2023 Author: Josephine Shorter | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-24 11:52
Diseases of the anus
Causes and symptoms of diseases of the anus
What are anal diseases?
Disease of the anus is the general name for a wide variety of pathologies of the rectum and perianal region. They can be caused by different reasons and have different clinical manifestations. Among the most common diseases of the anus are anal fissures, rectal ulcers, perianal hematomas, entrapment of hemorrhoids, anal itching, bleeding from the anus, hemorrhoids.
Diseases of the anus are manifested by pain in the rectum, anal itching, bleeding from the anus, the appearance of masses and discharge from the anus.
Causes of diseases of the anus
There are many reasons why anal diseases occur. For example, a crack in the anus may appear due to constipation (even short-term) and tenesmus (frequent false desires) to defecate, and organic lesions of the intestine become the cause of diseases. The occurrence of perianal hematomas is explained by the rupture of the veins of the rectum, and discharge from the anus occurs due to a fistula of the rectum or the presence of sexually transmitted diseases (herpes, gonorrhea, genital warts). A single rectal ulcer can also cause discharge. Anal bleeding is possible with hemorrhoids, anal fissure, scratching the anus, etc. Anxiety, dermatoses, diarrhea, diabetes or thrush, hemorrhoids, genital warts or fissures in the anus,dermatitis or allergies to hygiene products, anal itching may occur.
Symptoms of diseases of the anus
The symptoms of anal disease are often similar. For example, with a crack in the anus, the patient is worried about pain during the act of defecation, sphincter spasms and anal bleeding. The anal fissure itself is an oval ulcer and is located between the edge of the anal passage and the rectal-anal line.
The disease is manifested by pain in the anus, but there are no organic lesions. The duration of pain attacks can be from three minutes to half an hour, the intensity of pain also varies (from unpleasant sensations to severe spasms). Most often, pain attacks occur at night. The disease mainly affects men after 40 years.
With a single rectal ulcer, the patient feels a volumetric formation in the anus, during defecation he has difficulties, mucus and blood may be released from the anus.
Subcutaneous paraproctitis (purulent inflammation) is characterized by severe throbbing pain, edema, the skin near the anus thickens and reddens, the temperature rises.
Various masses of the rectum are also common diseases. They can be both true (fringes, hemorrhoids, condylomas), and fallen out of the rectum (rectum, rectal polyps).
Treatment of diseases of the anus
Treatment of diseases of the anus is prescribed depending on their type. A single rectal ulcer, for example, most often has a chronic course, so treatment provides for the prevention of constipation and adherence to a diet (fiber-rich foods are useful). For the treatment of anal fissures, sphincter stretching and subcutaneous lateral sphincteroderma are practiced, it is also recommended to constantly prevent constipation.
Perianal hematoma can sometimes require aspiration (it is punctured with a needle without the use of anesthesia or the skin is cut over the hematoma). In case of infringement of hemorrhoids, it is recommended to apply cold to the anus; hemorrhoidectomy may be required. Subcutaneous paraproctitis is treated by opening the abscess and draining it. The fistulous course is found and excised. Perianal fringes are removed by surgery: they are undesirable from an aesthetic and hygienic point of view and can cause itching of the anus.
For the treatment of hemorrhoids, hemorrhoidectomy, sclerotherapy, cryotherapy are used. Prevention of hemorrhoids is to prevent constipation and exercise while sedentary.
With anal itching, it is strictly forbidden to comb the skin. Taking hot baths is not recommended, dry skin of the anus should be observed, stools should be regular, and clothes and underwear should be free.
Article author: Mochalov Pavel Alexandrovich | d. m. n. therapist
Education: Moscow Medical Institute. IM Sechenov, specialty - "General Medicine" in 1991, in 1993 "Occupational Diseases", in 1996 "Therapy".