Hypoproteinemia is an abnormally low level of protein in the blood plasma. Normally, in a healthy person, the protein content is 63-83 g / l or 7-8% of the serum part of the blood.
The total protein is represented by albumin and globulins. Hypoproteinemia is said to be when the protein level drops to 63 g / l and below.
The reasons for the development of this condition can be very diverse, but without any external or internal factors, the protein in the blood does not fall below normal. Sometimes inaccuracies in nutrition lead to hypoproteinemia, and sometimes much more serious diseases. Accelerated protein breakdown negatively affects health. Therefore, it is necessary to find out the reasons for its fall and eliminate them.
- Causes of hypoproteinemia
- Symptoms of hypoproteinemia
- Diagnosis of hypoproteinemia
- Treatment of hypoproteinemia
- Prediction and prevention of hypoproteinemia
Causes of hypoproteinemia
The reasons that can provoke hypoproteinemia:
- Compliance with the strictest diet with a sharp restriction of protein foods.
- Chronic malnutrition due to some kind of external or internal factors.
- Diseases of the digestive system, which do not allow the protein to be fully absorbed by the body. It can be colitis, enteritis, narrowing of the esophagus, etc.
- Liver damage: hepatitis, liver failure, or cirrhosis. As a result of these pathological processes, protein synthesis in the body will be disrupted.
- Congenital diseases that lead to the inability of the body to produce certain protein compounds, for example, Konovalov-Wilson disease.
- Accelerated destruction of proteins in the body.
The reasons for this condition may be as follows:
- The presence of a malignant tumor in the body.
- The resulting burn with damage to large areas of the body.
- Postponed surgical interventions.
- High body temperature that persists for a long time.
- Long-term treatment with corticosteroid drugs.
- Regular physical activity, unbearable for the human body.
- Excessive excretion of protein in the urine. A similar problem develops in diabetes mellitus, glomerulonephritis, ascites, chronic diarrhea, nephrotic syndrome, etc.
- A low level of protein in the blood is observed with developing ascites and exudative pleurisy.
Against the background of massive blood loss, protein will leave the body along with the blood.
- Traumatic shock.
Separately, it should be noted the relative hypoproteinemia. In this condition, a decrease in the level of protein in the blood occurs due to a change in the water content in the bloodstream.
The reasons for this violation:
- Excessive fluid intake (overhydration).
- Decreased urine output, or complete cessation of urination.
- Massive intravenous infusion of glucose in patients suffering from kidney disease.
- Excessive flow of vasopressin into the bloodstream. This hormone promotes fluid retention in the body.
Distinguish between true and false hypoproteinemia. True hypoproteinemia can be primary, that is, it develops in a person from birth, for example, with Bruton's disease. Secondary true hypoproteinemia manifests itself throughout life, for example, with burn disease.
False, or as it is also called, hemodilutionary hypoproteinemia develops against the background of hypervolemia, for example, with renal failure.
Sometimes the reasons for the decrease in the level of protein in the blood cannot be determined. In this case, they speak of essential hypoproteinemia. This violation is rare.
Symptoms of hypoproteinemia
Blood proteins are a vehicle for various substances and are also responsible for the oncotic pressure of blood plasma. To a greater extent, the load lies with albumin, which carry fatty acids, lipids, bilirubin, etc. Albumin is also predominantly responsible for maintaining blood pressure. However, this does not mean that globulins circulate in the blood plasma without any functional load. They are responsible for the state of human immunity, take part in lipid metabolism, carry vitamins, ions of copper, calcium and iron.
It is not surprising that hypoproteinemia is accompanied by serious disorders in the body.
A decrease in the concentration of total protein in blood plasma can manifest itself with the following symptoms:
- The osmotic pressure of the blood decreases, which leads to the release of fluid outside the vascular bed. From the blood collaterals, it penetrates into the surrounding tissues. As a result, the patient has edema all over the body or locally. Most often, they are especially noticeable in the lower limbs.
- Nutrients are transported to the internal organs more slowly.
- Antibody production slows down. As a result, the body becomes vulnerable to infections. Immunodeficiency is especially pronounced in childhood.
With a sharp decrease in the level of proteins in the blood, a sharp effusion of fluid into various tissues and organs can occur.
This threatens the following complications:
- The patient develops ascites if the effusion occurs in the peritoneal cavity.
- Arrhythmia and pericarditis are observed when fluid enters the pericardium.
- Pleurisy, or pneumonia, develops in patients who have pleural effusion.
Hypoproteinemia during pregnancy
Hypoproteinemia during pregnancy indicates developing gestosis. Other symptoms of this formidable complication are: increased body weight, the formation of edema, high blood pressure, and a tendency to seizures. Gestosis requires urgent medical attention, as it poses a threat not only to health, but also to the life of the mother and fetus.
With a critically low level of protein in the blood, the fetus develops thrombocytopenia and malnutrition. The pregnant woman herself has severe nephropathy. Therefore, when the first signs of gestosis appear, the pregnant woman needs to be urgently hospitalized.
Diagnosis of hypoproteinemia
To determine hypoproteinemia, it is necessary to take blood for biochemical analysis. Blood is drawn from a vein. Hypoproteinemia is indicated by a decrease in plasma protein levels to 63 g / l and below.
After detecting hypoproteinemia, the doctor will prescribe the patient a set of additional examinations aimed at establishing the cause of the sharp drop in the level of protein in the blood.
Treatment of hypoproteinemia
Treatment of hypoproteinemia involves the following measures:
- If the drop in the level of protein in the blood was caused by inaccuracies in nutrition, then you need to change your own diet. Foods that are rich in protein: poultry, beef, veal, pork, fish, eggs, cheese.
- If liver disease has led to hypoproteinemia, then the patient is prescribed hepatoprotectors, vitamin-mineral complexes, glucose. In severe cases, an operation to remove part of the organ or a liver transplant is required.
- When the protein level falls against the background of impaired renal function, the patient is prescribed diuretic drugs, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory drugs. Hemodialysis is possible.
- With malabsorption syndrome, enzymes and probiotics are prescribed, and the patient's diet is also adjusted.
In addition to treating the underlying disease that led to a decrease in the level of protein in the blood, anabolic steroids (Retabolil) may be prescribed. They are aimed at enhancing protein production. In case of an acute lack of albumin, the patient is given an infusion of solutions of Lactoprotein, Aminoven, etc.
When fluid is expelled into the pleural area or peritoneum, aspiration is required.
Prediction and prevention of hypoproteinemia
If hypoproteinemia is provoked by an unbalanced diet, then the prognosis for recovery is as favorable as possible. In other cases, it depends on the underlying cause of the drop in protein in the blood. The developing nephropathy of pregnant women most often requires its interruption.
In order to prevent hypoproteinemia, it is necessary to eat correctly and in a balanced manner, as well as to treat diseases of the liver, kidneys and organs of the digestive system in time.