. However, the wart hurts when you press on it both from the side and center. Core corn hurts only when vertical pressing is performed. Warts do not change the skin pattern, they have brown blotches, which are represented by coagulated blood protruding from small blood vessels.
Thus, the main symptoms of corn kernels include:
- Yellow skin color.
- Sharp pain with vertical pressure.
- The presence of a root in the center of the corn.
Core corn is a type of dry corn.
First aid for calluses
Emergency measures need to be taken only when a person develops calluses. If you ignore their symptoms, then the likelihood of bladder bursting and infection increases.
First aid for the appearance of water callus comes down to the following measures:
- It is necessary to eliminate the factor of pressure or friction that led to the formation of the callus. If you don't, the bubble will get bigger and eventually burst.
- The corn must be disinfected.
- If necessary, the corn is pierced.
- Cover the affected area with a clean cloth.
Such measures reduce the likelihood of bladder burst and the introduction of pathogenic flora into the wound.
Video: life is great! "Corn":
Complications of calluses
If you start a callus and do not start treatment on time, this can lead to serious complications. For example, core calluses can cause pain when walking. Because of this, a person begins to incorrectly redistribute the load on the foot, which leads to lameness, gait disturbance, and in severe cases, to bone deformation.
Water calluses pose a threat of infection. If the bladder bursts, bacteria can enter the open wound, the most dangerous of which are staphylococci and streptococci. Ignoring the purulent process, edema and inflammation will lead to the spread of the infection through the bloodstream, first to nearby tissues, and then throughout the body as a whole. A person's body temperature rises, which requires emergency medical care. Fortunately, such situations are rare.
You need to be especially wary of calluses for people with diabetes. The disease affects the state of blood vessels in the body. The legs are the first to suffer. Deterioration in foot nutrition and the appearance of purulent calluses on the toes can even lead to amputation.
Dry calluses without a shank become covered with cracks, which can cause discomfort while walking. In addition, the violation of the integrity of the skin often contributes to the attachment of fungal flora.
How to avoid complications?
The following recommendations will help prevent the development of complications:
- If the decision was made to pierce the blister, then this must be done with a sterile needle.
- As far as possible, the integrity of the skin covering the moist corn should be maintained.
- The corn must be protected from friction and dirt. The burst corn should be covered with a sterile dressing.
- The dressing should be changed regularly.
- It is important to carry out the hygiene of the feet in a timely manner, to keep them clean.
Moisture and sweat are ideal conditions for the growth of bacterial flora, so you need to monitor the dryness of the lower limbs. Lubricating corns with antiseptic and antibacterial agents will prevent the development of infection.
Therapies that can be used to speed up the healing of calluses will vary depending on which type of callus a person is diagnosed with.
Treatment for wet calluses
Most often, it is possible to cope with wet calluses on its own. Small calluses on the toes do not provoke severe pain, they open up on their own. To quickly cure a small wet corn, you just need to cover it with a plaster, which will prevent injury to the bladder.
When a wet corn is large, it can be very painful. In addition, the likelihood of rupture increases. A spontaneous breakthrough of corns is fraught with long healing, so experts recommend opening it yourself. To do this, make a small, neat puncture. The best time to puncture is the first 24 hours after the blister appears.
To prevent the penetration of infection into the wound, you need to qualitatively disinfect the puncture site. For this purpose, either iodine or brilliant green is most often used. The needle to be punctured must be sterile. It is either treated with alcohol or ignited over a fire.
A puncture is made on the side of the callus, the needle is inserted parallel to the skin. Do not pierce the callus by inserting the needle perpendicularly, as this will damage the bottom of the callus. In order for serous exudate to constantly drain from the callus, it is best to make several punctures. However, the walls of the bladder must remain in place. This skin protects the wound and the young dermis that has already begun to form inside the callus. If you rip it off, the risk of injury or the likelihood of infection increases significantly.
When the puncture is done, you need to press the surface of the corn with a bandage, pressing on the skin. This will help remove excess fluid from the corn. You need to be prepared for the fact that after a while it will fill up again, so the puncture is repeated. To prevent infection, an antibacterial ointment is applied to the corn. It is applied first to gauze, which is applied to the damaged area in the form of a compress. Fix it with an adhesive plaster. You need to change it regularly - at least 1 time a day. To dry the corn, the bandage is removed at night.
If it so happens that the callus has opened on its own, and the skin of the bladder has completely come off, then all visible contamination must be removed from the wound. Then an antibiotic ointment is applied to its surface and covered with gauze.
When time was lost, and an infection got into the wound, the corn is opened, and its walls are removed without fail. If this is not done, then microbes will begin to multiply inside the bubble, since ideal conditions have been created for them. Callus infection requires a visit to the surgeon. Timely medical assistance will help avoid serious complications.
Dry callus treatment
Some people believe that if dry corn is not painful, then it should not be treated. In fact, this is not the case. In addition to aesthetic discomfort, such calluses increase the likelihood of mycosis of the feet.
There are many treatments for dry calluses. If there is no core in the hard callus, then you can get rid of small neoplasms by periodically removing the upper stratum corneum with a pumice stone or a stiff brush. You need to perform the procedure after steaming the legs.
To soften dry corn and easier discharge of its dead cells, you need to use keratolytic ointments. Most often, a salicylic acid solution with a concentration of 10 to 20% is used. The remedy is regularly applied to the corn for several days, after which it is easily peeled off. Use drugs carefully so as not to cause burns and damage to healthy skin.
The following agents can be used to soften the dermis:
- Salicylic acid.
- Lactic acid.
- Carbolic acid.
General requirements for external agents that are used to remove dry calluses: it must have a keratolytic effect, the drug must moisturize the skin of the feet if it is prone to increased dryness. Therefore, when choosing a cream for foot care, you need to pay attention to the fact that it contains urea. This substance has been successfully used in dermatological practice for many years.
To get rid of the cause leading to the formation of calluses, you need to carefully examine your shoes to make sure there are no folds or thickenings that rub your toes. Otherwise, the callus will reappear. If it is impossible to correct the situation, then you need to think about buying a new pair.
If a person has anatomical problems, for example, flat feet are diagnosed, then you should go to an appointment with an orthopedist and undergo appropriate treatment. Be sure to wear corrective shoes and perform therapeutic exercises. In severe cases, surgery is required.
Overweight patients should consider losing weight. To do this, you need to adhere to the principles of proper nutrition and increase physical activity. Otherwise, corns will be a constant companion of a person.
Patients with diabetes mellitus need to monitor the level of glucose in the blood, not to allow it to be exceeded. To do this, you should strictly adhere to the diet. If necessary, the patient with diabetes is prescribed sugar-burning drugs, or insulin injections.
Core corn requires a professional approach. To remove it, you need to contact a medical pedicure master, a dermatologist, or a podiatrist. In the office of a cosmetologist, corns are drilled out using hardware manicure. This method will be discussed later.
A dermatologist can suggest the following methods for removing corn stubs:
- Removal of corn with a laser. This procedure is used to treat advanced cases when the skin growth is large and deep root. The coarse layers of the skin and the rod itself are burned out with a laser. The undoubted advantage of the procedure is its absolute bloodlessness. The likelihood of infection is absent, since the corn is treated with high temperatures, which destroy all the bacterial flora. After processing the callus, a crust will form on it, which will fall off in a few days and reveal new, young and healthy skin.
- Cryodestruction. In this case, the skin growth is treated with liquid nitrogen. The procedure is painless and therefore does not require anesthesia. After applying nitrogen to the skin, its cells are frozen and destroyed. A blister appears on the site of the former corn. When it bursts, you will need to treat it with antiseptic compounds. Healing occurs in 7-15 days. This method is not suitable for removing very large growths, since the rehabilitation period in this case increases significantly over time.
- The radio wave method of removing corns involves treating it with an electrode that emits radio waves. The procedure is non-contact, the corn, during its implementation, is simply evaporated. The wound heals very quickly, and no scars or scars remain at the site of exposure.
- Electrocoagulation involves the treatment of corn with high-frequency currents. Under their influence, the corn is heated and destroyed. A crust forms at the treatment site, which will fall off on its own after 7-14 days.
- Surgical removal. Another way to get rid of corns is to cut it out with a scalpel and scissors. The operation is performed on an outpatient basis. The method is painful, requires local injection anesthesia, and is also associated with the risk of bleeding and infection. It is used only if the patient has contraindications to other procedures.
Other medicines for calluses on the feet
You can cope with calluses using the following medicines:
- Balsam Mountain celandine, Celandine juice, Stopmozol with celandine. All of these products contain celandine. This substance eats away dead skin cells, making them easy to get rid of. Celandine-based products are very caustic and, if they come into contact with a healthy dermis, they can cause a burn, so they must be used carefully.
- Products with sodium hydroxide. All of them contain alkali, which corrodes the corn. You need to apply drugs pointwise using a special applicator. If it comes into contact with a healthy dermis, rinse it thoroughly with water. It can be such means as: Supercleaner, Antipapillum, etc.
- Corn plasters are used to remove corns and dry corns. As a rule, all of them are impregnated with salicylic acid and other keratolytic and disinfecting agents. There are many anti-ash plasters, including Salipod, Kompid, Urgo, Leiko, etc. They are glued to the corn and left for 1-2 days. Then the keratinized areas of the skin from under the patch are cleaned off. If the first time it was not possible to get rid of the skin growth, then the procedure is repeated.
- Pencils against calluses have a keratolytic effect, for example, Medifit pencil, lapis pencil, etc. Some of them can be used to treat not only dry, but also watery corns.
- At home, you can try to freeze the corn. The so-called refrigerants are applied to the affected skin in several stages, thereby destroying the cells of the callus. These can be drugs such as Cryopharma, Wartner, etc.
There are many remedies for removing calluses at home. Since many of them are quite aggressive, it is necessary to consult with a specialist before starting treatment and carefully study the instructions.
Cosmetic procedures by a cosmetologist
People with stubble or dry calluses may see a cosmetologist. On a paid basis, with the help of special instruments and devices for performing medical pedicure, a specialist will remove the corn. He cuts it layer-by-layer using burs and mills with various attachments. The procedure is painless for the patient, but it is important that it is performed by a podiatrist or a dermatologist with medical pedicure skills. When the doctor gets to the rod, he just cuts it out. At this point, the person may feel a small prick.
In cosmetology centers, individual insoles, correctors or prostheses can be selected if the patient has orthopedic problems. This will prevent the formation of calluses in the future.
Video: GuberniaTV "how to get rid of calluses on the feet?":
How to quickly cure calluses on the leg?
There is a method that allows you to quickly get rid of calluses on the leg. It is based on the common Acetylsalicylic acid - Aspirin. Before the procedure, the legs must be thoroughly steamed. To do this, heat the water and dissolve a few tablespoons of sea salt in it. After 15 minutes, the legs are removed from the basin and dried. Then a pre-prepared product is applied to the corn.
- Grind 6 Aspirin tablets into powder.
- Pour a teaspoon of water into the powder.
- A teaspoon of lemon juice is added to the solution.
- Mix thoroughly.
When the product is on their feet, they are wrapped with cling film and insulated with a woolen sock. After another 15 minutes, the product is washed off and the problem areas are wiped with a pumice stone. If you carry out the procedure every other day for 2 weeks, you will be able to cope with dry calluses and areas of hyperkeratosis on the legs and toes.
Video: the best way to quickly remove corns and calluses:
Prevention of corns
Calluses can be prevented by wearing comfortable, high-quality shoes, and socks should be clean and wearable. Most often, calluses are formed on wet skin, so that this does not happen, choose special or sports socks, in a hot period of time, shoes should ventilate the feet.
When walking for a long time - for example, when hiking - the boots should be of a suitable size, if you still feel that you are rubbing your foot (burning sensation), it is best to seal this place with adhesive tape to reduce friction.
Calluses on your hands can be avoided by wearing protective gloves when working with a shovel, ax, or saw. Also use protective gloves if you are doing heavy physical work (pulling ropes or moving loads). In order to reduce friction as much as possible, special agents such as talc can be used.
If your working day is mainly on your feet, then at the end of work prepare a hot bath for your feet, put your feet into it for about 10 minutes, then pour cold water on your feet, wipe dry, put on other socks and comfortable shoes. Kerosene can replace a hot bath: in the evening, you should lower your feet in kerosene for 10 minutes. This will allow you to get rid of fresh corns, besides, from such a bath there is only benefit and no harm. Most often, calluses occur on the feet, for this reason, pay special attention to the shoes you are wearing. This will avoid various inconveniences, including painful sensations.
What kind of shoes should you wear?
Oddly enough, but to avoid calluses, doctors advise to trample the shoes. If there is a hard callus, in order to relieve pressure on the sore spot, the shoes in this place need to be stretched. A specialist can stretch shoes, as can you yourself. To do this, it is necessary to lubricate it with a special means for stretching shoes. This procedure must be repeated several times. You need to wear shoes while the skin is still damp and until you feel comfortable in them.
Make your shoes comfortable. If the callus has formed in the base of the foot, the shoe can be modified. To do this, the shoemaker will add a rubber or leather strip to the sole of the shoe, and the tarsus will be in the middle. It is important to position the pad so that the pad of the foot sways on it, but without pressing on the bones in this area. After the strip loses its function, it must be replaced. This method has its drawbacks: these strips can catch on the carpet or steps, which can lead to a fall. For this reason, this method is not suitable for older people. However, you can fix such a strip along the entire sole of the shoe, then it is less effective, but safer.
Don't wear very high heels. It is best if the heel is medium. An important rule to remember: shoes must be made of genuine leather and of the required size to fit exactly on the foot!
Article author: Mochalov Pavel Alexandrovich | d. m. n. therapist
Education: Moscow Medical Institute. IM Sechenov, specialty - "General Medicine" in 1991, in 1993 "Occupational Diseases", in 1996 "Therapy".
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