Causes, symptoms and treatment of testicular cysts in men
Testicular cyst in men is one of the diseases in a large specialized branch of medicine. Paired male sex glands, testicles (testicles) and paired secretory organs, epididymis (epididymis) produce sperm, as well as some of the hormone testosterone. In the upper fragments of the glands, in part of their appendages, as well as in the direction along the spermatic cord, a favorable environment is created for the testicular cyst - a kind of cavity with a fibrous membrane, with the contents of the liquid plan. Testicular cysts are benign tumor-like formations.
This is one of the most common scrotal diseases. They are found in about a third of the patients examined. An ultrasound examination of the scrotum is sufficient to detect them. With cysts of the epididymis and spermatic cords, there is usually no pronounced clinical picture, as well as signs of an external nature. Sometimes the scrotum is noticeably deformed, there are a number of other symptoms. In most cases, the patient turns to the urologist-andrologist for pain syndromes. Cysts themselves are undeservedly not considered a reason for contacting a specialist. But such an attitude is understandable, because these formations do not have any symptoms and are detected during medical examination, thanks to the examination of the urologist.
- Signs and symptoms of testicular cysts in men
- Causes of testicular cysts in men
- Testicular cyst treatment
- Laparoscopy (surgery to remove a testicular cyst in men)
Signs and symptoms of testicular cysts in men
Signs and symptoms of testicular cysts in men differ from those of the genitals in women. It is difficult to identify the cause of the disease. Symptomatology is also difficult, it corresponds to the following points:
- Tolerable pain in the abdomen.
- Bloating, frequent feeling of fullness, pressure.
- Sexual pain.
- Unnatural hair growth, including the face and body, which is attributed to increased production of hirsutism.
- There is a sharp feeling of pain in the abdomen, signs of fever and nausea appear when the cyst formed is twisted, or when ruptures form on it.
- Rarely, painful, frequent urination, or urinary retention if the cyst presses on the bladder.
They can be identified according to the development of the disease. The initial stages are distinguished by the small size of the formation - at first it will hardly be larger than a pea. Such a size will not cause manifestations, however, after reaching a certain limit of size, compression is exerted on the vessels, or the nerves are subjected to this process, and congestion is formed with dropsy of the testicle. This contributes to the formation of pain syndrome. There are characteristic pains in the groin area, in the scrotum. The manifestations are similar to children's cysts, but adults are a little more accurate in determining the place "where it hurts." It is not so easy for children to accurately describe the pain that occurs and point out where it occurs.
By experience, urologists have found out: in cases of diagnosing this disease, most of the patients' requests had a certain basis. They complained of pain after quite successful attempts to independently identify that internal organs included a foreign formation. They did not experience pain, and in one way or another, by touch, they found out what kind of disease they had. To the touch, this is an oval seal in the scrotum, which occurs near the testicle, while there is no pain. If the size of the cyst reaches 2-2.5 cm, the patient sometimes feels discomfort in the corresponding area. With an increase in the size of a cyst of a testicle, noticeable discomfort occurs during movement and when walking. The same occurs with intimacy.
If the diameter becomes more than 3-3.5 cm, compression of the vessels and surrounding tissues (compression ischemia) of the testicles can be noticed. Painful sensations also relate to her nerve endings. In the development of the disease, one or more foci of stagnation are formed. They are characterized by pulling pains. Their place of formation is the area of the scrotum, groin.
Causes of testicular cysts in men
The causes of testicular cysts in men are still at the stage of clarification:
- Expansion of the membranes in the area of the spermatic cord.
- Expansion of the testicular membrane
- Expansion of the membranes of the epididymis
- An infection that can provoke the development of this unpleasant process
- Trauma, even if not serious, can significantly disrupt metabolic and regenerative processes
In some cases, pathological formations of this type are congenital. In these cases, the cyst appears in children immediately after birth. They are called dysontogenetic, and their etiology is associated with disturbances during the formation of the fetus at the very beginning of pregnancy, with the birth before the due date, and also with trauma inflicted during childbirth.
In cases where the cyst does not grow, it disappears and treatment is not required. With the growth of its size, the child undergoes laparoscopy.
Testicular cyst treatment
Testicular cyst treatment has its own characteristics. According to statistics, in most cases it is not necessary to urgently resort to treatment. When there is a danger of tumor genesis of cysts, with large varieties, with painful symptoms, as well as with manifestations of a violation in the elimination of sperm, surgical treatment is necessary. Conservative activities are ineffective. There are quick access, they are quite diverse.
There are no special medicines. In clinical practice, there are two ways out:
- removal of the testicular cyst (as an option - removal of the cyst of the epididymis),
These options are most often offered to choose from. The puncture method is used much less often. Many were convinced: this is a proven reliable way to combat this pathology. Before the procedure, local anesthesia is done, or general anesthesia. In the area above the cyst, an incision is made on the scrotal membrane, the formation is removed and the incision is sutured layer by layer. Attached to the scrotum:
- Gauze bandage.
- Supporting bandage (support).
A course of prevention of possible postoperative inflammation is ahead. It consists of antibiotics. All physical activity will have to be postponed for two weeks. There is a danger of infertility - doctors warn about this before the intervention.
Sclerotherapy is another, alternative method of treating cysts. It is considered less effective. By means of a syringe, its contents are removed from the cavity of the cyst itself, and a special chemical mixture is introduced instead. With this effect:
- a number of tissues lining the inner surfaces of the cyst walls are destroyed,
- the walls become sclerosed, naturally "stick" to themselves.
It must be borne in mind: in the process of gluing, the spermatic cords may undergo, which makes the patients infertile.
The puncture method has its own characteristics. With it, after removing the liquid, nothing is introduced instead. This is a simple procedure and the effect is usually temporary. There is a high probability of the need to repeat the filling of the cyst container with serous fluid. Each subsequent puncture creates a tangible threat of damage to the surfaces of the testicle and epididymis.
An epididymis damaged by a cyst undergoes similar treatments. That is, they apply:
- surgical excision of education,
Boys have symptoms immediately after birth. The cyst disappears by itself at this age. If its growth is noticed in size, it is removed. For children, the limit of "alarm" is 1-1.5 cm.
Laparoscopy (surgery to remove a testicular cyst in men)
Laparoscopy is an operation to remove a testicular cyst in men. She, in addition to open surgery, removal of the testicular cyst and epididymis, is recognized as one of the best methods. It is appreciated for a number of advantages:
- She has a shorter duration.
- It reduces the risk of injury
- Much less - the risk of postoperative complications.
It is considered a modern method of surgery, when an operation on internal organs is performed through small (0.5-1.5 cm) holes. Traditional surgery cannot work with such small incisions. Laparoscopy is indicated for organs within the abdominal - and in this case, the pelvic - cavities.
The main instrument in laparoscopic surgery is the laparoscope. This is the name of the telescopic tube that contains the lens system. She joins the camcorder. Modern products are complemented by digital matrices. This provides the required high definition image. An optical cable is attached to it, supplemented by lighting with a "cold" light source. Carbon dioxide enters the abdominal cavity to create the so-called. operational space. There is a feeling that an inflated ball is located in the operated organ, and the wall of the abdominal cavity is raised above the internal organs.
The consequences of testicular cyst removal are determined by the postoperative behavior of the patient requiring that the scrotum be maintained in a certain condition. For this, a support is used. In addition, a small elevation of the scrotum is required, which is achieved by placing the patient directly on his back. This reduces the risk of further edema.
You will have to regularly apply compresses on ice water or ice. Each patient is informed in advance: the bandage must be on the wound until it is dry. This happens after about 2 days, if you eliminate physical activity for the next 2 weeks. There are other precautions as well. For example, a specific diet is recommended before surgery, which should be followed after removal of the testicular cyst.
The prognosis for spermatocele treatment is improving every year. Recent studies have confirmed that 95% of those who suffered from cystic formations no longer experience pain. Removal is considered to be the best surgical treatment. After it, the symptoms disappear.
Sex and sports after laparoscopy testicular cysts are canceled for a certain time. We have already described what the postoperative behavior should be. In addition, before the operation, they are always warned of possible risks. It is very easy to injure the organ afterwards if you are not careful.
You can not create stressful situations, which include sex and physical activity. Even nervous strain can provide danger. It is impossible to create favorable conditions for inflammation at the seams, their discrepancies.
The operation itself can also result in the fact that you have to give up sex and sports. In addition to infertility, there are probabilities:
- the development of swelling and scars on the operated scrotum,
- enough dangerous edema,
Usually, in order to properly conduct the rehabilitation period, it is enough to rely on your own feelings. But doctors recommend refraining from loads of a different nature for about 2-3 weeks after the operation. Do not lift anything that weighs more than 3 kg.
The diet after laparoscopy of the testicular cyst is based on dietary restriction. As such, in this case it does not exist. Experts give a number of recommendations for the reproductive system to recover as soon as possible:
- Shown the most gentle food for the body.
- You can't overeat.
- You can not drink alcohol.
- Antibiotics are prescribed before laparoscopy.
- Healthy light meals are consumed 5-6 times a day.
- Shown fiber, foods with natural vitamins.
- The predominance of food of plant origin.
In addition, wounds heal better with more cereals. Freshly squeezed juices are shown.
The author of the article: Volkov Dmitry Sergeevich | c. m. n. surgeon, phlebologist
Education: Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry (1996). In 2003 he received a diploma from the Educational and Scientific Medical Center of the Presidential Administration of the Russian Federation.