What is hypercoagulation? Symptoms and Treatment
Hypercoagulation is a condition of the blood system, in which its coagulation system exhibits increased activity. Hypercoagulation can develop on its own or be a symptom of another disease. With the pathological activity of the blood coagulation system in the body, the risk of blood clots increases. These blood clots are loose and not elastic.
Blood is a liquid that carries oxygen and nutrients to organ tissues. Blood is represented by two components: plasma and cells that float freely in it. In a quantitative ratio, "blood cells - plasma" look like "4: 6". If this ratio is violated, and the amount of cellular elements increases, then this leads to thickening of the blood.
Such a condition cannot be ignored, since it poses a threat to human health and life. Increased blood viscosity is dangerous for body tissues, as it disrupts the processes of their oxidation and regeneration.
Primary hypercoagulation refers to the pathology that is inherited. Secondary hypercoagulability develops throughout life due to the effects on the body of various pathological factors.
- What can trigger the development of hypercoagulability?
- Carrying a baby and blood hypercoagulability
- Symptoms of hypercoagulability and diagnosis of the disorder
- How is hypercoagulability treated?
What can trigger the development of hypercoagulability?
Hypercoagulation of blood can be caused by a wide variety of reasons, including:
- Carrying a baby. The blood thickens due to changes in the body.
- Vomiting and diarrhea, increased urination against the background of diabetes mellitus, pathology of the urinary system, lung disease, trauma and burns - all these factors can provoke the development of blood hypercoagulation. The faster the body loses its fluid reserves, the thicker its blood becomes. Dehydration negatively affects the functioning of the brain, the state of the cardiovascular system. To interrupt the progression of hypercoagulability, it is necessary to stop further dehydration and restore the water-sodium balance in the body.
- Taking medications, such as hormonal contraceptives, negatively affects the flow of blood, thickening it. After refusal from drugs of this group, the blood concentration is normalized.
Errors in nutrition, eating too fatty foods entails an increase in blood cholesterol levels, which makes the blood thick and viscous. In order for it to continue flowing through the vessels, the heart has to work in an enhanced mode.
- The penetration of pathogenic agents into the body: viruses, bacteria, parasites.
- Hereditary and acquired during life fermentopathies contribute to the slowing down of blood flow and its thickening.
- Liver pathologies such as hepatitis and cirrhosis cause microcirculation disorders and tissue nutritional problems.
- Cancer diseases: myoma, hemangioma, leukemia lipoma, myeloma.
- Hereditary predisposition to blood hypercoagulability.
- Pathologies of the circulatory system: thrombophilia, atherosclerotic disease, erythremia, varicose veins, disseminated intravascular coagulation.
- Bad habits and unhealthy lifestyle: smoking, insufficient physical activity.
- Operations performed on the heart valves.
- Systemic pathologies: systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis, scleroderma.
- Disorders in the adrenal glands, amyloidosis.
Anyone can develop hypercoagulability. If this happens, then you need to seek medical help. It is forbidden to choose and take blood thinners on your own.
Mechanisms that lead to the development of hypercoagulability:
- An increase in the number of procoagulants in the blood, an increase in their activity. A similar situation develops against the background of thrombocytosis, hyperfibrinogenemia, hyperprothrombinemia.
- Shock, sepsis, burns, disseminated intravascular coagulation - all these conditions increase the activity of anticoagulants.
- Thrombotic syndrome, damaged vascular walls, vasculitis, atherosclerosis - these disorders cause a lack of fibrinolytic blood factors and provoke malfunctions in their work.
With a severe course of hypercoagulation, blood clots form in the vessels, which disrupt the blood flow, can cause severe health complications, and also pose a threat to life.
Carrying a baby and blood hypercoagulability
The blood often becomes thicker in women who are in position. The body independently activates the blood coagulation system in order to avoid its massive losses during labor.
Besides the fact that hypercoagulability in pregnant women can be physiological, it can also be caused by pathological reasons, including:
- Diseases of the internal organs.
- Genetic abnormalities.
- Stressful situations, emotional excitement and depressive moods.
- Age over 40.
Women who are carrying a child should donate blood for a coagulogram once every 30 days. If the test results indicate developing hypercoagulation, then the doctor will select safe medicines for the expectant mother. You should not refuse therapy, since hypercoagulation threatens with serious problems, for example, rapid aging of the placenta, delayed development of the child, and even his intrauterine death.
Symptoms of hypercoagulability and diagnosis of the disorder
Most often, hypercoagulation develops against the background of other diseases, but it can also be an independent pathology. In this case, she will not give severe symptoms. A slow blood flow against the background of its thickening leads to the formation of a thrombus. They can provoke headaches, increased fatigue, a violation of general well-being. A person is always depressed, suffers from constant thirst, hands and feet always remain cool.
Sometimes blood hypercoagulation does not manifest itself at all. In this case, it can only be detected during laboratory tests. If treatment is not started on time, this will lead to the formation of blood clots and hemorrhagic complications.
Diagnosis of blood hypercoagulation is reduced to performing a coagulogram and examining blood clotting parameters. They also perform a general blood test, assess the hematocrit, examine the acid-base balance of the blood. The intake of fluid is carried out from a vein.
The above studies are enough to make a diagnosis.
How is hypercoagulability treated?
The treatment of hypercoagulability should be handled by a doctor who selects an individual therapeutic regimen. First of all, it is necessary to establish the factors that provoked an increase in blood viscosity, and direct efforts to eliminate them.
In general, the treatment of hypercoagulability is reduced to the following steps:
- Prescription of drugs that thin the blood and prevent blood clots from forming: Thrombotic ACC, Cardiomagnet, Aspirin.
- Prescription of anticoagulant drugs: Warfarin, Heparin, Fragmin.
- Appointment of fibrinolytics: Streptase, Thromboflux, Fortelizin.
- To relieve spasms, No-shpa, Papaverine, Spazmalgon are prescribed.
- To reduce inflammation, Ibuprofen, Indomethacin are used.
- Vascular preparations: Curantil, Pentoxifylline.
- If the cause of blood hypercoagulation is a bacterial infection, then the patient is prescribed antibiotics: Cefazolin, Azithromycin, Contrikal, etc.
- With the threat of shock, the patient is transfused with saline, heparin-enriched plasma, Reopolyglucin, albumin solution.
- Erythrocyte mass is transfused to patients with diagnosed anemia and decreased hematocrit.
- Prednisolone and Dexamethasone are administered for systemic pathologies.
If the patient's condition is serious, then he is prescribed a transfusion of colloidal and crystalloid solutions, or the blood of a donor. This is required against the background of massive blood loss.
After consulting a doctor, you can use traditional medicine. So, an alternative to Aspirin can be a tincture of meadowsweet. A decoction of hawthorn fruits, meadow clover, valerian root, yellow melissa and lemon balm has a positive effect on the state of the cardiovascular system.
To improve the fluidity of your blood, you need to stick to a diet. You need to eat foods boiled, stewed, or steamed. Fried foods should be excluded. The menu should contain foods rich in vitamin E, which can thin the blood. You should not give up fermented milk drinks, fresh vegetables and fruits. Low-fat varieties of meat and fish should be chosen. Sprouted wheat and seafood are useful. Fresh berries must be present on the table. Fatty, pickled, bakery products should be excluded from the menu. Refuse to use potatoes, buckwheat, alcoholic beverages, drinks with gases.
All patients diagnosed with hypercoagulability should adhere to the following doctor's advice:
- Quit smoking and drinking alcohol.
- Adhere to the principles of good nutrition.
- Do sport.
- Get enough rest.
- Minimize stressful situations.
- Maintain a healthy lifestyle.
- Timely visit a doctor and take tests.
Further development of the disease depends on the cause, which has become a provoking factor of hypercoagulation, as well as on the severity of violations from the blood system.
People who are at risk are subject to regular examination: women in position, pensioners, cancer patients.
The author of the article: Shutov Maxim Evgenievich | Hematologist
Education: In 2013 he graduated from the Kursk State Medical University and received a diploma "General Medicine". After 2 years, completed residency in the specialty "Oncology". In 2016 completed postgraduate studies at the National Medical and Surgical Center named after N. I. Pirogov.