Pneumosclerosis Of The Lungs

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Video: Pneumosclerosis Of The Lungs

Video: Pneumosclerosis Of The Lungs
Video: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Overview (types, pathology, treatment) 2023, March
Pneumosclerosis Of The Lungs
Pneumosclerosis Of The Lungs

Pneumosclerosis of the lungs

Pneumosclerosis of the lungs
Pneumosclerosis of the lungs

The term "pneumosclerosis" has been used in medicine since 1819, Laennek was the first to introduce it into everyday life, having done this to describe the condition of a patient whose bronchial wall was damaged, its part was enlarged. The concept united two Greek words - lungs and compaction.

What is pulmonary pneumosclerosis?

Pneumosclerosis of the lungs is an abnormal increase in the size of connective tissue that can occur in the lung (lungs) of a person as a result of inflammation, a dystrophic process. Areas affected by such tissue lose their elasticity, pathological changes in the structure of the bronchi are observed. The lung tissue shrinks and becomes denser, the organ acquires a dense, airless consistency, and compression occurs. Most often, representatives of the male sex (but women are not protected) face this disease, the age group does not play a role.

Causes of pneumosclerosis

There are diseases, the lack of timely and adequate therapy of which can result in the development of pneumosclerosis in a patient:

  • sarcoidosis of the lungs;
  • tuberculosis (pleura, lungs), mycosis;
  • chronic bronchitis;
  • pneumonia (infectious, aspiratory, viral);
  • industrial gases;
  • radiation therapy (in the fight against cancer);
  • alveolitis (fibrosing, allergic);
  • damage to the walls of blood vessels (granulomatosis);
  • chronic gastroesophageal reflux;
  • damage to the sternum, injury to the lung parenchyma;
  • genetic predisposition (lung disease);
  • exudative pleurisy (severe form, prolonged course);
  • foreign element in the bronchi.

The disease can also be triggered by taking a number of medications (apressin, cordaron). In addition, bad habits (smoking), poor ecology (living in a dangerous zone) are considered risk factors.

There are also professions whose owners are at high risk. Hazardous industries, mines - places where harmful gases and dust thrive. Glass cutters, builders, grinders and so on are in danger.

Symptoms of pneumosclerosis

Symptoms of pneumosclerosis
Symptoms of pneumosclerosis

The main signs of pneumosclerosis of the lungs are called manifestations of the disease, the result of which it became.

The following symptoms may also occur, indicating the need to visit a doctor immediately:

  • shortness of breath, which becomes permanent, persisting even in a state of inactivity;
  • severe cough, accompanied by discharge in the form of mucopurulent sputum;
  • chronic fatigue, weakness, dizziness attacks;
  • chest pain;
  • cyanosis of the skin;
  • weight loss;
  • deformation of the chest;
  • severe pulmonary insufficiency;
  • phalanges of fingers, reminiscent of drumsticks (Hippocrates fingers);
  • wheezing on auscultation (dry, fine bubbling).

The severity of the symptoms of the disease directly depends on the amount of pathological connective tissue. Minor manifestations are mainly characteristic of limited pneumosclerosis.

Types of pneumosclerosis

According to the intensity of distribution in the lung parenchyma of connective tissue, it is customary to distinguish the following types of pneumosclerosis:

  • Fibrosis. It is characterized by the alternation of connective and lung tissue in the patient.
  • Sclerosis. There is a replacement of the lung parenchyma with connective tissue, deformation of its structure.
  • Cirrhosis. Compaction of the pleura, replacement of blood vessels, bronchi and alveoli with collagen, failures of gas exchange functions. This stage is considered the most dangerous.

At the site of the lesion, the following types of disease are distinguished:

  • interstitial;
  • peribronchial;
  • alveolar;
  • perilobular;
  • perivascular.

If the patient develops interstitial pneumosclerosis, the most likely source is interstitial pneumonia. The main target of connective tissue is the area located next to the bronchi, vessels, and interalveolar septa also suffer.

Peribronchial appearance is often the result of chronic bronchitis. For this form, the seizure of the area surrounding the patient's bronchi is typical; connective tissue is formed instead of the lung. In most cases, the disease reports itself only by coughing, after a while phlegm may be added.

Perivascular pneumosclerosis refers to damage to the area surrounding the blood vessels. Perilobular leads to localization of the lesion along the interlobular bridges.

Also, pneumosclerosis is divided into types depending on what disease ensures its spread.

The following groups are distinguished:

  • sclerosis of the lung tissue;
  • postnecrotic;
  • discirculatory.

In addition, the degree of prevalence of the disease is taken into account - limited, diffuse pneumosclerosis.

The limited form, in turn, is divided into local and focal:

  • Local pneumosclerosis can be present in the human body for a long time without giving any symptoms. It can only be detected by fine bubbling wheezing and hard breathing when listening. An x-ray will also help to diagnose, the picture will display an area of compacted lung tissue. This type cannot become the cause of pulmonary insufficiency.
  • The source of the focal type is a lung abscess, leading to damage to the pulmonary parenchyma. Also, the reason may lie in cavities (tuberculosis). An increase in connective tissue, damage to existing and already cured foci is possible.

Diffuse pneumosclerosis of the lungs

Diffuse pneumosclerosis
Diffuse pneumosclerosis

The target of diffuse pneumosclerosis can be not only one lung (left or right), but both. In this case, the appearance of cysts in the lungs is likely, pathological changes occurring with the vessels are also possible. The quality of oxygen supply to the lung tissue deteriorates, and ventilation processes are disrupted. The diffuse form is capable of causing the formation of a pulmonary heart. This condition is characterized by the rapid growth of the right heart, caused by increased pressure.

The anatomy of the lungs with diffuse pneumosclerosis undergoes the following changes:

  • Collagenization of the lung - instead of degeneration of elastic fibers, large areas of collagen fibers appear.
  • The volume of the lungs is reduced, the structure is deformed.
  • Cavities (cysts) lined with bronchoalveolar epithelium appear.

The main reasons for the development of this disease are inflammatory processes occurring in the chest. Their source can be different - tuberculosis, chronic pneumonia, radiation sickness, exposure to chemicals, syphilis, chest damage.

Not always diffuse pneumosclerosis warns of itself with specific symptoms. The patient may experience shortness of breath, at first occurring exclusively with fatigue, strenuous work, sports training. Then comes the stage when shortness of breath appears even in a calm state, during rest. This symptom is not the only one; cough (dry, frequent), constant aching pain in the chest area is also possible.

Also, such manifestations as labored sighing, cyanosis of the skin, provided by a lack of oxygen, are possible. The patient can lose weight dramatically, feel constant weakness.

Radical pneumosclerosis

Most often, bronchitis, which has a chronic form, is the source of hilar pneumosclerosis. Poisoning with harmful substances, pneumonia, tuberculosis can also become the "culprits" of the disease. The development of the disease, as a rule, occurs against the background of inflammatory processes, dystrophy. Typical signs are loss of elasticity in the affected area, an increase in the size of connective tissue that occurs in the root areas of the lung. A violation of gas exchange is also added.

Basal pneumosclerosis

If the lung tissue is replaced by connective tissue mainly in the basal regions, this condition is called basal pneumosclerosis. One of the main sources of this disease is considered to be lower lobe pneumonia, perhaps a patient once had to deal with this disease. An x-ray will show an increased clarity of the tissues of the basal regions, an increase in the pattern.

Treatment of pulmonary pneumosclerosis

Treatment of pulmonary pneumosclerosis
Treatment of pulmonary pneumosclerosis

If you have symptoms of pneumosclerosis, be sure to sign up for a consultation with a therapist or pulmonologist. Treatment methods are determined by the stage at which the disease is. The initial, mild form, not accompanied by severe symptoms, does not need active therapy. Given that pneumosclerosis in most cases acts as a concomitant disease, treatment of its source is necessary.

Stem cells

An innovative way to combat pneumosclerosis is cell therapy. Stem cells are the precursors of all cells in the human body. Their unique "talents" lie in the ability to transform into any other cells. This quality is actively used in cell therapy against pulmonary pneumosclerosis.

Once injected intravenously, the stem cells are leaked to the affected organ by the blood flow. Further, they replace the tissues damaged by the disease. In parallel, the body's immune defense is activated, metabolic processes are activated. Normal lung tissue is reborn.

The effectiveness of cell therapy is determined by the timing of its initiation. It is advisable to begin treatment before all the lungs are invaded by the fibrosis process. Success also depends on the availability of a healthy tissue platform, which is necessary for cells to securely attach and initiate reconstruction processes.

Stem cell therapy normalizes metabolic processes in the body of a patient with pneumosclerosis. The functions of the endocrine, immune and nervous systems are restored. Also, cells produce an effective antitumor effect. As a result of therapy, the affected organ gains lost functionality and becomes healthy.

The result of the "cellular" treatment is restoration of the lung structure, disappearance of shortness of breath and dry cough, which were the main reasons for the patient's eternal torment. The safety and effectiveness of therapy has been proven by multiple studies.

Oxygen therapy

Oxygen therapy is a modern therapeutic technique based on the inhalation of an oxygen-gas mixture by the patient. The procedure allows you to compensate for the oxygen deficiency that has formed in the body. One of the main indications for its implementation is pulmonary pneumosclerosis.

The gas, which is an instrument of oxygen therapy, is saturated with oxygen in the same volume that it is concentrated in the atmospheric air. Gas delivery is most often done using nasal (intranasal) catheters, it can also be:

  • masks (mouth and nose);
  • oxygen tents;
  • tubes (tracheostomy, intubation);
  • hyperbaric oxygenation.

Thanks to oxygen supply, an active restoration of cellular metabolism occurs.

Drug therapy

Drug therapy
Drug therapy

If the course of pneumosclerosis is accompanied by inflammatory exacerbations (pneumonia, bronchitis), the patient is prescribed medications:

  • antibacterial;
  • anti-inflammatory;
  • expectorant;
  • mucolytic;
  • bronchodilator.

If pneumosclerosis is difficult, there is a rapid progression of the disease, doctors use glucocorticosteroids. Course therapy, which involves the use of hormonal agents in small doses, is practiced to stop the inflammatory process, suppress the proliferation of connective tissue. Often these drugs are combined with immunosuppressive drugs. Anabolic and vitamin preparations may also be prescribed.

To make drug treatment as effective as possible, therapeutic bronchoscopy is used. This manipulation allows you to deliver drugs directly to the tissue of the bronchi, remove stagnant and inflammatory contents of the bronchopulmonary system.


If the patient has pneumosclerosis, physiotherapy may be prescribed. The task of physiotherapeutic procedures in this case is to relieve the syndrome in the inactive phase, stabilize the process in the active phase.

In the absence of pulmonary insufficiency, iontophoresis with calcium chloride, novocaine is indicated. Ultrasound with novocaine can also be prescribed. If the disease is at a compensated stage, it is advisable to conduct inductometry and diathermy in the chest area. In case of poor sputum separation, the Vermel system (electrophoresis with iodine) is used, in case of nutritional deficiency, ultraviolet radiation is used. A less effective alternative is Solux lamp irradiation.

If possible, physiotherapy is recommended to be combined with climatic treatment. Patients with pneumosclerosis are shown rest on the coast of the Dead Sea. The local climate will have a healing effect on the affected organism.


The main task, the achievement of which is facilitated by therapeutic physical exercises, is to strengthen the respiratory muscles. Classes are necessarily carried out under the close supervision of professional instructors, amateur performance can rather harm.

Compensated pneumosclerosis is an indication for breathing exercises. Each exercise should be performed without tension, keeping to a slow or medium pace, gradually increasing the load. The best place to exercise is outdoors, fresh air increases the effectiveness of the exercise. Physical therapy has contraindications - high fever, severe disease, repeated hemoptysis.

When compensating for the pathological process, patients can engage in some sports. With pneumosclerosis, rowing, ice skating and skiing are useful. Doctors often recommend chest massage as well. With the help of procedures, congestion that forms in the lung tissue is eliminated. Massage improves the condition of the heart, bronchi, lungs, inhibits the development of pulmonary fibrosis.

Operative intervention

Radical intervention may be advisable if the patient has a local form of the disease, destruction of lung tissue, suppuration of the lung parenchyma, fibrosis and cirrhosis of the lung occurs. The essence of the treatment is to surgically remove the affected area of the lung tissue.

Preventive measures

Preventive measures
Preventive measures

Preventing pneumosclerosis is always easier than getting rid of it completely. The most important thing that is needed for this is timely treatment of pneumonia, tuberculosis, bronchitis, colds. The following actions will also be helpful:

  • to give up smoking;
  • job change with frequent interaction with occupational hazards;
  • minimizing the consumption of alcoholic beverages;
  • hardening procedures;
  • regular breathing exercises, gymnastics;
  • balanced nutrition, intake of vitamin complexes;
  • frequent walks in the air;
  • annual X-ray examination.

Quitting smoking is the most important item on this list. Cigarettes seriously worsen the condition of the lungs, contribute to the development of respiratory diseases.

If pneumosclerosis is detected in a timely manner, subjected to proper treatment, the patient will strictly adhere to all the doctor's recommendations and lead a healthy lifestyle, the disease will be defeated.


Article author: Mochalov Pavel Alexandrovich | d. m. n. therapist

Education: Moscow Medical Institute. IM Sechenov, specialty - "General Medicine" in 1991, in 1993 "Occupational Diseases", in 1996 "Therapy".

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