Colic in newborns - what to do?
- Causes of intestinal colic in newborns
- How does colic manifest in infants?
- How to help the baby during colic?
- Medical treatment of colic in newborns
Intestinal colic is a common phenomenon in newborn babies. To one degree or another, about 80-90% of infants and their parents face this problem.
However, despite this, there is no particular reason for concern, colic is not dangerous for the life and health of the child. Such phenomena are of a natural physiological nature.
Colic is painful spasms of the smooth muscles of the large intestine due to irritation (when passing or stretching) the walls of the organ with intestinal gases.
There are many tools and methods to relieve colic and reduce the frequency of their occurrence.
Causes of intestinal colic in newborns
The main and main reason for the development of physiological intestinal colic in a newborn is the "inexperience" of the gastrointestinal tract and secretion organs involved in the process of digestion by producing enzymes. While in the womb, the child receives all the nutrients ready-made, which does not require any processing. Therefore, the entire digestive system is at rest.
As soon as the child is born, she begins to feed on mother's milk. Milk is a heavy enough product to process. For the first time since the birth of a child, his gastrointestinal tract is being tested. Specific enzymes begin to be produced. Since the baby is eating small meals at first, colic may not appear.
By the end of the 30th day from the moment of birth, the baby's nutritional needs increase, he consumes more milk. At the same time, his gastrointestinal tract and endocrine system remain the same "inexperienced". In general, the formation of a more or less stable digestive system ends by six months of life, and the gastrointestinal tract begins to work in a full-fledged way only by the time the child is one year old. Therefore, it is difficult for the body to process such a large amount of breast milk. The production of intestinal gases rises sharply.
In addition to natural physiological reasons, there is also a subjective reason regarding the error of mothers in breastfeeding. Adhering to the old advice, compassionate mothers only latch their baby to the breast for a short period of time, which is a huge mistake.
- With a short feeding time, the child consumes only the so-called. "Front" milk. It is rich in carbohydrates and therefore difficult to digest.
- The baby does not receive the so-called "Back" milk. And as you know, it is it that has the maximum nutritional value and contains proteins-immunoglobulins.
- Colic can be aggravated by nervous tension, and quickly breaking contact with the mother can be stressful for the baby.
How does colic manifest in infants?
Colic in newborns is manifested by a number of symptoms, the main of which is crying. In general, a child can cry for a huge variety of reasons: a newborn may be hungry, he may be bored, he may have teeth cut, he may require a change of diaper, he may be scared, etc. You need to pay attention to the nature of crying and the behavior of the child.
Unlike the crying of a child when hungry, crying from colic is sharp and loud, moreover, it is accompanied by pressing the legs to the stomach.
Crying appears unexpectedly and abruptly, often immediately after feeding or after 5-10 minutes after eating. Crying is distinguished by its duration, sharpness. When the pain disappears, the child calms down.
The abdomen can be hard, tense, and distended to the touch. After discharge of intestinal gases, the abdomen is soft and the child calms down.
How to help the baby during colic?
Any mother wants to alleviate the condition of her child. In order to relieve pain, there are several measures. But still, the main thing that mothers should know is that colic is not dangerous, although it is uncomfortable for the baby. They will pass by 2-3 months of life.
Breastfeeding rules include the following:
Let your baby suckle for as long as he wants, even if it takes hours. In the first days and even months of life, this is extremely important and is of great importance for the normal development of the child.
- It is important to properly attach the baby to the breast. It is important to do this so that the child does not swallow air. Otherwise, air will enter the intestines and flatulence will develop.
- You should not feed your child with artificial mixtures. Contrary to popular belief, the baby has enough breast milk.
- If possible, artificial nutritional mixtures should be completely excluded from the child's diet. The cow's milk included in their composition is not digested by the child's body for a long time, since it does not have any enzymes for its processing at all. The introduction of a new type of food into the diet is a colossal stress for the unformed baby's body.
At the end of the feeding, it is important that the air that has entered the baby's gastrointestinal tract is released back. To do this, you need to hold the baby for 5-10 minutes. It should be borne in mind that when feeding from a bottle, a much more intense absorption of air occurs. Therefore, the "anti-colic" bottles on sale are just deception and fiction.
This is not a baby diet. The nursing mother herself should go on a diet. With the blood flow, the resulting substances are sent to the mammary glands and enter the synthesized milk. And this means that to some extent the child eats the same as the mother herself. To reduce the frequency of colic, it is worth excluding certain foods from the diet. Of course, this is not a panacea, and there is no talk of completely getting rid of colic. But there will still be relief.
Exclude from the diet:
- Fermented milk products (milk, kefir, etc.).
- Beans, beans, lentils, peas.
- Cabbage (white cabbage).
- Grapes, bananas, raisins.
- Yeast dough.
Do not overuse sweets. It is advisable to completely abandon milk (in the first 2-3 months of lactation). Milk not only does not improve lactation, but it can also cause a severe allergic reaction in the infant. (Cow and goat milk for children - why is it harmful and dangerous?)
Preference should be given to herbal teas based on fennel and anise.
If these methods have not had an effect, there is no choice how to resort to medication. However, you should not "stuff" a child with a huge amount of drugs, thinking that this will be beneficial. Any medicine loads the body, and it exerts a double load on the child's body. Before taking it, it will not be superfluous to consult a pediatrician.
In addition, there are 3 more recommendations:
Using dry heat. Dry heat is an excellent remedy for spasms as it improves local circulation and relieves tension in the smooth muscles of the intestines. The diaper heats up with a hot iron or battery. A warm diaper is then placed on the baby's belly. It is important not to overheat the diaper, otherwise the baby may burn. For long-term preservation of warmth, it is better to put the baby along with the diaper.
- Laying out on the stomach and doing gymnastics. You should do gymnastics with your child and often lay it on your stomach. The main thing is not to do this immediately after feeding: there is a high probability of regurgitation. Gymnastics will strengthen muscles and improve bowel movements.
- Massage. Massage also has a beneficial effect on intestinal motility. The massage technique is simple. Pressing firmly on your stomach with your palm, you need to make circular movements clockwise for 2-3 minutes. Then bend the child's legs at the knees and press them against the stomach several times. The massage is performed 2-3 times before each feeding.
Medical treatment of colic in newborns
There are many colic remedies on the market today.
Simethicone based preparations
Simethicone preparations help gas bubbles to fuse together, thereby reducing pressure on the intestinal wall. Large gas bubbles pass naturally from the body.
This group of drugs includes:
- Bobotik (in drops, approximate cost - 200 rubles).
- Espumisan (emulsion, approximate cost - 300 rubles).
- Subsimplex (approximate cost -200 rubles).
- Espumisan L (in the form of an emulsion, approximate cost - 250 rubles).
The intestines of a newborn baby are not yet filled with beneficial bacteria. Their colonization of the intestines occurs within 2-3 months. Useful flora enters the child's body with mother's milk. To speed up the process, probiotic preparations are used. But it must be remembered that probiotics can have a negative effect on the child's body. The recommendations of the attending specialist for the dosage and duration of administration should be strictly followed.
- Bifiform Baby (about 400 rubles).
- Acipol (about 300 rubles).
- Bifidumbacterin Forte (about 300 rubles).
- Linex (for children) (about 400 rubles).
The organs of the digestive system, which are responsible for the production of enzymes necessary for digestion in newborns, are underdeveloped, so a young immature body needs support. Such support is the intake of enzyme preparations. The drugs of the enzymatic group include, for example, Creon. It can only be used for the direct prescription of the attending physician. Otherwise, the medicine will do more harm than good.
Biologically active additives (dietary supplements) are also prescribed. For example, Lactosar. Lactosar promotes rapid and efficient breakdown of lactose (found in large quantities in milk). This drug is prescribed for lactase deficiency, since it contains the enzyme lactase.
- Creon (at a dosage of 10,000).
- Lactazar. (the approximate price is 200-300 rubles, depending on the number of tablets in the package).
Phytotherapeutic preparations (based on herbal ingredients)
Preparations based on fennel and anise have a significant anti-colic effect. Their action is based on the acceleration of intestinal motility, which means the rapid elimination of intestinal gases from their body.
Among the drugs in this group are:
- Baby Kalm - contains extracts of fennel, mint, anise (approximate price - 150 rubles).
- Plantex is a mixture of fennel extract with the essential oil of this plant (it costs about 300-500 rubles, depending on the number of tablets in the package).
Following the recommendations presented above, it will be possible to solve the problem of colic much earlier than at the onset of 3 months of age. It is important to remember that colic is a physiological phenomenon and it is almost impossible to get rid of them. The only thing that can be done is to alleviate the pain syndrome and the condition of the child. Colic just needs to outgrow and the problem will no longer bother the child.
The author of the article: Sokolova Praskovya Fedorovna | Pediatrician
Education: Diploma in the specialty "General Medicine" received at the Volgograd State Medical University. A specialist certificate was immediately received in 2014.
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