Causes, diagnosis and treatment of biliary dyskinesia
Bile is a special fluid that helps to activate the movement of food through the intestines and simultaneously promotes the breakdown of fats. The liver produces it throughout a person's life. Through the bile duct, bile enters the intestines, initially entering the hepatic ducts, and then into the common bile duct, which is connected by the cystic duct with the gallbladder. At the junction of the duodenum with the bile duct is the Vater papilla.
The ingress of bile into the intestines is metered out thanks to a special muscle called the sphincter of Oddi. If the function of contraction of the gallbladder, its ducts and the sphincter of Oddi is disturbed, then problems with biliary excretion arise, and biliary dyskinesia is formed. According to statistics, women are most susceptible to this disease.
Reasons for the development of biliary dyskinesia
Biliary dyskinesia can develop for various reasons:
· Due to disruption of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract;
· Due to an irrational diet menu (with excessive consumption of fatty, fried or spicy foods, too long intervals between meals);
· As a result of stress and nervous experiences;
· In case of hormonal imbalance;
· Food allergies;
· In the presence of worms.
In medical practice, there are two main forms of the disease. One of them is the hyperkinetic form, characterized by an increased tone of the gallbladder due to its excessively strong and rapid contractions. In this case, the sphincters (called "muscle gates") partially open. As a result, the patient may feel a cutting pain in the right hypochondrium. Attacks are usually short-lived and only in some cases last longer than sixty minutes.
Often they arise for a reason, but as a result of nervous overload, strong excitement, negative emotions. Since the tone of the gallbladder during menstruation is usually increased, in women, an exacerbation of the disease may be associated with the menstrual cycle. Dyskinesia in a hyperkinetic form is often noted at a young age. The hypokinetic form of the disease is more susceptible to people of mature age. Its cause lies in insufficiently intense contraction of the gallbladder.
A symptom of this can also be a sensation of pain in the right hypochondrium. The pain in most cases is prolonged, but not severe, has a dull or bursting character. Individual manifestations of the disease are also possible. Based solely on the patient's complaints, even an experienced physician can only with great difficulty make a correct diagnosis. Biliary dyskinesia can consist of a series of improvements and exacerbations. After a certain time, the formation of gallstones or an inflammatory process is likely in the gallbladder and ducts.
Disruption of the work of the biliary tract can also manifest itself as a feeling of a bitter taste in the mouth, loss of strength or systematically bad mood. If, after eating spicy salads or after a nervous overstrain, a person feels pain in the right hypochondrium (acute cramping or dull aching), then as soon as possible you should contact a gastroenterologist. Signs that should alert you: decreased appetite and poor sleep, diarrhea or constipation, menstrual irregularities and decreased sex drive.
Diagnosis of biliary dyskinesia
For the correct diagnosis of the disease, the doctor may refer the patient for additional examinations:
2. Biochemical blood test. With a pronounced exacerbation in the blood test, an increase in the level of liver enzymes is detected.
4. Duodenal intubation - collection of bile for analysis using a gastric tube.
5. Tests using special preparations. A certain medicinal substance is introduced that promotes increased production of bile. In the presence of a disease, bile does not have time to be released into the intestines and accumulates in the gallbladder and ducts. The ducts expand, and the volume of the bladder increases - this is recorded using ultrasound.
It is extremely important not to confuse biliary dyskinesia with other dangerous diseases that have similar symptoms. Also, during the examination, it is important to establish the form of dyskinesia - the choice of treatment method will depend on this.
Treatment of biliary dyskinesia
One of the prerequisites for the treatment of this disease is diet. In the hyperkinetic form, it includes fractional meals, a minimum amount of products that cause bladder contraction. Preference is given to boiled and mashed dishes, berries and fruits in any form.
With a hypokinetic form, the diet must include products with a choleretic effect: vegetables, cream, black bread, vegetable and butter, sour cream. In addition to the diet, you must also follow the course of treatment prescribed by your doctor.
The first symptoms of gallbladder problems that should not be ignored are:
Article author: Mochalov Pavel Alexandrovich | d. m. n. therapist
Education: Moscow Medical Institute. IM Sechenov, specialty - "General Medicine" in 1991, in 1993 "Occupational Diseases", in 1996 "Therapy".