Cyst in the nasal and maxillary sinus
- Signs and symptoms in the sinus
- Causes of a cyst in the sinus
- Treatment of a cyst in the sinus
- Removal of a cyst in the sinus
- Treatment of cysts with folk remedies
A maxillary sinus cyst (maxillary cyst) is a small, hollow, benign mass with elastic walls that contains fluid inside. Its size and location can be very different, which affects the clinical manifestations (patient complaints).
The disease occurs quite often, in almost every tenth person, but mostly it is discovered by chance, for example, during an X-ray examination for a completely different reason.
These formations are subdivided into:
1. Retention (true):
- arise due to blockage of the ducts of the glands of the mucous membrane;
- lined with mucosal cells.
2. Pseudocysts (false):
- appear under the influence of an allergen, in connection with an infectious disease or due to an inflammatory process in the roots of the teeth of the upper jaw;
- the typical mucosal lining is absent.
The classification of the neoplasm also depends on what content it is filled with. Cysts can be:
Diagnosis of a cyst in the maxillary and nasal sinuses is carried out using an X-ray examination, during which specialists receive pictures of the paranasal sinuses in two projections. However, these data are quite subjective, and upon subsequent examination, the results of an X-ray diagnosis can be both false-negative and false-positive.
The most accurate diagnostic methods:
- magnetic resonance imaging;
- CT scan;
- endoscopy of the maxillary sinuses.
In addition, the following methods are used to confirm the diagnosis:
- sinusography, involving the introduction of contrast fluid at the site of the cyst;
- biopsy - cyst tissue is partially cut off for cytological, biochemical and microbiological studies.
Signs and symptoms of a cyst in the maxillary and nasal sinuses
Usually, in people who first turned to an ENT doctor with complaints of health problems, a retention cyst is determined during a general examination. But, until this formation grows and blocks the entire nasal sinus, targeted diagnosis of the disease is very difficult. It is for this reason, most often, that a cystic tumor is discovered by chance.
How the disease manifests itself:
- pain in the infraorbital region (projection of the maxillary sinus), intensifying when the head is tilted forward;
- mucous and viscous discharge, sometimes with pus, and they can go both from the nasal passages and along the back of the throat;
- progressive asymmetry of the face (displacement of the eyeball, swelling in the region of the anterior and upper walls);
- frequent relapses of sinusitis;
- nasal congestion;
- pain in the upper jaw;
Symptoms of the disease may be similar to acute sinusitis when pathogenic microbes enter the human body, since pus begins to be produced due to inflammation.
Let us explain that the above signs are typical for the cyst, both right and left sinuses. In addition, diving or other types of scuba diving experience some discomfort in the cyst area.
Causes of the cyst in the maxillary and nasal sinuses
The mucous membrane of the paranasal sinuses contains mucus-producing glands. Each gland has its own opening for the secretion, which opens on the surface of the mucous membrane of the sinus.
Frequent inflammatory diseases, over time, become the cause of thickening of the mucous membrane, and the excretory ducts become clogged. At the same time, the gland continues its work with the same strength, mucus is formed, but it has nowhere to go. Due to the pressure, the walls of the gland begin to stretch, which becomes the cause of the cystic neoplasm. Approximately the same effect is obtained if you put an inflatable ball into the water tap and open the tap - water will flow and inflate the ball.
Let's list the main reasons:
- asymmetry of the face,
- inflammatory processes of the maxillary teeth;
- feeling of a hard palate;
- structural features of the outlet of the sinus.
Usually, this disease does not manifest itself in any way and a person may not even know about its existence, but there is a possibility of cyst growth. In this case, the entire space of the sinus can be completely blocked.
Then the following are observed:
- Strong headache;
- a feeling of pressure in the area of the affected sinus;
- Difficulty nasal breathing;
- pain that radiates to the teeth and eyes
Complications of this disease are rare. The most common are:
- purulent process inside education;
- increased pressure on the bones of the skull, leading to its deformation;
- pressure on the visual organs, causing the development of diplopia.
A seriously advanced cyst can cause bone death.
Treatment of cysts in the maxillary and nasal sinuses
There are no conservative methods for treating a cyst in the nasal sinus. Although it is believed that with an asymptomatic course of the disease, the cyst can remain unchanged for many years. Moreover, its size may decrease or even completely dissolve. A false cyst associated with a tooth infection can also disappear after the tooth is healed.
The cyst can also decrease in size after puncture of the maxillary sinuses, as it is punctured with a needle, and the fluid contained in it will drain, but the membrane will remain and after a while will be refilled.
In the asymptomatic course of the disease, doctors can only offer dynamic observation. But with the growth of a neoplasm with the subsequent creation of an obstacle to the normal functioning of the nasal sinuses of the vessels, the only way out is surgery, since this type of tumor cannot dissolve spontaneously or under the influence of medications.
Removal of cysts in the maxillary and nasal sinuses
Surgery depends on many factors, including:
- classification of neoplasms;
- presence / absence of endoscopic equipment;
- the experience of doctors.
Now doctors have at their disposal a variety of techniques, ranging from the rather traumatic classical Caldwell-Luke technique to micronectomy. The latter is performed either under local anesthesia or under general anesthesia.
Operation Caldwell-Luke. An incision is made under the upper lip, then the anterior part of the sinus wall is opened and the cyst is removed through the hole made using surgical instruments.
The hole, which was opened, is subsequently overgrown not with bone tissue, but with scars. As a result, the physiological functions of mucosal tissues are disrupted and, as a result, sinusitis or rhinitis. This operation is performed under general or local anesthesia.
Endoscopic surgery is the most effective and safe method for removing the maxillary sinus cyst. There are several advantages:
- lack of severe trauma to the skin;
- no scars remain from cuts;
- shortened rehabilitation period.
During endoscopic removal of a cyst through the nose, special instruments are inserted (punctures and incisions are not made) to eliminate the formation through the fistula (natural drainage hole) of the nasal sinus.
A distinctive feature of this technique is:
- no contraindications;
- rare cases of complications;
- not long hospitalization (one or two days).
If the cause of the cyst is a bad tooth, then a classic operation is performed on the maxillary sinus. With the help of a trocar, a small (4 mm) hole is made under the upper lip on the side of the cyst localization. In this case, the operation is performed under local anesthesia.
The right to choose a specific method of treating cystic formation always remains with the patient. Therefore, it is necessary to know all the possible treatment options for the disease.
Treatment of cysts in the maxillary and nasal sinuses with folk remedies
Let us immediately determine that the use of folk remedies in the treatment of this disease may not give results at all, and in the worst case, even aggravate the problem.
Especially if the cause of the cyst is chronic allergic rhinitis. After all, the allergic background in the body of a person suffering from allergies is so increased, and herbs or biologically active substances, for example, honey and propolis, will only provoke even greater allergy attacks, and the cyst will increase in size.
With this disease, the following methods of alternative treatment cannot be used:
- Lubricate the nasal mucosa with honey.
- Instill herbal infusions, decoctions and oils into the nose.
- Do rinsing of the nasal cavity with herbal decoctions and infusions.
- Use inhalation with essential oils.
In addition, physiotherapeutic and homeopathic procedures, including the use of homeopathic medicines, are also contraindications.
What does traditional medicine actually offer against this ailment?
- Forest cyclamen tuber juice. It is divorced with water, observing a ratio of 1: 4. It is buried in the morning (two drops each) for a week.
- One teaspoon of glycerin, one tablespoon of water, two grams of mumiyo. Three drops are dripped - twice a day.
- Zloty mustache juice - three drops twice a day.
Everyone can prepare such drops on their own. They will not only improve health, but also help prevent recurrence of cysts in the maxillary and nasal sinuses. If we talk about preventive measures for the formation of a cyst of the maxillary and nasal sinuses, then these are:
- Timely treatment of diseases that can provoke its development, such as: rhinitis, caries, periodontal disease.
- Timely therapy of allergic rhinitis with antihistamines.
- Timely prevention of exacerbations of pollinosis.
This disease is not dangerous and it is quite possible to live with it. If necessary, it is successfully treated, but it is worth remembering that it is impossible to achieve cyst regression with the help of medicines or folk remedies. The only real way to rid your body of this ailment is surgery. Therefore, in the presence of this disease, you should not self-medicate, it is better to immediately go to an appointment with a specialist.
The author of the article: Lazarev Oleg Vladimirovich | ENT
Education: In 2009, he received a diploma in the specialty "General Medicine" at the Petrozavodsk State University. After completing an internship at the Murmansk Regional Clinical Hospital, he received a diploma in Otorhinolaryngology (2010)