Blood Sugar Rate - High And Low Blood Sugar

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Video: Blood Sugar Rate - High And Low Blood Sugar

Video: Blood Sugar Rate - High And Low Blood Sugar
Video: Low Blood Sugar vs High Blood Sugar 2023, March
Blood Sugar Rate - High And Low Blood Sugar
Blood Sugar Rate - High And Low Blood Sugar

Blood sugar rate

Blood sugar
Blood sugar

Blood glucose is a sugar that is carried by the bloodstream to all cells in the body to supply them with energy. The body regulates blood glucose levels so that they remain moderate: enough to fuel cells, but not enough to overload blood flow.

The internal environment of the blood must remain stable in order to maintain vital body functions. Your glucose levels change throughout the day. After a meal, levels rise and then settle, after about an hour, and are at their lowest point before another meal.

When there is a violation of glucose metabolism in the body, this is manifested in an increased content of glucose called hyperglycemia, maybe a low content - hypoglycemia.

Your glucose levels change throughout the day. After a meal, levels rise and then settle, after about an hour, and are at their lowest point before another meal.

In this article, we'll take a look at high and low glucose levels and how to stay within a healthy blood sugar range.


  • Increased sugar

    • Symptoms of high blood sugar
    • Risk factors
    • Medical identification bracelet
  • Reduced sugar

    Symptoms of low blood sugar

  • Blood sugar rate
  • How to determine the exact blood sugar level?

    • Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) Test
    • Random Plasma Glucose Test (RPG)
    • Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)
    • A1C test (glycated hemoglobin)
    • Blood glucose meter
    • Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)
  • 7 ways to prevent spikes in blood sugar

Increased sugar

Increased sugar
Increased sugar

Hyperglycemia is called an increased blood sugar level. Elevated blood sugar may look normal, while it will be some kind of adaptive reaction of the body, which ensures the supply of energy material to the tissues, then when its consumption is increased, it may be increased muscle activity, fear, excitement, severe pain etc. Such rises in blood sugar usually last for a short time, this, as already explained earlier, is associated with the stress of the body.

Hyperglycemia usually develops when there is not enough insulin in the body or when cells become less sensitive to insulin. Without insulin, glucose cannot enter cells and builds up in the bloodstream.

Hyperglycemia can also occur in people who do not have diabetes. Blood sugar levels can rise sharply if you are sick or under severe stress. It happens when the hormones the body makes to fight off disease raise blood sugar levels. These climbs usually last for a short time.

If hyperglycemia continues for a long time with a sufficiently high concentration of glucose, at which the rate of release of sugar into the blood significantly exceeds the rate at which the body has time to assimilate it, then this, as a rule, is due to diseases of the endocrine system. It can also have detrimental consequences, which will be reflected in the form of damage to the insular apparatus of the pancreas and the excretion of glucose in the urine.



Which diet helps lower blood sugar?

A mild degree of hyperglycemia practically does not harm the body, and when sugar exceeds the norm, a person begins to suffer from severe thirst, because of which he begins to drink a lot of fluids, frequent urination occurs, in which sugar is excreted from the body along with urine, as a result of which the mucous membrane the body becomes dry, as does the skin. A severe form of hyperglycemia can lead to nausea, vomiting, a person becomes drowsy and lethargic, loss of consciousness is possible, this already indicates the onset of a hyperglycemic coma, which can be fatal.

As a rule, hyperglycemia is characteristic only for endocrine diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, increased thyroid function, for diseases of the hypothalamus - the region of the brain that is responsible for all the work of the endocrine glands, in rare cases it can be due to some liver diseases. With prolonged hyperglycemia, a persistent violation of metabolic processes begins, which leads to a feeling of severe weakness, the immune system begins to malfunction, regular purulent inflammatory processes begin in the body, sexual dysfunction occurs and the blood supply to all tissues is disrupted.

Other possible causes of high blood glucose levels include:

  • hyperthyroidism, or overactive thyroid gland;
  • pancreatitis, or inflammation of your pancreas;
  • pancreas cancer;
  • prediabetes, a high-risk condition for developing type 2 diabetes;
  • stress to the body from illness, injury or surgery;
  • drugs such as steroids.

In rare cases, hyperglycemia can be a sign of a hormonal disorder called acromegaly or Cushing's syndrome, which occurs when the body produces too much cortisol.

Symptoms of high blood sugar

Typically, a person does not experience overt symptoms until blood sugar levels are significantly above normal.

Early symptoms:

  • Intense thirst;
  • Frequent urge to urinate
  • The skin is dry, itchy;
  • Fatigue, drowsiness;

The longer this condition is left unattended, the more severe the symptoms can become. If left untreated, toxic acids will build up in the blood or urine.

More serious signs and symptoms:

  • Vomiting;
  • Nausea;
  • Wounds, scratches do not heal well;
  • Dry mouth;
  • The smell of acetone when breathing;
  • Dyspnea;
  • Abdominal pain.

A person may also experience:

  • Blurred vision;
  • Headache;
  • Weight loss;
  • Weakness;
  • Unstable emotional state.

Persistently elevated blood sugar can also lead to insulin resistance, which decreases the amount of glucose that cells absorb. Eventually, the condition can progress to type 2 diabetes.

Long-term complications of uncontrolled diabetes affect the small blood vessels that supply the nerves, kidneys, retina, and other organs.

Some serious complications that can develop from persistent hyperglycemia are:

  • Damage to blood vessels, which increases the risk of heart disease and stroke;
  • Nerve damage;
  • Kidney damage or failure;
  • Damage to blood vessels in the retina, potentially resulting in loss of vision or blindness;

  • Cataract, or clouding of the lens in the eye;
  • Foot problems that can lead to serious infections;
  • Bone and joint problems;
  • Skin problems, including infections and non-healing wounds;
  • Tooth and gum infections.

Using neural imaging, researchers have shown that people with diabetes and cognitive dysfunction also have decreased blood flow to the brain and a number of other abnormalities that affect thought processes.

If the sugar is higher than 5.5 mmol / L (on an empty stomach), this is hyperglycemia (high sugar). The diagnosis is made - diabetes mellitus.

Fasting blood glucose, mmol / l


above 7.8

Sugar 1 and 2 hours after eating, mmol / l


above 11.0

Glycated hemoglobin,%


above 6.4

Risk factors



What foods help lower blood sugar?

Hyperglycemia can also occur in people who do not have diabetes.

You are at risk if:

  • Lead a sedentary lifestyle;
  • Have a chronic or severe medical condition;
  • Use steroids;
  • Recently underwent surgery.

In diabetes, blood sugar levels can rise sharply if you:

  • Don't follow your diabetes meal plan;
  • Don't use insulin correctly;
  • You are taking the wrong medication.

One study found that stress in work, life and relationships can also release hormones that keep blood glucose levels high. [1]

Even an illness like the flu can lead to stress, which causes a spike in blood sugar.

Medical identification bracelet

A person with hyperglycemia should consider wearing a necklace or bracelet that provides information about their health condition. For example, does the patient have diabetes, allergies, or need to take insulin.

A medical identification bracelet can be life-saving in situations where a person is unable to speak on their own, for example, after a traffic accident or in the case of severe DKA (diabetic ketoacidosis).

Video: Dr. Myasnikov - popular questions about diabetes:


Related article: The True Harm of Sugar!

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Reduced sugar

Hypoglycemia is a low blood sugar level. It should be noted that hypoglycemia is much less common in healthy people than hyperglycemia. This happens for various reasons, for example, with improper nutrition, when the insulin apparatus of the pancreas is overstressed, in simple terms, when a person eats too much sweets in food, hypoglycemia develops. Since the pancreas begins to work at its maximum capacity, it begins to secrete more insulin (what does the hormone insulin do and what is its norm?), While glucose begins to be absorbed by the tissues, which leads to hypoglycemia.

If the sugar is below 3.3 mmol / L (fasting) it is hypoglycemia (low sugar)



How to raise blood sugar levels?

Causes of hypoglycemia:

  • Diabetes;
  • Certain medicines, such as quinine for malaria
  • Too much insulin taken
  • Drinking alcohol without food, as the liver may not secrete glycogen;
  • Certain diseases, in particular severe hepatitis and kidney disease;
  • Anorexia.

Persistent hypoglycemia can also begin due to severe liver disease, in which digestion processes are impaired and glycogen is released into the blood, as well as diseases of the kidneys, adrenal glands and hypothalamus.

Excessive production of insulin or insulin supplements can lead to hypoglycemia.

Some tumors can severely lower blood sugar levels as they produce chemicals like insulin. The tumor can also consume so much glucose that there is not enough glucose for the rest of the body.

People undergoing gastric bypass surgery may also experience hypoglycemia as they eat less food than they did before surgery.

Nesidioblastosis, a rare condition associated with an increase in beta cells, often results in an overproduction of insulin. Beta cells produce insulin in the pancreas. [2]

Symptoms of low blood sugar

Symptoms of hypoglycemia can occur suddenly.

They include:

  • Blurry vision;
  • Fast heartbeat;
  • Sudden mood changes;
  • Sudden nervousness;
  • Unexplained tiredness;
  • Pale skin;
  • Headache;
  • Hunger;
  • Dizziness;
  • Excessive sweating;
  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Tingling of the skin;
  • Trouble thinking clearly or concentrating;
  • Loss of consciousness, convulsions, coma.

Severe sweating, trembling in the arms, legs, all over the body, increased heart rate, fear of death, constant and strong feeling of hunger, after which there may be loss of consciousness. This condition of a person is called hypoglycemic coma. A person suffering or prone to this disease should always have sweets with them, which must be taken at the first sign of hypoglycemia.

Another possible cause of low blood sugar levels is drinking too much alcohol, especially over long periods of time. This can affect the liver's ability to store glucose and then release it into the blood when you need it.

Very low blood sugar is a clear symptom for a medical emergency!

However, contrary to popular belief, low blood sugar is not exclusive to diabetes, although it is rare. This can happen if your body is making more insulin than it should.

Blood sugar rate

Blood sugar rate
Blood sugar rate

In a person with insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes mellitus, the pancreas practically does not secrete insulin. In the second type of insulin-dependent diabetes, the pancreas secretes enough insulin, but it is not able to work as it should. [3]

To keep sugar in the norm, you need to combine several methods at once. This is, of course, a healthy diet, as well as regular monitoring of sugar levels. A healthy diet that is prescribed for diabetes is similar to the diet that is prescribed for any healthy person, just to maintain health.

3.3-5.5 mmol / l (on an empty stomach) - the norm!

In a sick person with diabetes, the sugar rate can, of course, have a rather wide range than the sugar content in a healthy person. Ideally, you should strive only for a result of 3.3-5.5 mmol / L. It is almost impossible to achieve such a result in practice, for this reason, if a sick person's glucose level ranges from 4 to 10, and only occasionally goes beyond these limits, the patient can be satisfied with this result.

With a blood glucose level of 4 to 10, a person with diabetes will not have serious complications for more than 10 years. In order to always maintain this level of sugar in the blood, a person with diabetes should definitely purchase a glucometer.

How to determine the exact blood sugar level?

Before testing, tell your doctor about the drugs you are taking, including prescription, over-the-counter, and herbal supplements. Certain medicines can affect blood glucose levels. Your doctor may ask you to stop taking a certain medication or temporarily change your dosage before the test.

Medicines that can affect blood glucose levels:

  • Corticosteroids;
  • Potassium-sparing diuretics;
  • Birth control pills;
  • Hormone therapy;
  • Aspirin (Bufferin);
  • Lithium;
  • Tricyclic antidepressants;
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs);
  • Phenytoin;
  • Epinephrine (adrenaline);
  • Sulfonylurea preparations.

You should also tell your doctor if you have had an injury, heart attack, or surgery recently.

Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) Test

A fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test is a blood test that is done after you have been fasting all night or 8 hours before the test. You cannot eat or drink anything except water.

This method has several disadvantages:

  • It shows the glucose level only at this particular moment. You can donate blood every week and your sugar level will always be different!
  • You can wake up with high sugar levels, but if the clinic is far away, and you decide to walk in the fresh air for half an hour, then most likely, when you reach the clinic, your sugar will already be normal! Because walking in the fresh air is good for lowering blood sugar. Or you can drink water in the morning, which will dilute the blood and lower the sugar again.
  • You may have a high blood sugar level for a long time, but if you accidentally lower it (for example, spend the weekend at the dacha as a worker), then your sugar may return to normal and this type of analysis will show you that everything is in order., but in fact it is not.

If your result is 7 mmol / L or higher, you will be retested another day to confirm the diagnosis.

Random Plasma Glucose Test (RPG)

Random blood glucose test (RPG - Random Plasma Glucose) is a blood test that can be done at any time of the day. It measures the blood sugar level at a given time.

An RPG result of more than 11.02 mmol / L is indicative of diabetes, especially if you have symptoms such as excessive thirst, hunger, or urination.

Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)

An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) takes slightly longer than the previous two. In this test, blood is drawn after an overnight fast and then again two hours after you drink the sweet drink.

After sweets, the sugar level will rise. But for the norm, within two hours, it should fall below 7.71 mmol / l.

If you have blood sugar:

  • Between 7.8 and 11 mmol / L - prediabetes is diagnosed;
  • If 11 mmol / L or more, type 2 diabetes is diagnosed.

A1C test (glycated hemoglobin)

The A1C test is a blood test that measures the percentage of sugar that is attached to hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells. The higher your A1C, the higher your average blood sugar level over the past two or three months.

The A1C test is also known by these names:

  • Hemoglobin A1c test;
  • Test for HbA1c;
  • Glycated hemoglobin test.

By far the most accurate method for determining blood sugar levels is a glycated hemoglobin test!

The level of glycated hemoglobin does not depend on the time of day, physical activity, food intake, prescribed medications, and the patient's emotional state.

The analysis for glycated hemoglobin shows the number of sugared erythrocytes in the blood and is reflected as a percentage. Below is a table for comparison:

Glycated hemoglobin (HBA1C)

Average blood glucose (mmol / L)

4% 2.6
five% 4.5
6% 6,7
7% 8.3
eight% 10.0
nine% 11.6
ten% 13.3
eleven% 15.0
12% 16.7

Since erythrocytes live up to 120 days, this type of analysis is sufficient to do once every 4 months.

Blood glucose meter

You can also measure your blood sugar at home using a blood glucose meter. The accuracy of the readings depends on the type of blood glucose meter.

The procedure involves tingling your finger and placing blood on a test strip of the meter. The results will be shown on the screen in 10-20 seconds.

Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)

CGM (Conscious glucose monitoring) systems have appeared relatively recently. A glucose sensor is inserted under the skin and reads sugar from body tissue continuously. It warns if your blood sugar is too low or too high.

The term of use of the sensor lasts from several days to a week. Then he needs to be replaced. Also, in order to calibrate the CGM, you must use the meter.

However, the system has several disadvantages:

  • The accuracy of the reading is lower compared to blood;
  • CGM devices are not as reliable for solving acute problems such as detecting low blood sugar;
  • The data shown by CGM lags behind reality by an average of 10 - 15 minutes.

7 ways to prevent spikes in blood sugar

  1. Consult with a dietitian to develop a meal plan. Meal planning can help you avoid unexpected spikes in blood sugar.
  2. Lose excess weight. Losing weight will help your body use insulin better.
  3. Learn to count carbs. Carbohydrate counting will help you keep track of how much carbs you are consuming. Setting a maximum amount for each meal helps stabilize blood sugar levels.
  4. Learn about the glycemic index. Research shows that not all carbs are created equal. The glycemic index (GI) measures how various carbohydrates can affect blood sugar levels. Foods with a high GI rating may affect blood sugar levels more than foods with a lower GI rating.
  5. Healthy recipes. Buy a diabetic cookbook.
  6. The practice of portion control. A kitchen scale can help you measure your portions better.

[Video] What happens if you give up sugar for 2 weeks?


Article author: Mochalov Pavel Alexandrovich | d. m. n. therapist

Education: Moscow Medical Institute. IM Sechenov, specialty - "General Medicine" in 1991, in 1993 "Occupational Diseases", in 1996 "Therapy".

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