Types, causes and symptoms of breast fibroma
Fibroma is a benign neoplasm that develops in connective tissues. The place of its appearance can be the uterus, ovaries, skin, mammary gland, tendons. In the mammary gland, this tumor manifests itself as a painless, ball-shaped lump. In some cases, fibroma is accompanied by a feeling of distention of the mammary gland on the eve of menstruation. Having found seals in the chest, you should consult a doctor for advice in order to exclude malignant formations.
- Causes of breast fibroma
- Methods for the treatment of breast fibroma
Types of breast fibroids
Fibromic formation in the mammary gland is divided into two types: fibroadenomatosis of a diffuse nature and fibroadenoma. The first type is characterized by the growth of a tumor throughout the volume of the breast with the presence of compaction and the presence of pain in the mammary gland. The second has a local form of manifestation of fibroids. This is a round formation with a dense structure; when probing, you can feel a movable knot not connected to the skin. The size of this fibroma reaches 70 mm in diameter.
Fibroadenoma is additionally classified in several types according to morphological characteristics. The most common types are: pericanalicular, intracanalicular, mixed fibroadenoma, which combines the signs of the first two types. The above tumors are characterized by tissue growth around the ducts and the absence of a tendency to degenerate into a malignant formation. The rarest type of fibroadenoma is phylloid, which is characterized by rapid growth and the ability to degenerate into a sarcoma.
Causes of breast fibroma
At the moment, there are no clearly identified causes that form breast fibroids. Numerous observations can only state that the development of the tumor occurs against the background of hormonal disruption in the female body. It is at this point that the amount of estrogen in the blood rises. Therefore, girls who are in puberty and women during menopause need to be especially attentive to themselves and regularly see a mammologist.
There are several steps to diagnosing a disease. First of all, a clinical examination of the woman is carried out. Then, with the help of palpation, a neoplasm is detected. Conducting an ultrasound of the mammary gland gives a detailed idea of the location of the tumor, its exact shape and size, as well as its structure. Next, a biopsy of the tumor is prescribed, which is monitored by ultrasound and is performed using a thin needle by the aspiration method. The obtained material undergoes a cytological examination for the presence of malignant cells.
The diagnosis may require clarification in order to completely exclude such diseases as cyst, cancer and cystadenopapilloma. In such cases, a thick-needle biopsy, X-ray mammography, or a diagnostic breast resection followed by a histological examination is prescribed. It is possible to finally exclude the presence of a cancerous tumor after its removal and laboratory study.
Methods for the treatment of breast fibroma
The method of treatment is determined only after a comprehensive diagnosis based on the results of the morphological conclusion. If a breast fibroma of a small size up to 8 mm is detected, drug treatment controlled by ultrasound is recommended. Its duration can be 4 months or more. However, statistics show that strict adherence to the prescribed therapy rarely gives a positive result. Most of the fibroids are treated with surgery.
The indication for surgery is: rapid tumor growth (twofold increase in fibroma in three months), the size of the formation is more than two centimeters, a cosmetic defect from the presence of fibroma. The reason for the surgical intervention is the leaf-shaped structure of the fibroma, the planned pregnancy (an increase in the tumor can block the milk ducts, the child will be left without feeding, the milk will stagnate, which threatens the development of cancer), the woman's desire to get rid of the fibroma.
Today, there are two methods of tumor removal. The first is a sectoral resection, which is performed if there is a suspicion of a cancerous tumor. During its implementation, not only the fibroid is removed, but also the surrounding tissues. The second - enucleation of the tumor, is carried out in the complete absence of suspicion of a malignant tumor. Enucleation takes place under local anesthesia. During its implementation, only fibroma is removed, and the postoperative period does not require long-term treatment in a hospital. After such an operation, the traces of the seams are not visually noticeable.
There are no clear methods of prevention, but if each woman independently palpates the mammary gland or regularly visits a mammologist for a routine examination, this will significantly reduce the risk of developing fibroids and help avoid serious complications.
Article author: Mochalov Pavel Alexandrovich | d. m. n. therapist
Education: Moscow Medical Institute. IM Sechenov, specialty - "General Medicine" in 1991, in 1993 "Occupational Diseases", in 1996 "Therapy".