Itching in the anus in women and men
Itching in the anus is quite painful. The feeling of severe discomfort makes a person scratch the anus, which is often accompanied by injuries. The problem of anal itching is quite delicate, but since it can touch any person, regardless of gender and age, it must be discussed and solved.
The causes of itching in the anus can be both commonplace factors, consisting in the lack of intimate hygiene, and serious bowel diseases. Anal itching of an unexplained etiology has a serious impact on the quality of life, worsening it: performance decreases, mood deteriorates, normal communication becomes difficult, etc.
Often people are silent about the fact that they experience constant discomfort in the form of itching in the anus, delaying the visit to the doctor. The reasons lie in the banal feeling of shame and fear of hearing a serious diagnosis. In addition, many patients simply do not know which doctor to turn to. Meanwhile, the cause of anal itching can be quite serious, up to oncological diseases (the first symptoms, stages and treatment of rectal cancer).
- Causes of itching in the anus in women and men
- If itching in the anus is accompanied by blood, what to do?
- Treatment of itching in the anus in women and men
- Which doctor treats itching in the anus?
Causes of itching in the anus in women and men
Diseases of the rectum. Often it is intestinal pathologies that provoke the onset of a burning sensation and itching in the anal area.
- Genital warts or warts. This is a viral disease that affects the skin, including the anus. It is caused by the human papillomavirus. Condylomas can provoke itching in the anus in men and women, impede its hygiene, cause psychological discomfort, etc.
- Anal fissures. These defects can be triggered by mechanical damage (during childbirth, during an invasive examination of the rectum, with the incorrect introduction of the enema tip, etc.), infectious and inflammatory processes in the rectum (hemorrhoids, paraproctitis, sphincteritis, etc.) and various diseases of the body as a whole (HIV, leukemia, syphilis, etc.). Cracks can cause itching and pain, bleeding.
Anorectal fistulas. They are pathological canals that grow from the anus or rectum and open near the anus. They can occur against the background of infectious diseases or are congenital malformations. Fistulas are usually painless, but can cause itching and irritation in the affected area. They are also characterized by all sorts of secretions, most often pus-like and serous.
- Rectal polyposis. Rectal polyps are formations that have different shapes. They are characterized by multiple symptoms, mainly associated with disruption of the digestive system. When close to the anus, they provoke severe itching.
- Internal hemorrhoids. Hemorrhoids are characterized by enlargement of internal hemorrhoids. As the disease progresses, bleeding of varying intensity may occur. The development of hemorrhoids provokes inappropriate nutrition, excessive or insufficient physical activity, the period of gestation and childbirth.
- External hemorrhoids. In addition to the itching sensation, this disease causes a feeling of heaviness in the anus that occurs after bowel movement. Blood is released from the anus, cracks and pain may appear. The reasons for the appearance of external nodes are similar to the reasons for the development of internal hemorrhoids.
- Chronic proctosigmoiditis. The inflammatory process in which the rectum is involved. With exacerbations of the disease, an increase in body temperature occurs, flatulence, a feeling of nausea, diarrhea occur. In the anal area there is a feeling of a foreign object, pain and itching occur.
- Malignant neoplasms. They are characterized by multiple symptoms that appear mainly at the later stages of the development of the disease. The closer the tumor is to the outer rectal opening, the greater the discomfort in the anal area.
Parasitic infection. Helminthic invasions in the intestine are often accompanied by itching in the anal area. Most often, itching is provoked by pinworms. Mostly children and adolescents are infected with these parasites, but carriage in adulthood is not excluded. While a person is resting (at night), the female pinworm crawls out and lays eggs around the anus. This process causes discomfort and causes the parasite-infected child or adult to scratch the anus. In addition to ascariasis, a person may suffer from infection with other types of helminths, which will also provoke a burning sensation and itching.
Giardiasis is also able to provoke an itching sensation, since when lamblia multiplies, especially in large quantities, intestinal irritation occurs. This provokes diarrhea and cramping pain in the lower abdomen. Frequent loose stools are the cause of irritation and itching of the anus. In addition, giardiasis manifests itself in the form of a rash over the body, including in the perineal region, which is another irritating factor.
- Intestinal dysbiosis. Any indigestion, gastrointestinal diseases, diarrhea, constipation - all this provokes discomfort in the anal area. Dysbacteriosis is characterized by irritation of the intestines, its mucous membrane, which causes diarrhea.
Gynecological diseases in women, prostatitis and urethritis in men. Infectious diseases of the genitourinary system can provoke a feeling of itching and burning in women, not only in the perineum, but also in the anus. Among such genital infections are trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, chlamydia. In addition, thrush or candidiasis is an extremely common cause of vaginal itching. Since the anus is located nearby, the mycotic lesion is capable of capturing this area as well.
- The presence of pubic lice can also, in some cases, provoke an itching sensation in the anus.
- Itching in young children. Most often, in young children, an itching sensation in the anus occurs due to the formation of diaper rash. They are formed as a result of inadequate hygiene of the child. Thrush can cause itching, as candidiasis can affect young children (more: rash and itching in a child).
- Skin pathologies and other irritants. A person's tendency to various reactions of an allergic nature, as well as the presence of skin diseases, can cause incessant itching. Among such diseases are dermatitis, psoriasis, seborrheic eczema, lichen planus, phthiriasis. Allergic reactions, in turn, can occur to food, to drugs, to chemicals. To eliminate unpleasant symptoms, it will be necessary to exclude contact with the allergen.
External stimuli. Irritation can occur due to insufficient hygiene, when a person does not take a shower for several days, or does not do enough hygiene. In addition, poor-quality toilet paper, the inclusion of fragrances and dyes, and the wearing of synthetic underwear with rough inner seams are often an irritant. G-strings are a common cause of anal itching in women. In addition to severe discomfort, many of these factors can cause the appearance of microscopic cracks, which are the entrance gate for infection and the further onset of the inflammatory process.
- Overweight. Overweight people and people with increased sebaceous glands often experience discomfort in the anal area. This is due to the rubbing of the skin of the perineum and due to the irritating effect of sweat. As a result, diaper rash forms in people, which cause severe discomfort.
- Diabetes. Itching of the groin and anus may indicate the presence of diabetes. Naturally, this is not the most striking sign of the disease, but in combination with other symptoms, it may indicate an increase in blood glucose levels. See also: causes, signs and symptoms of diabetes.
- Liver disease. Due to insufficient blood purification against the background of liver disease, rashes may appear on the body. This also applies to the anus and the perineal area. The rash can irritate the skin and cause itching. Discomfort may also be felt with biliary dyskinesia and with pathologies of the pancreas.
- Depressive disorders, increased levels of anxiety, mental abnormalities. Diseases of the nervous and mental sphere can provoke itching in any part of the body, as the sensitivity and irritability of the skin increases. In addition, there are people who suffer from an obsessive desire for cleanliness. This forces them to shower several times a day, including using soap. As a result, the skin is defatted, dries up and becomes vulnerable to a variety of endogenous and exogenous irritants.
- Idiopathic anal itching. This is the primary anal itching, which is also called essential and neurogenic. This form of the disease develops for no apparent reason. Itching is provoked by the fact that the mucus present in it is difficult to retain in the intestine. It flows out and provokes irritation of the nerve endings.
If you ignore the problem of itching in the anus, then it will lead to the fact that the person will constantly be in a vicious circle. He has discomfort, which provokes itching, he begins to scratch the anus, the itching intensifies, causing even more discomfort.
Itching in the anus after antibiotics
After taking antibacterial agents, itching often occurs in the anus. Most often, this symptom is associated with the development of intestinal dysbiosis. Destroying the harmful bacteria that caused a particular disease, antibiotics simultaneously disrupt the work of the intestines, since they have a detrimental effect on the beneficial microorganisms in it.
Itching associated with dysbiosis after antibiotics can occur for the following reasons:
- Taking medication was unreasonable, which often happens with self-treatment;
- The drug used for the treatment was of poor quality;
- The dosage of the drug was calculated incorrectly;
- There were violations of the treatment regimen;
- The course of treatment was too long.
As for the various groups of drugs, most often tetracycline antibiotics lead to the formation of dysbiosis and its pronounced symptom in the form of itching. They have a detrimental effect on the upper layer of the intestine, which becomes a favorable environment for increasing the activity of pathogenic microflora. While aminoglycosides only inhibit the growth and reproduction of beneficial bacteria. As for the fungicidal antibacterial agents, they affect the growth of proteinaceous and lactose-negative bacteria. Aminopenicillins favor the growth of staphylococcal and streptococcal flora.
However, intestinal dysbiosis can develop even with an individually selected treatment regimen drawn up by a doctor. In addition to itching, the person suffers from stool disturbance and bloating.
Also, taking antibacterial drugs of a wide spectrum of action can cause thrush, which is the cause of itching in the anus. The anatomical structure of a woman's perineum is such that the vagina and anus are located in close proximity to each other. The reproduction of mycotic organisms always provokes itching, which, among other things, affects the anus.
It is quite simple to prevent the possible development of dysbiosis and thrush. To do this, it is necessary to take antibacterial agents exclusively as prescribed by a doctor and, if there is a risk, use prebiotics and probiotics.
Itching in the anus after emptying
If itching occurs in a person immediately after he has emptied the intestines, then this may be due to a weakening of the function of the anal sphincter.
This problem occurs in 3 - 7% of people and can be caused by the following reasons:
- Damage to muscle tissue and intestinal mucosa as a result of surgical interventions, due to birth trauma, after anal sex, after endoscopic examinations, with improper use of an enema, etc.;
- Diseases of the nervous system, especially the spinal cord;
- An inflammatory process that helps to reduce the sensitivity of nerve receptors and enhances intestinal motility. This occurs in diseases such as tumors of the anus, strictures, hemorrhoids. See also: the reasons for the development of hemorrhoids;
- Congenital malformations of the anorectal region.
The proctologist is involved in the treatment of insufficiency of the sphincter of the anus.
Worms as the cause of itching in the anus
Infection with parasitic organisms often leads to anal itching. This is due to the reproduction cycle of worms. Adult roundworms live in the intestines of an infected person for up to a year and continue to lay eggs continuously. Some of them come out with feces. However, at night, the female can crawl out of the anus and lay eggs around it. This causes severe discomfort, forcing the person to scratch the anal area. As a result, the eggs of the worms attach to the hands of the patient, and then, falling into the mouth and passing through the intestinal tract, they again enter the intestines, where new individuals are formed. Infection with worms requires specialized treatment with anthelmintic drugs and careful adherence to the rules of personal hygiene.
Itching in the anus at night
Itching at night in the anal area most often indicates a parasitic infection. Once the parasites are removed, itching should stop.
In addition, there is an increase in itching during a night's rest in inflammatory diseases, in particular, in hemorrhoids. At this time, the number of external stimuli sharply decreases, itching and discomfort from the existing inflamed node come to the fore. Therefore, if itching in the anus increases at night, it is imperative to consult a doctor.
If itching in the anus is accompanied by blood, what to do?
The occurrence of itching in the anus and the discharge of blood is a reason for immediate medical attention. The reasons for this condition can be quite serious.
- Colorectal cancer;
- Ulcerative lesions of the intestines and stomach;
- Crohn's disease;
- Intestinal infections;
- Cracks in the anus and hemorrhoids;
- Blood disorders such as mesenteric thrombosis and leukemia;
- STDs (sexually transmitted diseases), etc.
It is urgent to seek help from a doctor and call an ambulance if itching in the anus occurs:
- With profuse and persistent bleeding from the anus;
- When vomiting blood is added;
- With concurrent nosebleeds and hematomas;
- With a significant deterioration in general condition;
- With an increase in body temperature and severe pain in the abdomen.
If, against the background of itching, a person discovers a slight discharge of blood, which is visible on the feces, then he needs to make an appointment with either a proctologist or a therapist.
The doctor will prescribe a series of studies, after listening to the patient's complaints. Possible diagnostic methods include:
- Analysis of feces for occult blood.
In any case, until the cause of the appearance of blood from the anus against the background of the existing itching is clarified, any treatment should be avoided. The appearance of blood does not always indicate the presence of serious diseases, however, this is a reason for undergoing a comprehensive examination.
Treatment of itching in the anus in women and men
Therapy for itching in the anus depends on the reasons for which it was caused:
- If non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene leads to anal itching, then the person does not need treatment. It is enough to adjust the frequency and thoroughness of hygiene procedures, and the problem will be eliminated. The same applies to too thorough and frequent washing with soap. After the act of defecation, it is necessary to use antibacterial wipes that well clean the anal area from feces. This is especially true for young children prone to diaper rash;
- It is important to reconsider the diet, since the abuse of salty, spicy and pickled foods can provoke itching in the anus. Adherence to a diet will help overweight people get rid of itching through weight loss;
- Underwear should be made from quality materials. It is necessary to select panties by size. Women should avoid wearing thongs. It is especially dangerous to wear synthetic underwear, as it has poor air permeability, provokes increased work of sweat and gonads, which becomes a favorable environment for the development of pathogenic microorganisms;
- For dermatitis, doctors recommend using topical ointments. They may include hydrocortisone, salicylic acid, or zinc;
- With fungal infections, the use of antimycotics will be required. Triderm, Onbet, Clotrimazole, Posterisan can help;
- You can get rid of hemorrhoids with the help of ointments such as Aurobin, Relief, Proctosan, Hepatrombin. They relieve inflammation, help reduce itching;
- In advanced and severe cases, it is necessary to resort to surgical treatment. It is prescribed for the detection of internal hemorrhoids, with polypous growths in the rectum, with oncological diseases of the intestine;
- When the itching has been triggered by a parasitic infection, careful personal hygiene, frequent bed linen change and the use of antihelminthic medications are necessary. These are, for example, Pirantel, Nemozol, Vermox, Albendazole, etc. All personal belongings must be washed and ironed. Every act of bowel movement requires anal hygiene. The anus should be washed using soap;
- When the cause of itching is STDs, candidiasis or general diseases of the body, then specific treatment is required, which is selected on an individual basis;
- If, according to the test results, no disease was diagnosed, then it makes sense to suspect latent proctosigmoiditis. To get rid of it, the patient will need to adhere to a diet, use skin ointments, as well as enemas with collargol;
- When neuroses and psychosis become the cause of the itching of the anus, sedatives are prescribed to the patient. They are selected in accordance with the severity of the disease found in a particular patient;
- Taking antihistamines, for example, Loratadine or Cetirizine, identifying and eliminating the allergen - all this is necessary for itching caused by an allergic reaction.
Ointment for itching in the anus
There are ointments that can get rid of itching in the anus, which occurs for a variety of reasons:
- Heparin ointment. The main active ingredient in its composition can have a detrimental effect on bacterial microorganisms. It is often prescribed to treat external hemorrhoids. The ointment can be used while breastfeeding and during pregnancy. Heparin is a safe substance and does not affect the health of women and children;
- Ointment Relief. This drug is also used for the local treatment of hemorrhoids, to rid a person of rectal fissures, and is also prescribed for other diseases that provoke itching in the anus. You can also purchase Relief in tablet form and in the form of rectal suppositories;
- Fleming's ointment. Refers to homeopathic medicines that can complement the main treatment of uncomplicated hemorrhoids, allergic dermatitis. The course of therapy can be a week, depending on the severity of the disease;
- Ointment Proctosan is capable of providing local anti-inflammatory, astringent and anesthetic effects. Due to the active substances that make up the drug, it is often prescribed for itching caused by cracks in the anus, anal eczema, proctitis and hemorrhoids;
- Celestoderm. In the form of cream and ointment (analogues - Akriderm, Betliben, Beloderm). Used for itching of the anus, provoked by allergic reactions or inflammatory processes. This ointment belongs to glucocorticosteroid drugs, therefore it should be prescribed exclusively by a doctor. This ointment is used for neurodermatitis, eczema, dermatitis, psoriasis, senile itching;
- Troxevasin, available in the form of a gel. It is possible to use analogs - Troxevenol, Troxerutin. The main active ingredient is a derivative of rutin and is able to have an anti-inflammatory effect, relieve puffiness, and reduce capillary permeability. It is used for anal itching accompanied by bleeding. However, you should not apply the drug to the skin in violation of their integrity;
- Aurobin is an ointment designed to get rid of the inflammatory processes of the anogenital zone. Lidocaine, which is part of it, helps relieve pain, itching and burning in the affected area. The use of Aurobin is shown for fistulas, anal fissures, eczema, erythema, dermatitis. The maximum duration of treatment without interruption is a week;
- Belogent is an ointment that can relieve itching of the anus, has anti-inflammatory and antihistamine effects. It can be used for itching caused by allergic reactions, for dermatitis, for inflammatory diseases, accompanied by the addition of a bacterial infection. The maximum duration of treatment with this drug without interruption is 4 weeks;
- Hepatrombin G. This is an effective remedy for eliminating itching of the anus. It has a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect, helps to get rid of hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fistulas and eczema. The maximum treatment period is 20 days. Perhaps the external use of the drug, as well as its introduction directly into the rectum;
- Cortonitol-Darnitsa. The main active ingredients in the ointment are nitazole and hydrocortisone acetate. The ointment has an anti-inflammatory effect combined with antiseptic properties. This combination drug is used to get rid of anal ulcers and anal fissures, Crohn's disease and proctitis. The drug eliminates the itching of the anus well.
Which doctor treats itching in the anus?
A doctor who deals with the treatment of all diseases of the rectum and intestines as a whole is a proctologist or coloproctologist. To get to him for an appointment, a preliminary consultation with a therapist may be required. In addition, women often need an additional examination by a gynecologist, and men - by a urologist or andrologist. If necessary, a dermatovenerologist, oncologist, gastroenterologist and other specialized specialists are involved in the treatment.
Author of the article: Lebedev Andrey Sergeevich | Urologist
Education: Diploma in the specialty "Andrology" received after completing residency at the Department of Endoscopic Urology of the Russian Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education in the urological center of the Central Clinical Hospital No. 1 of JSC Russian Railways (2007). Postgraduate studies were completed here by 2010.