Throat Cancer - Signs, Symptoms, Stages And Treatment Of Throat Cancer In Women

Table of contents:

Video: Throat Cancer - Signs, Symptoms, Stages And Treatment Of Throat Cancer In Women

Video: Throat Cancer - Signs, Symptoms, Stages And Treatment Of Throat Cancer In Women
Video: Throat Cancer - Know Your Throat | Cancer Research UK 2023, March
Throat Cancer - Signs, Symptoms, Stages And Treatment Of Throat Cancer In Women
Throat Cancer - Signs, Symptoms, Stages And Treatment Of Throat Cancer In Women

Signs, symptoms, stages and treatment of throat cancer

What is throat cancer?

throat cancer
throat cancer

At present, disappointing statistics have been reported. 65-70% of tumors recognized as malignant are throat cancer. Also, this type of cancer is the most common form of throat disease. This disease most often affects men who are already 40 years old. But women are also at risk. The percentage of those who can be cured is 60%. This is an “urban” disease, and residents of “rural areas” suffer from it less often.

Throat cancer (laryngeal cancer) is a malignant formation. The basis for its formation are the mucous membranes of the larynx and pharynx. Typically, these malignant tumors begin to spread to neighboring organs or tissues.

Among the main factors that cause the risk of developing throat cancer, it should be mentioned:

  • alcohol abuse,
  • smoking habit
  • reaching a certain age.

The location of the tumor is of great importance. Laryngeal cancer can develop in the upper (supraglottic) larynx, the middle (vocal cords) of the larynx, and the lower (subfold) larynx. Squamous cell carcinoma of the throat is especially common. As a rule, it affects the body of smokers.

The factors that determine the development of this disease are highlighted. For example, a malignant tumor appears in those who suffered from chronic laryngitis, who did not pay the necessary attention to the treatment, as well as leukoplakia. From these diseases, throat cancer develops into oncology. The symptoms of this disease are of particular difficulty. They are often characterized as rather vague, making it difficult to diagnose. There are a number of symptoms that determine the disease itself, as well as its stage, after which treatment is prescribed.


  • The first signs of throat cancer
  • Other symptoms of throat cancer
  • Throat Cancer Causes
  • Throat cancer stages
  • Throat cancer diagnosis
  • Throat cancer treatment
  • Treatment of throat cancer with folk remedies

The first signs of throat cancer


The first signs of throat cancer are similar to common colds. Because of this, in the early stages, the disease is difficult to diagnose.

As a rule, the first signs are:

  • regular laryngeal pain
  • tumors in the neck
  • problem swallowing
  • changes in voice.

Often, unknowingly, patients take such manifestations for a viral infection, possibly an allergic reaction. As soon as such symptoms appear, it is necessary this is important, since the following symptoms will be obvious, they indicate the active development of the disease.

If the stages are early, you will notice:

  • White spots,
  • small ulcers inside the larynx.

In 80% of cases, no symptoms occur at this stage

Explicit symptoms also vary in complexity:

  • cutting pain in the throat;
  • chronic cough;
  • severe weight loss;
  • swelling in the neck;
  • bouts of pain in the ear.

The overt symptoms are not enough to diagnose throat cancer. Several tests and tests are required for diagnosis. A biopsy is recognized as a particular accuracy among the diagnostic tests used. A tumor is a specific type of cell. They can be taken with a needle, and then they go to a medical laboratory, where they are identified.

This test very accurately determines whether there is actually a tumor. Other tests serve to clarify the symptoms, to find out what the size of the tumor is, where it is located. When symptoms are diagnosed, a CT scan is done to produce three-dimensional images of the tumor.

The first symptoms are especially closely related to the localization of throat cancer. Having learned about the location of the cancer, you can understand which part of the organ is affected: the upper, middle or lower.

Late symptoms can be easily explained:

  • Due to deterioration in health, not only pains occur when swallowing, but also toothaches, and they often fall out.
  • The timbre of the voice changes due to the fact that the middle sections react in this way to the tumor, and hoarseness appears.
  • If the tumor has struck the lower sections, there is a feeling of a foreign body in the throat, shortness of breath develops, pain when swallowing.

The histological picture proves the predominance of squamous cell carcinoma, but the development of other types of degeneration is also normal.

Other symptoms of throat cancer

throat cancer symptoms
throat cancer symptoms

It is advisable to contact a medical specialist even at the first symptoms of throat cancer. But if the early signs are missed, the body's signals become more than noticeable.

In addition to coughing, other manifestations may occur, for example, problems with swallowing, as well as:

  • Sore throat that cannot be relieved with pain relievers.
  • Bloody coughing.
  • Strong growth of lymph nodes.
  • Rot-like odor from the mouth.
  • Unreasonable weakness.

With early detection of the disease and treatment, more sparing will be required. Radical treatment will help to finally overcome this disease. It is possible to save not only life, but also health by restoring full-fledged activity.

It is recommended to go for an examination if the sore throat persists for more than 2 weeks, along with:

  • hoarse,
  • suffocate
  • feeling of a lump in the throat.

Throat Cancer Causes


The causes of throat cancer are complex. Based on the results of numerous observations, it will be possible to establish a number of factors that have to be taken into account, as the most relevant in this case:

  • This disease most often affects men.
  • Bad habits - alcohol abuse and smoking - can provoke the disease.
  • Patients who have overcome the 60th anniversary are especially susceptible to the disease.
  • Oral hygiene must be given due attention - this reduces the risk of developing oncology.
  • If there is a genetic predisposition, the risk of developing pathology becomes three times more dangerous.
  • The risk group is represented by a special category of people whose work is associated with malicious production.
  • A special category is represented by patients who have already had a malignant tumor in the neck and head.

There are factors affecting the development of this disease:

  • Insufficient amount of foods such as vegetables and fruits in the diet.
  • Excessive consumption of certain dishes - salty meat, etc.
  • Much attention is paid to the Epstein-Barr virus - this is a factor that causes infectious mononucleosis.

Pain symptoms appear where cancer cells develop. If the stages are still early, it seems insignificant, not always worthy of attention. It is characterized as permanent. It gets stronger every time. If the stage is especially late, the pain becomes very severe, and this means that the cancer cells have already begun to spread to the nerve endings.

Weight loss that seems to have no cause happens very quickly. In fact, the reason is obvious - the body is forced to create special biologically active substances, due to which the initial metabolic process in the body is disrupted.

Weakness develops for specific reasons, due to which it is often accompanied by nausea. These are the consequences of intoxication, the release of waste products by cancer cells into the blood.

It is important to monitor the condition of your skin, hair and nails. Their changes depend on the type of cancer. Also, with cancer, body temperature rises and falls. This symptom appears in the early stages. This is a signal from the immune system, which is being suppressed by cancer cells.

See also: Other Cancer Causes and Risk Factors

Throat cancer stages

Стадии рака горла
Стадии рака горла

A lot depends on determining the stage of cancer, in particular, the choice of treatment.

Doctors establish it based on certain manifestations and characteristics of education:

  • tumor size
  • mobility of the vocal cords,
  • the presence of metastases.

The early stages of the throat have some common features, such as being small, without metastases. On the second, cancer cells can be found in the lymph nodes that are in the neck. The last two stages of the disease are characterized by a high prevalence of the tumor.


Stage 1 throat cancer has its own symptoms. The tumor can already be diagnosed.

Stage 1, when the location of oncology is already obvious, but still small in size:

  • The supraglottic part: cancer begins to grow above the larynx, the voice is still practically unchanged.
  • At this stage, the glottis becomes infected, at least one of the ligaments, they retain the ability to work normally.
  • A fragment of the hypopharyngeal canal is captured.

The tumor is very small and can be compared to the original ulcer. It can be found in mucosal cells. It can develop in the larynx without causing a hoarse voice.

Stage 2 throat cancer


Stage II throat cancer affects only the larynx. This stage is characterized by a certain location in the larynx:

  • The epiglottis: there is more than one lesion near the epiglottis and in it, in addition, the infection can infect the surrounding tissues.
  • Glottis: in this case, cancer cells retain the ability to spread in the larynx, or rather above it, with the capture of the subpharyngeal space, perhaps the movement of the vocal cords becomes non-standard.
  • Tumor cells form only in the subpharyngeal region.

This stage is distinguished by the prevalence of oncology. She is able to capture the entire larynx. It manifests itself as an initial hoarseness of the voice. The formation of metastases in the lymph nodes is not characteristic.

Throat cancer stage 3


At stage 3, attention should be paid to the extent of the spread of diseased cells in the epiglottis, with further capture of the glottis or - further, not excluding the subpharyngeal region:

  • A malignant formation affects only the larynx and its immediate surroundings. Normal movement of the vocal cords becomes nearly impossible. Cells are also formed in tissues in the localization of the larynx; the disease is able to capture a lymph node in the neck, stand on the side where the tumor forms. The parameters of a lymph node that is infected will not exceed 3 cm in diameter.
  • Cancer is diagnosed only over the larynx, but it also invades cells of one of the lymph nodes directly in a part of the tumor; the size of the infected node is less than 3 cm, the vocal cords are able to move normally.
  • The cancer has invaded more than one fragment of the epiglottis or nearby tissues and on the neck, in one node, the infection is carried out from the side of the tumor; the diameter of the node affected by oncology is up to 3 cm, the vocal cords can still function normally.

At stage 3 of the glottis:

  • Oncology cells are located only in the larynx, the vocal cords lose the ability to move in a normal manner, it is possible for oncology to spread to the environment of an organ such as the larynx; cancer cells can be found in some of the infected nodes on the neck - they grow from the side of the tumor; the diameter of the infected nodes does not exceed 3 cm.
  • Tumor cells spread in one or both vocal cords, as well as in any of the lymph nodes in the neck; the diameter of the lymph node is less than 3 cm, this allows the vocal cords to make a standard movement.
  • Cancer invades the subpharyngeal fragment, normal ligament mobility can be preserved. The formation of malignant cells is possible in a certain place - in one of the lymph nodes (up to 3 cm), on the side where the tumor grows.

The third stage is determined by specific characteristics:

  • The location of the tumor is only the opening of the larynx, the state of the vocal cords is very limited; you can find an accumulation of malignant cells in one infected node (3 cm).
  • Oncology is diagnosed only in the space, which is called the subpharyngeal, with the capture of one node (less than 3 cm).
  • In any of the vocal cords, oncological cells are formed, the nodes are infected alternately, growing up to 3 cm.

Stage 4 throat cancer


Stage 4 throat cancer is classified into IVA, IVB and IVC. They can be distinguished based on their localization characteristics. Usually it is based on an organ such as the larynx, or rather, its upper region.

Stage IVA:

  • Oncology cells infect the cartilage of the thyroid gland, affecting the tissues that surround the larynx. The tumor can be found in the tissues of the neck, trachea, thyroid gland, as well as in the organs of the esophagus. The lymph nodes are not affected both, but one at a time.
  • One or more lymph nodes located on the neck are affected by a tumor, this can touch both sides of the neck, and their size does not exceed 6 centimeters.
  • Oncology extends to areas such as the tissues surrounding the larynx, not excluding the organs listed in the previous paragraph. There is a risk of limiting the normal mobility of the vocal cords.

Stage IVB:

  • The cancer invades the spinal canal, gradually surrounding the carotid artery or affecting the organs and tissues of the chest cavity, with spread to one or more lymph nodes, which can reach any size.
  • The tumor develops in one of the lymph nodes, and it reaches a size of 6 cm, there is a risk of damage to the spinal canal, the area of the carotid artery with organs and tissues of the chest cavity. The mobility of the vocal cords may be impaired.

Stage IVC: At this stage, the tumor begins to expand outside the larynx.

Throat cancer diagnosis

Throat cancer diagnosis
Throat cancer diagnosis

Throat cancer diagnosis consists of certain procedures carried out in a strict sequence. Using special instruments, a professional examines the cavity of the larynx and pharynx. Computed tomography, biopsy, histological examination are also used.

Laryngoscopy. A method such as laryngoscopy will help to examine the larynx, in which a special mirror or laryngoscope is used. The method is an examination of the vocal folds and throat cavity, to identify and conduct a study of a developing tumor. The laryngoscope is a tube with a video camera. While the video camera makes it possible to examine the larynx, tissue is taken at the same time, which is then used for histological examination - biopsy.

This method is appreciated for its great accuracy. It allows the most clear picture of the diagnosis. By means of a biopsy, it is established whether there is cancer of the throat as such, as well as what its histological type is. This information is useful because it allows you to effectively treat the disease.

Others. Other methods are used - computed tomography, ultrasound examination, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These are procedures that allow you to obtain important data on the size of the formation, to find out in what condition the tissues adjacent to the tumor are, to assess the size of the lymph nodes.

Perhaps the results of this research algorithm will help identify cancer in the patient's throat. There are also additional diagnostic procedures. In particular, the stages of the disease are identified by specifying its prevalence, etc.

Throat cancer treatment

Throat cancer is also referred to as cancer of the pharynx and larynx. He entered the list of one of the twenty most common types of diseases of the oncological category. Its development can begin in patients of both sexes. But statistics confirm that it usually appears in men.

This type of cancer usually develops from tissue such as epithelial tissue. Squamous and basal cell carcinomas of this area, as well as sarcoma, can be distinguished. Statistics claim that the squamous cell type of oncology of this organ is usually diagnosed.

Throat cancer affects tens of thousands of patients every year, about 40% of those who fall ill cannot overcome the disease.

On the subject: Selenium is an anti-cancer mineral!

Among the main signs of throat cancer are neoplasms that are found in the corresponding area. It is a mistake to treat the growths or sores directly from which a certain substance is released. It also makes no sense to try separately to get rid of the difficulty of swallowing, the feeling of lack of air, the problematic breathing process.

The prevention of this disease remains of the greatest importance, which helps to avoid complex treatment and the occurrence of complications.

First of all, you need to avoid risk factors for this disease. These include not only those mentioned above, but also:

  • Chronic goiter.
  • Diseases of the upper tract of a chronic nature, recurrent category - for example, chronic laryngitis.
  • Immunodeficiency.
  • And some others.

To prevent this disease, you need:

  • Eat a healthy diet, focusing on vegetables, fruits, dairy products, cereals, etc.
  • Do not eat spicy, salty, fried foods.
  • Give up bad habits or keep them to a minimum.
  • Try to live an active life, constantly finding time for walks in the fresh air, moderate to constant physical activity.
  • If it is not possible to avoid constant contact with potential carcinogens, then this should be done using special protective equipment.
  • Carefully observe the hygiene of the larynx and oral cavity.
  • Carrying out preventive examinations, the purpose of which is to identify throat cancer, it takes only a few days; the procedure does not bring pain, except for the biopsy. This is the most accurate method for establishing this disease. Errors are very rare, 99% of the results are correct.

If preventive measures have not helped, then an urgent need to start treatment. The earlier it is started, the better the results will be. The prognosis is as follows - the survival rate is currently up to 70% 5 years after the therapy procedure.

Usually the treatment is complex. It includes several techniques:

  • Radiosurgical.
  • Surgical.
  • Radiation therapy method.
  • Chemotherapy.

Treatment is carried out with a specific purpose - to achieve maximum release of the patient from a malignant neoplasm, restoring the vital functions of an organ such as the larynx. Recall that these include respiratory and protective. Then it is required to restore the patient's ability to speak. It may be necessary to resort to correcting speech disorders (often the patient, due to illness, acquires hoarseness, aphonia).

Nowadays, a disease such as throat cancer is treated with combined methods, when radiation therapy and surgery are consistently applied.

Medical practice, in this case, is based on a combination of several methods:

  • Radiation therapy.
  • Surgery.
  • Chemotherapy.

Radiation therapy for throat cancer is based on radiation therapy to target cancer cells. This procedure is of several types - internal and external.

If we talk about external radiation therapy, then it is carried out as follows. The device is located directly near the patient. Rays emanating from it are directed to the neoplasm. If contact therapy is carried out, then a certain amount of radioactive substances are delivered to the tumor, possibly to the tissues located nearby. This is done using special tools. The instrumentation is represented by you - tubes, catheters or needles. This therapy is effective if the patient has stopped smoking before the procedure. The operation is allowed to be performed at any stage of the disease.

Surgical methods of a modern nature are represented by the following procedures:

  • Chordectomy (consists of removing the vocal folds).
  • Hemilaryngectomy (cutting out the affected half of the larynx).
  • Supraglottic laryngectomy (a procedure to remove the epiglottis).
  • Complete laryngectomy (cutting out the larynx; in an additional order, an opening for breathing is made on the front of the neck, it is called a tracheostomy).
  • Partial laryngectomy (consists in removing a fragment of the larynx; this helps to return the patient to speech).
  • Laser surgery (using a laser, a kind of knife, the affected tissues are removed, the operation is distinguished by the absence of bleeding).
  • Thyroidectomy (excision of a fragment or of the entire thyroid gland, which is in the zone of the pathological process).

First, surgical treatment is carried out, and then the stage of chemotherapy or radiation therapy is required. In this case, the cancer cells are treated with cytostatic drugs. They enter the bloodstream and kill abnormal cells. This procedure is performed before surgery such as radiation therapy, when the tumor is reduced in size.

In recent years, practitioners have begun to resort to the possibility of radio stabilizers. These funds can increase the sensitivity of the tumor to surgery such as radiation exposure.

Treatment of throat cancer with folk remedies

Treatment of throat cancer with folk remedies
Treatment of throat cancer with folk remedies

Treatment of laryngeal cancer with folk remedies may be considered an additional option. At different stages, different types of treatment are recommended - surgical, chemotherapy, radiation and combined. This is a treatment that is carried out in appropriate medical institutions. When cancer of the larynx is diagnosed, there are several suitable traditional medicine recipes to be found.

Attention! All of these herbs are very poisonous! Therefore, a consultation with a phytotherapist is required! Otherwise, you run the risk of making a mistake with the dosage and harm your health.

  • A popular recipe for chopped bay leaves. This ingredient will require 3 glasses. It is filled with 500 ml of vodka. The workpiece is infused for 14 days in a dark place, do not forget to shake it periodically. Then the liquid is filtered and taken three times a day, 1 tbsp. l. The course should be long enough.
  • They often resort to the help of Japanese Arizem. In China, the plant has another name - "the star of the southern sky". Treats cancer of several types - not only of the larynx, but also of the skin, breast. A medicinal part is considered to be the rhizomes of arizema, which are collected at a certain time - before the formation of leaves. So, for the preparation of a decoction of 1 tbsp. l. crushed rhizomes are poured with 500 ml of boiling water, and then boiled over low heat for 15 minutes. The workpiece is insisted for 1 hour, filtered. Drink 1/3 cup, three times a day. After crushing the rhizomes into powder, a course is carried out, inside - 3 times a day, in portions of 1.0-1.5 g.
  • Another plant in this category is the spotted slipper. To cure oncology, it is advised to prepare a decoction or alcoholic tincture from such a part as flowers, adhering to a ratio of 1:10. Consume 2 tbsp. l. 3-4 times a day. In addition, remedies of this kind from the spotted shoe can cure exhaustion.
  • Another folk remedy is called speckled hemlock. You can read about this technique here.
  • For throat cancer, treats such a plant as cocklebur. Its fresh juice is required, obtained from the whole plant as a whole, passed through a meat grinder. Then it must be preserved by using equal parts juice and vodka. The mixture is kept in a cool, dark place. Serving - 1 tsp each. three times a day. There are times when 1 tbsp is required. l.

See also: Rare Traditional Medicine Recipes Used For Cancer


The author of the article: Bykov Evgeny Pavlovich | Oncologist, surgeon

Education: graduated from residency at the Russian Scientific Oncological Center. N. N. Blokhin "and received a diploma in the specialty" Oncologist"

Popular by topic

Interesting Articles
Bulimia - Causes And Symptoms Of Bulimia
Read More

Bulimia - Causes And Symptoms Of Bulimia

BulimiaCauses and symptoms of bulimiaWhat is Bulimia?Bulimia is a psychopathological syndrome characterized by an increase in hunger and low satiety: a sick person cannot feel full, even eating a large amount of food, so the feeling of hunger becomes constant for him

Bulimia - Treatment Of Bulimia With Folk Remedies And Methods
Read More

Bulimia - Treatment Of Bulimia With Folk Remedies And Methods

Bulimia treatment with folk remediesTreating bulimia with garlicIn addition to drug treatment and psychotherapy, the body's work with bulimia will help to normalize some traditional medicine. These include garlic (3 cloves). It is cleaned and rubbed on a fine grater, pouring boiled clean water on top with a temperature of about 20 ° C

Mustard Plasters For Bronchitis - Where And How To Put?
Read More

Mustard Plasters For Bronchitis - Where And How To Put?

Mustard plasters for bronchitisFor the treatment of bronchitis and other diseases of the respiratory system, medical cups and mustard plasters are often used as an auxiliary therapy. The effectiveness of their use is not confirmed by official medicine, but after a course of treatment with these methods, the course of the disease is facilitated in some patients