- Thyroid adenoma - what is it?
- Types of operations for thyroid adenoma
- Features of surgery for thyroid adenoma
Thyroid adenoma - what is it?
Thyroid adenoma is a benign tumor that occurs mainly in older patients. It can be of various sizes and shapes. There is a great risk that over time, the tumor will become malignant. For this reason, timely diagnosis is essential for successful treatment.
Any nodular formation is often mistakenly considered an adenoma. However, this concept implies that the tumor consists of a special type of cells. Another feature of adenoma is that it enhances the thyroid gland. As a result, the production of thyroid hormones increases, which are released into the blood in a greater volume. Only a biopsy can reliably determine the type of tumor cells. On its basis, diagnostics are carried out and a decision is made on the method of treatment.
Reasons for the development of adenoma of the thyroid gland
The development of the disease is facilitated by unfavorable environmental conditions, problems in the functioning of the nervous system and hormonal disorders. The action of toxic substances also has a negative effect on the body and can lead to the occurrence of adenoma.
Patients who have relatives with an adenoma should be more careful: it is believed that there is a genetic predisposition to the formation of this tumor.
Symptoms of a thyroid adenoma
As the first symptoms of the disease, weight loss, increased sweating, increased heart rate, anxiety and irritability are noted. When the adenoma greatly increases in size, external changes in the neck are noticeable. In addition, the patient is in pain and has difficulty breathing and swallowing.
Among all types of benign neoplasms that the thyroid gland is susceptible to, the most pronounced symptomatology is toxic adenoma. This type of tumor is accompanied by the production of the greatest amount of thyroid hormones, therefore, the patient undergoes drug treatment before the operation. However, taking drugs most often does not give the full effect. Removal of thyroid adenoma is the only effective approach.
Types of operations for thyroid adenoma
If the tumor has not become malignant, they resort to enucleation of the node. During this procedure, both the capsule and the tumor itself are removed. Thyroid tissue is preserved as much as possible. It is important that they have the same shape, size and structure as in a healthy organ. During the operation, an incision is made on the thyroid gland, through which the cyst and capsule are carefully removed, which are subsequently biopsied. After removal of the tumor, the wound is revised and sutured.
If the neoplasm has acquired a malignant character, or the thyroid gland is significantly damaged, the following types of interventions are performed:
- Hemithyroidectomy. In this case, half of the organ is removed. At the beginning of the operation, an incision is made to gain access to the operated area. Thereafter, the vessels that supply the thyroid gland are ligated and the main part of the procedure begins. The organ is separated from the surrounding tissues, the diseased half is removed, the healthy one is placed in place, the blood supply is restored, the wound is sutured;
- Subtotal resection. Unlike hemithyroidectomy, most of the organ is eliminated here, but the left and right lobes are partially preserved. After such an operation, the thyroid gland is no longer able to cope with the production of hormones on its own. To maintain its functions, constant intake of synthetic hormonal drugs is required;
- Thyroidectomy. This is the most radical surgical option required if the tumor is malignant. In a thyroidectomy, the thyroid gland is removed completely. The body will need help after the surgery, as thyroid hormones are no longer produced. You should be prepared for the fact that taking hormonal drugs will need to be carefully conducted for the rest of your life.
The possibility of complications cannot be ruled out. Patients after thyroidectomy often suffer from impaired calcium metabolism in the body, problems with the larynx and voice. In addition, the procedure may result in bleeding and damage to nerve cells around the thyroid gland. Deprived of some parts, the organ ceases to produce hormones in the required amounts.
Features of the operation for thyroid adenoma
If the doctor insists on surgery, a date should be set immediately. Delay can lead to various complications: an increase in the size of the tumor or its malignancy (malignancy).
All the necessary analyzes and studies that are required by the anesthesiologist and surgeon are carried out in advance to select the optimal variant of anesthesia and determine the tactics of intervention. These specialists should ask all your questions about thyroid surgery in order to get rid of unnecessary fears and anxiety. Usually, the surgeon immediately warns of possible complications, which are of two types: nonspecific, for example, suppuration in the wound area, bleeding, which are not a big problem and are well treated. Damage to the larynx, nerves and nearby tissues is considered specific.
The surgery is performed under general anesthesia. With the competent work of the anesthesiologist, pain relief does not give side effects. The duration of the operation is several hours. In some cases, after its completion, drainage is installed. It will be removed a day after the surgery. Over the next day, the patient needs to stay in bed in a regular ward, where he gets immediately after the removal of the thyroid adenoma. After a few more days, you can go home, having previously discussed the treatment in the postoperative period with your doctor.
Usually, postoperative therapy involves the use of hormonal drugs, which is carried out for a long time or for life. Regular visits to the endocrinologist prevent recurrence of thyroid adenoma. Observation should be carried out on the basis of analyzes. Their results allow you to adjust drug treatment and monitor hormone levels. Simple patient monitoring of his condition and careful administration of medications will help to avoid complications.
The author of the article: Kuzmina Vera Valerievna | Endocrinologist, nutritionist
Education: Diploma of the Russian State Medical University named after NI Pirogov with a degree in General Medicine (2004). Residency at Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry, diploma in Endocrinology (2006).