Curvature of the nasal septum
Curvature of the nasal septum occurs in many people. A perfectly flat nasal septum is a rarity. However, the curvature of this part of the nose cannot always be regarded as a pathology. Only those people who have a deviated nasal septum lead to health problems need treatment. The otolaryngologist deals with the diagnosis and selection of therapy.
- Curvature of the nasal septum
- Symptoms of the curvature of the nasal septum
- Causes of the curvature of the nasal septum
- Types of curvature of the nasal septum
- Consequences of a curved nose
- Diagnostics of the curvature of the nasal septum
- Treatment of a deviated nasal septum
- Contraindications for surgical treatment
- Possible complications after surgery
- A few words about prevention
- What is the cost of surgery for nasal septum curvature?
Curvature of the nasal septum
The nasal septum is represented by a plate that runs down the center of the nose. It divides the inhaled air into equal parts, ensuring it is properly processed before entering the lower respiratory tract. He manages to warm up, cleanse and moisturize. If the partition is curved, then all these functions are violated.
A plate separating the nose with bone and cartilage tissue is presented. When its cartilage is displaced, an uneven distribution of air occurs. Its spike deformation, as well as curvature in the form of a ridge, leads to a similar situation. As the analysis of statistics shows, 95% of people have curvature, but the degree of its severity differs.
Symptoms of the curvature of the nasal septum
Symptoms that may indicate a deviated nasal septum:
Deterioration of nasal breathing. Depending on the degree of curvature, breathing may be slightly or very severely impaired. Sometimes the patient cannot breathe through the nose at all, inhaling through the mouth. Even if a person does not complain about breathing difficulties, this does not mean that his septum is even. It is likely that the deformity occurred at an early age, and the body has already managed to adapt to it. Breathing difficulties may not occur in patients with a large nasal cavity.
Chronic rhinitis. A person's nose is always stuffy. However, many people do not pay attention to this symptom, believing that the reason lies in persistent colds.
Allergy. When a person cannot breathe normally through his nose, this affects the state of his immunity. Gradually, it begins to weaken. The body is more often attacked by infectious agents and allergens. Therefore, most patients with chronic nasal congestion develop pre-asthma against the background of a deviated septum. This condition precedes bronchial asthma. The main signal of such a violation is the intensification of rhinitis upon contact with allergens.
Headache. A curved section of the septum in the form of a ridge or thorn comes into contact with the nasal mucosa, irritating it. Nerve receptors are under constant tension, which leads to headaches.
Drying of the mucous membranes of the nose, discomfort in the nose.
Bleeding from the nose. On the side where the curvature bulge is located, the mucous membrane becomes thin. Any pressure on her leads to the appearance of blood.
Apnea. Snoring is the result of a violation of the passage of air through the nasal passages.
Excessive fatigue, impaired performance, decreased physical activity. These manifestations are explained by hypoxia of the brain tissue.
Frequent infectious diseases affecting the respiratory system. The patient coughs, sneezes, mucus constantly flows from his nose.
Chronic sore throat. A person complains of perspiration and dryness in the oropharynx.
Frequent inflammation of the middle ear with pain and hearing impairment.
Violation of the shape of the nose. This symptom characterizes traumatic curvature of the septum.
Causes of the curvature of the nasal septum
The following reasons can be distinguished leading to the curvature of the nasal septum:
- Violation of the growth rate of various parts of the skull. This leads to the fact that the size of the nasal cavity changes, as a result of which the septum is deformed.
- Injuries received. The stronger the injury, the more the septum will be curved. If the bones do not heal properly, then a visible defect of the nose remains.
- The presence of polyps and tumors growing from the nasal mucosa. The larger they are, the higher the likelihood of a defect forming.
- Hypertrophy of the concha on one side. Its excess growth puts pressure on the septum, which causes it to deform.
Types of curvature of the nasal septum
There are 2 classifications of curvature of the nasal septum, depending on the causes that caused it and on the characteristics of the defect.
Classification of curvatures according to Mladin
Curvature of the comb type. It is small, concentrated in the front of the septum, on one side. A person breathes freely through his nose.
Pronounced crestal curvature. This deformation leads to problems with nasal breathing.
Ridge-shaped deviation with unilateral deformity, which is concentrated in the posterior part of the septum.
The deformation is S-shaped. In this case, there are two ridge-like curvatures, which are located in the right and left sinuses.
Deviation of the "Turkish saber" type. The deformity is comb-like, located in the back of the nose.
Deformities in the horizontal plane, ridges are present in both nostrils.
Crumpled partition. There are many deformations, they are located in different planes.
Classification of curvatures according to Lopatin
- Thickened septum.
- Septum with a C-shaped curvature.
- The partition is a comb.
- S-shaped partition.
- The partition is a thorn.
- Dislocation of 4-sided cartilage and their combinations.
Consequences of a curved nose
If a person has a curved nasal septum, then this can lead to serious consequences:
- Frequent colds.
- Runny nose. Rhinitis can be allergic, atrophic, vasomotor, hypertrophic.
- Inflammation of the sinuses: sinusitis, sinusitis.
- Laryngeal spasm.
Otitis media with damage to the middle ear.
- Bronchial asthma.
- Chronic fatigue syndrome.
- Violation of the menstrual cycle.
- Diseases of the heart, eyes and other organs.
- Drop in immunity.
Diagnostics of the curvature of the nasal septum
To understand whether a person with a deviated nasal septum needs any treatment, he needs to undergo an examination. In addition to an external examination of the septum, the otolaryngologist will perform rhinoscopy and other diagnostic techniques.
External examination by an otolaryngologist
The doctor examines the patient's nose. If the curvature is due to trauma, the nose will have an irregular shape. The doctor then evaluates breathing in the right and left nasal passage. To do this, a person alternately closes the nostrils, and a thread or cotton wool should be located next to the free nostril. The doctor estimates the strength of inhalation and exhalation by the vibrations of the thread.
Another test is to assess the patient's olfactory function. To do this, cotton wool is moistened in an odorous substance and the person is asked to describe the smell he feels. If the septum is significantly curved, the sense of smell will be reduced.
A rhinoscopy is a procedure in which a doctor examines a patient's nasal cavity. This is done using a special device. Such diagnostics are carried out according to indications. Anterior and posterior rhinoscopy can be performed. Patients with a deviated septum are most often prescribed anterior rhinoscopy.
To conduct a study, the nostrils are expanded with a special device, after which a probe is inserted into it. With its help, the doctor probes the mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity. This allows you to detect polyps, tumor neoplasms, areas of suppuration. If the doctor performs an examination through the oral cavity, then he can visualize the hypertrophy of the posterior ends of the turbinates.
X-ray of the nose
Radiography does not allow assessing the degree of curvature of the patient's nasal septum. The study is carried out mainly in order to obtain information about the condition of the paranasal sinuses.
Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging
CT and MRI are used when the most accurate information about the state of the nasal structures is required. With the help of images made on a computer tomograph, it is possible to visualize the ridges and spines that are located in the posterior parts of the septum, as well as diagnose concomitant nasal pathologies, if any.
MRI is informative in terms of detecting tumors, polyps, cysts and other pathological changes in soft tissues.
Additional pain relief is required to perform a rhinoendoscopy. Local anesthesia is used. To conduct a study, a probe is inserted into the nasal cavity, equipped with a microscopic video camera. With its help, the doctor examines the areas of interest to him.
Treatment of a deviated nasal septum
To correct the existing defect, you will need the help of a surgeon.
Surgical Treatment: Septoplasty
Depending on the scope of the intervention, the patient is given local or general anesthesia. The average duration of the procedure is 1-2 hours.
The doctor makes an incision and exfoliates the mucous membrane, after which the altered cartilaginous tissue is removed. The tissues are sutured, and gauze tampons are inserted into the nasal passages. They prevent bleeding from developing and protect the wound from infection. The doctor puts a plaster cast on the nose. After the completion of the rehabilitation period, there are no bruises on the face, the swelling completely disappears.
For endoscopic septoplasty, a fiber endoscope is used. Access to the affected area is performed through the nasal passages. No incisions are required. This avoids tissue trauma, no sutures are required. The operation takes about an hour. After its completion, the doctor inserts cotton swabs into the nasal passages, and puts a retainer made of silicone on the nose. A day later, they are removed, and the person is sent home. Full recovery occurs within 5-7 days.
The main advantage of the procedure is its bloodless conduct. The tissue is dissected using a laser. Under its influence, blood vessels coagulate. To remove excess cartilage, it is heated. The doctor independently controls the exposure temperature. After completing the procedure, the nose is fixed in the correct position with a plaster cast. Gauze tampons are inserted into the nasal passages.
The advantages of the procedure using a laser:
- No incisions. The mucous membrane remains intact.
- Bloodlessness of the procedure.
- No risk of infection.
- Absence of hematomas after the procedure.
- The patient is not hospitalized. The procedure is carried out in an outpatient clinic if it is equipped with the necessary equipment.
- The tissues do not swell after the operation.
- Recovery takes place as soon as possible.
However, it is not always possible to use a laser to correct the nasal septum. The procedure is not performed on patients with curved bone tissue, since only cartilage can be corrected with a laser. It will also fail to save its shape. The beam can only cut off a thorn or crest.
Treatment without surgery
With the help of conservative therapy, it will only be possible to eliminate the inflammation that is present in the nasal cavity. Medical correction can be prescribed for patients with polyps, adenoids, and allergic rhinitis. Thanks to the intake of medicines, the body's resistance to various infections increases, and nasal breathing is restored.
It will not be possible to straighten the nasal septum with drugs. Nasal breathing can be improved by relieving edema, or by removing polyps or adenoids. In some cases, osteopathy is indicated.
Contraindications for surgical treatment
Contraindications for surgery to correct the nasal septum are as follows:
- Age under 16 and over 50. In older people, the mucous membrane of the nasal passages becomes thinner, the edema decreases, so nasal breathing is normalized. Most often, there is no need for surgical correction at this age. In children under 16, the bone and cartilage tissue of the face continues to grow. Therefore, you need to wait for the completion of this process. Although in the presence of serious indications, the operation can be performed at any age.
- Acute stage of any disease.
- Menstrual bleeding, as well as the first week after the end of menstruation.
- Diseases of the mental sphere.
- Blood clotting disorder.
- Severe chronic diseases.
- Atrophy of epithelial tissues of the nasal septum.
Possible complications after surgery
The operation to correct the shape of the nasal septum is one of the safest and least traumatic procedures.
However, even she can cause the development of complications such as:
- Hematoma formation.
- Suppuration of tissues.
- Nosebleeds during the recovery period.
- Fusion of the nasal cavities, narrowing of the nasal passage.
- Purulent sinusitis, perichondritis.
A few words about prevention
If a person has a flat nasal septum from birth, then the following preventive measures will help prevent its curvature:
- Refusal from traumatic activities.
- Timely disposal of all diseases of the ENT organs.
- Increased immunity.
What is the cost of surgery for nasal septum curvature?
Free. If a person has indications, then classical rhinoseptoplasty will be performed for him free of charge. To do this, it is enough to contact an otolaryngologist at the place of residence. In this case, you must have a health insurance policy.
In private ENT clinics. In a private medical institution, the operation can be performed in the way the patient chooses (using a laser or endoscopic equipment). The cost depends on the amount of work, on the qualifications of the surgeon, the prestige of the clinic. The average price for 1-2 days of hospitalization varies from 18,000 to 35,000 rubles.
Laser surgery price. It is possible to correct a deviated nasal septum using a laser for 30,000 - 60,000 rubles.
Aesthetic correction. The cost of plastic surgery to correct the nasal septum is 5,000 - 400,000 rubles. It all depends on the type of intervention intended.
The author of the article: Lazarev Oleg Vladimirovich | ENT
Education: In 2009, he received a diploma in the specialty "General Medicine" at the Petrozavodsk State University. After completing an internship at the Murmansk Regional Clinical Hospital, he received a diploma in Otorhinolaryngology (2010)