2023 Author: Josephine Shorter | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-24 11:52
What are the types of anemia and how are they different?
Anemia characterizes the state of the body in which the level of hemoglobin in erythrocytes is significantly reduced. Hemoglobin provides a substance containing iron, and red blood cells are red blood cells. There are several types of anemia, each of which is accompanied by a number of specific symptoms and develops for different reasons. Anemia is a pathology that affects adults and children alike. Anemia can accompany other diseases.
To detect this violation, laboratory tests are required. Often, anemia acts only as a concomitant symptom of a serious illness in the body. The deterioration of the quality characteristics of blood leads to the fact that the functioning of the whole organism as a whole suffers.
- Anemia: Symptoms and Causes
- Iron deficiency anemia
- B12 deficiency anemia
- Folate deficiency anemia
- Hemolytic anemia
- Aplastic anemia
Anemia: Symptoms and Causes
The symptoms of anemia, regardless of its type, will be determined by the severity of the course of the disease and the general state of human health.
Anemia leads to hypoxia of internal organs and tissues, which causes disturbances in their work.
The most common symptoms of anemia include:
- Pallor of the skin and mucous membranes. Sometimes they can give off yellowness.
- The person feels tired all the time.
- Sleepiness increases during the daytime, despite the fact that the person gets enough sleep at night.
- At regular intervals, the patient is worried about dizziness, which can end in fainting.
- Blood pressure decreases.
- The person often experiences headaches.
- Even with minor physical efforts, shortness of breath appears.
- The pulse is rapid, as is the heartbeat.
- Immunity decreases, which leads to frequent colds.
- The condition of nails and hair deteriorates.
As for the reasons that lead to the development of anemia, they can be very diverse. Distinguish between anemia, inherited, and anemia acquired during life.
Factors that can provoke the development of anemia: bleeding (acute and chronic), diseases (acute and chronic), inaccuracies in nutrition, etc. If a person suspects that he is developing anemia, then it is necessary to consult a doctor. The doctor will prescribe appropriate tests that will confirm the diagnosis. The basic method is to perform a clinical blood test.
There are the following types of anemia:
- Acute iron deficiency anemia and chronic post-hemorrhagic anemia with a lack of iron in the body.
- B12-deficiency anemia.
- Anemia accompanied by a deficiency of folic acid.
- Hemolytic anemia.
- Aplastic anemia.
Iron deficiency anemia
Reasons that can trigger the development of iron deficiency anemia:
- Specific periods in a woman's life, such as pregnancy and breastfeeding.
- In childhood, anemia often develops in babies born prematurely.
- Diseases of the digestive system can lead to anemia.
- Chronic bleeding is a common cause of iron deficiency.
Iron deficiency anemia is indicated by laboratory data such as a decrease in the level of red blood cells, hemoglobin and serum iron in the blood.
One of the signs of iron deficiency in the body is deterioration of the condition of hair and nails, as well as skin peeling. Caries can attack the teeth.
To get rid of iron deficiency anemia, the patient will need to take iron supplements and adhere to a special diet. The doctor should help determine the specific drug. The doctor selects the dose of the drug, and also monitors its effectiveness. If the patient does not tolerate the drug well, then it should be replaced. Provided that iron deficiency anemia is severe, the patient is hospitalized.
Find out more: Iron deficiency anemia: what is it and how is it treated?
B12 deficiency anemia
B12-deficiency anemia develops when the body does not receive enough vitamin B12. This disease is often seen in vegetarians, people on diets. In addition, B12-deficiency anemia can manifest against the background of impaired absorption of this vitamin in the stomach and intestines.
Pregnant women, nursing mothers, the elderly, cancer patients - all these categories of citizens are at risk of developing B12-deficiency anemia.
When examining blood, you can see red blood cells that are large in size. Anemia of this type is indicated by symptoms such as: numbness of the hands and feet, deterioration of their sensitivity, inflammation of the tongue, problems with swallowing food, an increase in the size of the liver and spleen.
Treatment of anemia involves correction of the diet with the inclusion of animal products in the menu. You should also work on the cause of vitamin B12 deficiency.
Find out more: B12 deficiency anemia and folate deficiency
Folate deficiency anemia
When the body lacks vitamin B9 (folic acid), a person develops folate deficiency anemia. Often a similar problem occurs in pregnant and lactating mothers, in premature babies, in patients with cancer, in alcoholics and drug addicts.
Common symptoms of folate deficiency anemia are: increased weakness, increased fatigue, pale skin with a slight yellowish tinge, frequent dizziness.
The body is not able to produce vitamin B9 on its own, it gets it from food. However, at high temperatures, this vitamin is rapidly destroyed. To get rid of folate deficiency anemia, you will need to include foods rich in folic acid in the menu. Perhaps you will need a medical correction of the pathology.
Learn More: Folate Deficiency Anemia
Hemolytic anemia is characterized by massive death of red blood cells, which leads to the development of jaundice. The yellowing of the skin occurs due to an increase in the level of bilirubin in the blood. Often hemolytic anemia is observed in newborns, when the Rh-conflict with the mother becomes a provoking factor.
Hemolytic anemia can be inherited from blood relatives or develop during life. Most often, this pathology is still congenital. Risk factors that can provoke the development of anemia in an adult are: blood transfusion, therapy with a number of drugs, burn disease, bacterial infection, vitamin E deficiency.
The main signs of anemia are: fever, chills, dizziness, enlargement of the spleen in size. Treatment is carried out under strict medical supervision.
Find out more: Symptoms and Treatment of Hemolytic Anemia
Aplastic anemia is a rarely diagnosed disease, but extremely serious. At the same time, there is a decrease in the activity of bone marrow cells, which later themselves stop dividing and die off, being replaced by adipose tissue.
Aplastic anemia develops against the background of exposure to the body of toxic chemicals, with viral infections, with alcoholism. Also, pathology can be hereditary.
Symptoms of aplastic anemia include: increased body temperature, increased weakness, blood from the gums, heavy menstruation, and a tendency to nosebleeds.
Aplastic anemia does not tolerate delay in treatment. The therapy is carried out in a hospital setting.
So, anemia is a rather serious disorder in the hematopoietic system. There are many types of pathology, therefore, in order to make the correct diagnosis, you need to consult a doctor.
Learn More: Aplastic Anemia
The author of the article: Shutov Maxim Evgenievich | Hematologist
Education: In 2013 he graduated from the Kursk State Medical University and received a diploma "General Medicine". After 2 years, completed residency in the specialty "Oncology". In 2016 completed postgraduate studies at the National Medical and Surgical Center named after N. I. Pirogov.