Stages, symptoms and how to treat lichen in humans
Deprive in humans is a combined name for a group of dermatological diseases that have a different etiology, manifested in the appearance of itchy skin rashes. The course of lichen is always long, characterized by periods of exacerbations, with a high risk of developing a secondary infection of the skin. The patient suffers not only from a cosmetic and physical defect, but also from psychological discomfort.
There are several varieties of deprivation in a person, they differ depending on the type of pathogen, on the nature of the rash, on the place of their localization and on the degree of infectiousness.
- Symptoms of lichen in humans
- Causes of deprivation in humans
- Types of deprivation in humans
- Stages of deprivation in humans
- The danger and consequences of deprivation in humans
Answers to popular questions:
- How is lichen spread from person to person?
- What does lichen look like in humans?
- How long does it take for a person to treat lichen?
How to treat lichen in humans?
Symptoms of lichen in humans
The symptoms of lichen in humans are very diverse and largely depend on the type of causative agent of the disease.
Nevertheless, it is possible to identify common signs of this group of dermatological pathologies:
- The pigmentation of the skin changes;
- There are spots on the skin that have a different color, size and shape;
- The skin on the affected area begins to peel off;
- Itching occurs;
- Complete or partial hair loss occurs.
After discovering one or more symptoms of lichen, you need to consult a doctor and determine its type.
Dermatologists have identified the following symptoms of lichen in humans, depending on the type of pathogen:
- Affects the scalp, neck, shoulders and face.
It appears as a pink spot that has clear outlines. The stain peels off, the hair breaks and becomes short. Similar symptoms are characteristic of microsporia.
- Trichophytosis appears as a pink ring. Hair breaks at the root, as it is deeply damaged.
- Affects the back, chest, shoulders, sides, abdomen, folds of skin on the body.
- Spots from pink to light brown, oval or round in shape.
- The skin in the middle of the spot is dry and has a tendency to peel.
- The spots tend to grow, merge into small pink lesions. They can be up to several centimeters in diameter.
- Itchy skin is also common for pink lichen.
- It is possible to spread this type of lichen not only on the scalp, but also on the body.
The appearance of one or several large spots is characteristic.
- The color of the spots is pale pink, in their center there is a peeling area. The edges are edged with a darker roller.
- Hair will break at a distance of 5-8 cm from the root.
- Itching is uncommon for microsporia.
- The spots have different shapes and sizes. Large oval or round lesions predominate. Perhaps they merge with the formation of spots with uneven edges.
- If a person's skin is tanned, then tinea versicolor stands out on it as a discolored spot. In winter, these areas darken.
- The disease has existed for a long time. In this case, the color of the lesions may become greenish or brown.
Peeling is present, but it is not pronounced.
- Severe pain and itching occur on one side of the chest.
- After a short time, the affected area becomes covered with bubbles filled with liquid.
- After a few days, the bubbles burst, a crust appears on their surface.
- A person suffers from severe pain, since nerves and their endings are involved in the pathological process.
- The most dangerous form of herpes zoster is ocular, as a person can permanently lose sight.
- Human skin becomes covered with flat nodules that are red or purple in color.
When involved in the process of mucous membranes, the nodules have a pale pink color.
- If the nail plates are affected, they begin to crumble and collapse.
- With lichen planus, a person always suffers from severe itching.
- New nodules form where the skin is damaged - in the area of scratches and scratches.
- Variants of lesions of the skin with red lichen are as follows: in the form of rings, in the form of red soft bumps, in the form of warts with a bumpy surface, in the form of ulcers and erosions.
Causes of deprivation in humans
The causes of deprivation in humans are infection with a viral or fungal flora.
At this point in time, the following lichen pathogens are known to science:
- Zooanthropophilous fungi that can be transmitted from animal to person. The most common carriers of such fungi are cats or dogs.
- Anthropophilic fungi that can affect exclusively human skin. They are transmitted from one patient to another through direct contact.
- Geophilic fungi, infection with these microorganisms is possible only upon contact with the ground.
- Viruses that provoke pink and shingles. Some of them can exist in the human body and lead to the development of the disease only when the immune system is impaired.
Ringworm can be contracted through close contact with a person or animal that carries the infection.
Pink lichen is of an infectious-allergic nature and is not a highly contagious disease. Most often, a person becomes infected when using common household items. In the presence of persistent immunity, infection does not occur at all.
Microsporia is provoked by such a fungus as microsporium canis. It exists in animal fur and most commonly affects cats. Therefore, the transmission of microsporia occurs from a sick animal to a person. Children are at risk.
Pityriasis versicolor is provoked by fungal microorganisms, the likelihood of the disease increases under the influence of a number of factors. The infection is transmitted most often through the household route, through common household items, or through direct contact with its carrier.
Shingles is herpetic in nature. It can lead to infection upon contact with the herpes virus, or develop after activation of a latent herpes infection that exists in the body.
The reasons for the development of lichen planus are rooted in a person's allergic predisposition, in chronic stress and in viral infections. These are the main assumptions of specialists regarding the etiology of the development of this type of lichen.
The factors-provocateurs influencing the risk of developing the disease are considered to be the following:
- Genetic predisposition;
- Various infectious diseases;
- Stress loads;
- Disorders in the functioning of the immune system;
- Physical stress;
- Autoimmune diseases;
- Diseases of the digestive tract;
- Tendency to allergic reactions;
- Taking certain medications;
- Increased work of the sebaceous and sweat glands;
Failure to comply with the rules of personal hygiene, the use of other people's household items for this purpose;
- Contact with animals, especially homeless ones;
- Endocrine disorders;
- Stress effects on the skin with ultraviolet rays;
- High emotional stress.
Types of deprivation in humans
The types of lichen in humans can be as follows:
- Pink versicolor (versicolor of Zhiber).
- Ringworm, subdivided into microsporia, trichophytosis of smooth skin, or ringworm.
- Herpes zoster.
- Deprive color (pityrious, multi-colored).
- Lichen planus.
Stages of deprivation in humans
The stages of lichen in a person will depend on the type of pathogen that provokes the skin disease.
Nevertheless, there are common features that make it possible to distinguish several successive stages in the development of this dermatological problem:
- The causative agent of the disease gets on the skin, on the scalp or head, on the mucous membrane.
- Depending on the type of fungus or virus, the pathological process starts either immediately or in the presence of favorable factors (a drop in immune defense, taking medications, excessive sweating, etc.);
- One or more spots, nodules, or bubbles appear.
- The spread of foci of infection throughout the body, or an increase in the size of a single formation. Accession of accompanying symptoms (peeling, itching, hyperemia).
- Hair loss in the affected area, or breaking off and thinning.
The period of extinction of the disease and its subsequent relapse in the absence of treatment.
- Possible accession of a secondary skin infection.
The danger and consequences of deprivation in humans
The dangers and consequences of deprivation in humans will also depend on the form of the disease.
Some skin infections go away on their own and do not pose any risk to human health, and some forms can pose a serious threat:
- The dangers of ringworm. Development of inflammation and suppuration of the scalp, followed by loss of hair without the possibility of its restoration. As a result, even after recovery, a person who has had ringworm may have one or several bald spots for life.
Dangers of pink lichen. Pink lichen, as a rule, does not carry any serious health consequences and complications. This disease goes away on its own, after 2-12 weeks. In rare cases, it can drag on for six months.
The dangers of shingles. If a person has had herpes zoster at a young age, then most often he has a complete recovery, without consequences for his body. However, against the background of reduced immunity, the infection can lead to serious complications.
So, the herpes virus can begin to actively divide in the spinal cord and brain. This leads to extensive destruction of brain tissue and can result in paralysis of the limbs, facial nerve, breathing problems and even death of the patient.
Sometimes the herpes virus spreads to the organs of vision. As a result, the eyes become very inflamed, glaucoma may develop, which leads to severe damage to the cornea and complete blindness of a person.
In addition, the herpes virus is able to invade internal organs such as the liver and lungs. It can also lead to severe inflammation.
The dangers of pityriasis versicolor. Pityriasis versicolor does not pose a danger to human life and health. The marks on the skin disappear on their own after the end of the therapeutic course. However, if pityriasis versicolor is not treated, it will progress steadily, albeit slowly, capturing new areas of healthy skin.
Dangers of lichen planus. Lichen planus often does not cause serious health problems. However, this does not always happen. Sometimes, the areas of the skin that have been involved in the pathological process may become darker for a while and stand out against the background of the whole body.
In addition, there is a risk of scarring, scars and depressions in the skin.
If the scalp is affected by lichen planus, it can lead to hair loss without subsequent hair restoration.
If lichen planus was transferred in an erosive form and affected the mucous membranes of the genital organs, then in these places adhesions, scars often occur, narrowing of the vagina, or phimosis may occur.
If the infection has affected the area around the eyes, then there is a risk of loss of vision, or significant narrowing of the lacrimal canal.
Lichen planus can also severely deform the nail plate.
Another serious danger of untreated lichen lichen is an increased risk of developing oral cancer.
Answers to popular questions
How is lichen spread from person to person?
- Pityriasis versicolor is caused by mycotic microorganisms, but it has been established that they can exist on the skin of many people without causing the onset of the disease. Therefore, it does not matter how a person got the fungus that causes this form of lichen. The conditions that contributed to the development of the infection are more important.
- Red flat lichen, pink lichen of Zhiber is not transmitted from person to person.
- Ringworm is a contagious disease and can be spread from person to person. Spores of fungal pathogens can exist for a long time on combs, sofas, on bedding, on a car seat, on soft toys and other objects. Infection occurs through contact with healthy skin.
- Shingles is contagious. It is transmitted from a sick person to a child or adult who has not had chickenpox. A person is contagious only at the moment of the formation of fresh bubbles. When crusts appear on them, the risk of infection disappears. The virus is transmitted by airborne droplets and through direct contact with the patient.
What does lichen look like in humans?
- Pink lichen spots look like a circle or oval with a bright red outlined outline. On top, it has a thin shiny crust, scales or film. The size can vary from a few millimeters to 5 cm. Spots can provoke severe itching.
- Lichen planus appears for the first time on the limbs in the area of the joints. They look like saturated red or purple seals. A few days later, nodules appear on other parts of the body: on the chest, in the groin area, on the trunk. In 10% of cases, the nodules are grouped, subsequently forming a ring (ring-shaped lichen pus). On the fingers, on the lower leg, on the ankle, lichen often takes the form of warts. On the mucous membranes, it appears in the form of bubbles and is called the vesicular form.
- The appearance of ringworm depends on where it forms. On smooth skin, it has the form of a pink spot with a roller that rises above its surface. The roller is represented by small vesicles. Often, within one ring with irregular shapes, a second, smaller ring is formed. On the scalp, ringworm looks like a rounded bald patch that has clear boundaries. The lesions can be quite large and reach 10 cm in diameter. The scalp inside the receding hairline will be covered with a white coating. On the body, ringworm appears as a round, red rash. It tends to merge and forms bright rings. The skin in the center of the plaque will eventually look completely healthy.
- Colored lichen appears as spots that have different sizes and shapes. In summer, on tanned skin, they look light, in winter they darken. Peeling of the skin at the sites of the lesion is insignificant.
- Shingles manifests itself in the form of rashes, in place of the spots, bubbles appear every other day, followed by their rupture and the formation of crusts. Bubbles appear in waves.
How long does it take for a person to treat lichen?
- Pityriasis rosea last from 2 weeks to 4 months. Sometimes the disease can last up to six months.
- Severe cases of lichen planus are treated for 6 weeks.
- Ringworm therapy takes up to 2 months.
- Colored lichen is treated for two weeks.
- The average duration of treatment for herpes zoster is 7-10 days.
On the subject: Treatment of lichen at home
How to treat lichen in humans?
To determine how to treat lichen in a person, it is important to know the type of infection and the type of pathogen. After the diagnosis has been completed, the following therapy can be prescribed:
Pink lichen. Pink lichen does not pose a threat to human health. It goes away on its own, without any treatment and does not cause health problems. Therefore, if a dermatologist diagnoses lichen pink and does not prescribe any treatment, then these are well-founded actions of a competent specialist (for more details: symptoms and treatment of pink lichen in humans).
If a person is worried about itching, then perhaps antihistamines, for example, Suprastin, will be recommended to him.
To speed up the process of restoring the skin, you can follow these recommendations:
- Try to moisten the skin in the affected area as little as possible. It is worth knowing that the fungus spreads through the body with the help of water much faster. Therefore, after taking a shower, the body should be soaked so that no moisture remains on it. But you can't rub your skin. Do not rub the affected area with soap and a washcloth.
- Until the disease has passed, you should avoid wearing synthetic underwear.
- Exposure to ultraviolet rays can worsen the condition. Therefore, too long exposure to the sun should be avoided.
- To prevent excessive sweating, you must refrain from physical activity.
- A diet is not recommended, but it is imperative to refrain from foods that cause allergies. It is highly advisable to exclude alcoholic products.
- It is strictly forbidden to apply hormonal ointments to the affected areas, as well as cosmetic creams and other means.
- To eliminate the risk of a secondary infection, you can wipe the areas with pink lichen with antiseptics.
Ringworm. Ringworm therapy is carried out with the help of antimycotic drugs, since the disease develops as a result of the vital activity of fungi. Antifungal agents are prescribed by mouth, treatment is supplemented with local therapy. Grisiofulvin is considered an effective drug. It must be taken orally. Such drugs as: Itraconazole, Fluconazole, Terbmnafin have a pronounced antifungal effect. The dosage should be selected only by a doctor, self-administration of these medicines is strictly prohibited (in more detail: What is the danger of ringworm? Treatment methods)
Local treatment is carried out with the help of ointments: Clotrimazole, Terbinafine, Mikoseptin, Ketoconazole.
As an antiseptic, it is recommended to apply iodine or sulfuric tar ointment to the areas affected by shingles.
Colored lichen. Colored lichen can be tolerated very well with ultraviolet rays. Therefore, the general recommendation for all patients with tinea versicolor is to sunbathe in the summer (in more detail: What is the danger of pityriasis versicolor? Treatment methods).
In addition, doctors prescribe oral intake of such atimycotics as: Lamisil (Brmizil, Terbizil, Terbinox, etc.), Nizoral (Fungavis, Mycozoral), Orungal (Rumikoz, Irunin, Itrazol).
Local treatment is carried out with the help of Mikospor, Bifosin and other creams and ointments based on clotrimazole or nizoral.
Vidal's milk can be made to order in the pharmacy. It contains boric acid, salicylic acid. Alcohol, camphor and other components that contribute to the speedy recovery and disinfection of the skin.
Another prescription agent is Lassar paste, which has a drying and antiseptic effect.
Lichen planus. With this type of lichen, doctors prescribe antibacterial drugs for oral administration. These can be drugs from the group of tetracyclines, macrolides or aminoglycosides (for more details: treatment of lichen lichen in humans).
For neurotic reactions, sedatives are prescribed, for example, Valerian. In severe cases, the use of tranquilizers is recommended.
If the itching bothers the patient greatly, then a soothing ointment should be applied to the skin. Drugs with thymol, anesthesin, menthol help. After that, antibacterial ointments and hormonal ointments are applied, for example: Oxycort, Lorinden C, Dermozolin, etc.
Herpes zoster. If a person is healthy, and his immune system is in order, then treatment is usually not required and herpes zoster goes away on its own. Pain can be reduced with Ibuprofen, Naproxen or Paracetamol. With severe pain, a person is prescribed Oxycodone, Gabapentin (for more details: treatment of shingles, answers to popular questions).
Sometimes it is required to take antiherpetic drugs: Acyclovir, Valacyclovir, Penciclovir, Famciclovir. An effective modern remedy for topical treatment is Epigen cream with glycyrrhizic acid.
When a bacterial infection is attached, antibiotics are prescribed. In no case should corticosteroid ointments be prescribed for herpes zoster. These funds only aggravate the disease.
The author of the article: Kuzmina Vera Valerievna | Endocrinologist, nutritionist
Education: Diploma of the Russian State Medical University named after NI Pirogov with a degree in General Medicine (2004). Residency at Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry, diploma in Endocrinology (2006).
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