Degrees and symptoms of periodontitis
What is periodontium?
Periodontitis is a complex infectious disease of the periodontium, with such a disease, bleeding of the gums is observed with the formation of abscesses and abscesses. The consequence of the penetration of the infection into the root system of the teeth is the expansion of the gaps between the teeth and their loss. Periodontitis is not an independent disease, as a rule, it appears due to malfunctions in the endocrine system. Therefore, periodontitis is treated comprehensively.
Patient and diligent treatment will surely give good results: after recovery, normalization of thyroid hormones and cure of chronic tonsillitis, sinusitis and other diseases, as a rule, a kind of remission of periodontitis occurs. Together with therapeutic treatment, purely dental treatment of diseases is also used - for example, gum massage.
- Where does periodontitis come from and how is it recognized?
- Periodontitis symptoms
- Periodontitis grades
- Periodontitis treatment: 7 effective treatments to fight the disease
Where does periodontitis come from and how is it recognized?
The main cause of periodontitis is considered to be bacterial plaque, which is constantly created on the teeth. If the plaque is not removed, then over time it hardens and turns into tartar. Next comes the destruction of the tissues that hold the tooth. As a result, a gap is formed between the tooth and the gum, into which plaque begins to clog. The root of the tooth, being under constant pressure of the destructive forces of caries, begins to move over time. The more the disease is started, the more likely it is that teeth will fall out. Therefore, never start dental treatment, even if you do not like dentists: there are completely painless and effective methods of treatment.
If plaque destroys only the mucous membrane, then the disease is called gingivitis. This is the first stage of periodontal disease. More progressive stages are already called dental periodontitis.
Periodontitis will develop most rapidly in people with problems such as:
- Disturbances in the development of the dentition.
- Weak immune system.
- Acute deficiency of vitamins and minerals.
- Presence of tartar.
- Excessive dryness of the mouth.
Initial symptoms: You will experience itching, throbbing in your gums, bad breath, and discomfort when chewing.
Symptoms of moderate severity: the supporting apparatus of the tooth begins to loosen, the teeth are mobile, the sensitivity of the teeth increases. At the same time, the gums often bleed, especially when brushing your teeth, swell and become inflamed.
Symptoms of a neglected disease: pronounced pain syndrome. Malaise occurs, body temperature rises, and it becomes more difficult to chew. At the same time, the teeth are strongly displaced from their rows, and some begin to fall out.
The degree of periodontitis is usually determined by the depth of the periodontal pocket, the degree of bone resorption, and tooth mobility.
Mild periodontitis is characterized by lack of mobility in the teeth, the depth of the periodontal pocket is up to 3.5 mm. The height of the interdental partitions is reduced by no more than 1/3 of their length.
Periodontitis of moderate severity is characterized by the presence of mobility in the teeth of the 1st or 2nd degree, as a result, the teeth can move, creating gaps. The depth of the periodontal pocket is up to 5 mm, pus begins to flow from it. The height of the interdental septa decreases to 1/2 of their length.
Severe periodontitis is characterized by the presence of 2–3 degrees of tooth mobility, which causes a complete defect in the dentition. There is a constant suppuration from the periodontal pocket, the depth of which is already 6 mm. The height of the interdental septa is reduced by more than 1/2 of their length.
Periodontitis treatment: 7 effective treatments to fight the disease
It is impossible to completely get rid of periodontitis. However, the course of the disease should not be ignored. Therapeutic measures help to improve the condition of the gums, reduce the inflammatory response, and preserve already loose teeth. The sooner treatment is started, the more effective it will be.
With localized periodontitis, one or more teeth are affected. If a patient develops a generalized form of the disease, then a whole dentition may be involved in the pathological process.
Generalized periodontitis is dangerous because of its transition to periodontal disease. This often occurs in the chronic course of the disease. The disease is classified as incurable. There is only one way out for a person - to remove all loose teeth and replace them with implants. Modern dentistry allows the implantation of artificial roots bypassing atrophied areas of the gums. This will allow a person to continue living a full life, to avoid a defect in appearance, to eat any food without exposing his digestive system to additional risks. With gums and teeth affected by periodontal disease, this is not possible.
To avoid the development of periodontal disease, periodontitis should be treated in time. Below are 7 effective treatments to help improve gum health.
Removal of plaque and calculus
When the first signs of periodontitis appear, you need to consult a dentist and undergo a professional cleaning of the oral cavity. The doctor will remove plaque and tartar. Their deposits lead to the development of inflammation. Professional cleaning should be repeated at least once every six months.
Ways to implement it:
- Ultrasonic cleaning. This is the most popular procedure. The teeth are influenced through a special tip with a device that emits ultrasonic waves of a given frequency. In parallel, the doctor processes the dentition with a stream of water. Ultrasound destroys dental deposits, and water flushes them out of the mouth. Cleaning is carried out using Vector or Varius devices. Their use sometimes makes it possible to do without surgical gum curettage.
Air Flow or sandblasting teeth. Removal of dental plaque is performed using sand, air and water. The procedure allows you to get rid of even those stones that are in hard-to-reach places. This technique is often combined with ultrasonic cleaning.
Manual cleaning. It involves processing teeth with a special tool, which is equipped with a hook at the end. The doctor picks up the stone located under the gums with them, and then removes it. This procedure is rarely used as it is considered obsolete. It can be combined with ultrasonic cleaning for optimal results.
Dry cleaning. They resort to it when the patient is found to have hard and numerous dental deposits. The doctor uses special acids to dissolve them. You need to understand that this procedure is associated with certain risks. If acid gets on the gums and on the tooth enamel, they will be destroyed. However, sometimes it is not possible to cope with tartar in other ways.
Laser cleaning. This is a modern and safe method of dealing with tartar. Its disadvantage is its high cost. The laser will help to deal with even the toughest deposits. Under its influence, all microbes die, and the enamel is strengthened.
Sometimes it is not possible to cope with the problem only with the help of professional cleaning of the dentition. In this case, doctors resort to an operation called gum curettage. It is required when the patient has large gum pockets, if the plaque is located deep under the gums and cannot be removed using the procedures described above. The specialist carries out cleaning blindly, since he cannot visualize the depth of dental deposits.
Curettage helps to get rid of gum pockets. The gums will again be close to the tooth, which will prevent infection of the tissues of the mouth. Before starting the procedure, the patient is injected with a local anesthetic.
It is carried out in two ways:
Open curettage. The doctor dissects the gum and peels it off the surface of the tooth. This allows you to see the underlying sediments. The doctor removes them and then polishes the teeth. If necessary, an artificial bone is transplanted, which will fill the resulting void. Then the gum is returned to its place, and sutures are applied over it.
Closed curettage. In this case, the gum is not cut. The doctor removes dental plaque using special hooks. This procedure is indicated for patients with gingival pockets no larger than 3 mm.
During open curettage, the doctor can perform flap surgery. It is aimed at correcting the shape of the gums.
Taking medications helps to get rid of inflammation. Local therapy is reduced to the imposition of compresses and rinsing. Sometimes the patient is shown systemic administration of drugs.
It is necessary to rinse the oral cavity with the help of such solutions as: Chlorhexidine and Miramistin. You can use a decoction of oak bark, chamomile or sage. If the gums bleed, then Metrogyl Denta ointment is applied to them. The doctor prescribes antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs for oral administration on an individual basis.
If medical correction is supplemented with physiotherapy, then the problem will be dealt with faster. To reduce bleeding of the gums, to eliminate pain and inflammatory reaction, magnetotherapy, electrophoresis darsonvalization, ultraviolet treatment are used. Gum massage brings good results. It is carried out not only in clinics using a vacuum, but also at home. You can massage the gums with your fingertips or a soft bristled toothbrush.
The most effective treatment for periodontitis is ultrasound treatment. It is carried out on devices Vector and Varius. This therapy allows you to get rid of dental plaque and heal your gums.
Splinting helps to strengthen excessively mobile teeth and prevent them from falling out. Loose teeth are combined with healthy ones. To do this, use either a tire or a fiberglass thread. This device is applied to the inner side of the teeth, for which a small furrow is artificially created in them. The structure is covered with a composite from above. It will be difficult to notice her. The tire does not cause any inconvenience to its owner.
When the integrity of the dentition is compromised, removable clasp dentures are used instead of a splint. They have a metal base and are attached with hooks. Such prostheses are highly durable, so they can be used as a replacement for lost teeth or to fix loose teeth.
Good oral hygiene
The reason for the development of periodontitis is most often the poor-quality care of teeth and gums. Careful oral hygiene is required to maintain the results of the therapy.
You need to brush your teeth 2 times a day: in the morning before meals and in the evening before bedtime. Choose a brush with medium bristles. Even if the gums are inflamed, you cannot use a soft brush. She simply will not remove plaque.
It is recommended to use medicated pastes during therapy. They can help relieve the symptoms of gum disease. After a month, you can switch to regular cleaning products.
After each meal, you should rinse your mouth or use dental floss. If you do not do this, then the food particles remaining between the teeth will soften and turn into plaque. In it, bacteria multiply very quickly.
For high-quality cleaning of teeth at home, you must use an irrigator. It allows you to clean the gaps between your teeth and gently massage your gums. Thanks to this procedure, metabolic processes in the tissues are improved.
Brushing your teeth every day is not enough to keep your mouth clean. Dentists recommend visiting a hygienist's office at least once a year. This will get rid of hard dental plaque and prevent exacerbation of periodontitis.
Platelet injections allow to activate the processes of regeneration of gingival and bone tissues, reduce the inflammatory response and accelerate recovery. They are created on the basis of a person's own blood.
It will not be possible to completely get rid of periodontitis. From time to time, the disease will worsen. In the end, the teeth will still fall out. With the right treatment, this will not happen soon - in 10-20 years or more.
Sometimes the damage is so severe that it is impossible to save the teeth, it is easier to remove them. In past years, prosthetics for patients with periodontal disease was not available. However, advances in modern dentistry have allowed people to acquire new artificial teeth. Implants are inserted deeply. They are injected into bone tissue, which does not undergo an inflammatory reaction and destruction. The very next day after their installation, a person can independently chew food.
Patients with periodontal disease of the upper dentition can undergo zygomatic implantation. In this case, the implants are implanted not only into the spongy layer of the gums, but also into the cheekbones. They are very long to ensure a secure fit. The implants do not affect the sinuses, they are angled and fixed in the zygomatic bone. It is highly durable and does not undergo an inflammatory reaction. After the installation of the implants, a fixed prosthesis is fixed on them, imitating their own dentition.
At home, patients with periodontitis need to treat the oral cavity with decoctions of medicinal herbs. However, rinsing cannot replace professional dental care. The inflammatory process will become less intense, but will not stop. The progression of the disease will necessarily lead to the loss of teeth. Therefore, when the first signs of periodontitis appear, you need to visit your dentist.
Article author: Mochalov Pavel Alexandrovich | d. m. n. therapist
Education: Moscow Medical Institute. IM Sechenov, specialty - "General Medicine" in 1991, in 1993 "Occupational Diseases", in 1996 "Therapy".