2023 Author: Josephine Shorter | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-07-30 22:23
The parotid gland is the largest of the salivary glands. It has an irregular shape and grayish-pink color, located in the parotid-chewing part of the face, under the skin surface. The opening of the excretory duct of this gland extends to the side wall of the oral cavity at the level of the upper second large molar.
The main function of the gland is the production of secretion, that is, saliva containing a high concentration of NaCl and KCl and amylase, its acidity is 5.81 pH. About 0.2-0.7 liters of saliva are secreted per day. Saliva is one of the main components involved in the digestion process. With its help, food is moistened, solid particles soften. It disinfects food in the mouth and makes it easier to swallow. The process of cyst formation can be associated with the penetration of infection into the salivary glands from the oral cavity or with blood flow in inflammatory diseases of an infectious nature.
The parotid cyst is a rather rare pathology, but it gives a lot of problems. In addition to the fact that the formation causes discomfort, it also leads to an enlargement of the gland, the formation of a tumor, sometimes of enormous size, thereby violating the natural shape of the face.
The cyst is often discovered by accident. The disease begins to develop, with a feeling of painlessness, the appearance of swelling in the parotid area. Under the skin, on palpation, a pea-like formation of an oval or round shape is felt. It has clear boundaries, elastic structure, movable, not connected to the skin, most often the patient does not feel pain when pressing on the cyst. The cyst contains a viscous fluid.
A feeling of soreness appears with an abscess that occurs due to inflammation of the cyst. This is manifested by swelling in the parotid-chewing area of the face, difficulty opening the mouth, reddening of the skin. If there is no proper treatment, the pathological process covers the temporal and infratemporal areas.
Parotid cysts are:
- congenital - the result of the pathological development of the fetus.
retentional - blockage of the interlobular duct in chronic inflammation of the gland, traumatic injury or postoperative cicatricial changes.
How is salivary gland cyst treated?
After a visual examination by a doctor, patients are sent for a thorough examination. Cysts must always be removed by surgery. Differential diagnosis is carried out in order to identify the structure of the cyst, to accurately establish the type and degree of the inflammatory process, using standard diagnostic methods such as ultrasound, CT or MRI, cyst puncture and aspiration biopsy.
Ultrasound allows you to determine the state of the gland, blood flow. CT and MRI provide an opportunity to determine the size and shape of the cyst. Puncture reveals the consistency and composition of the fluid contained in the cyst, usually it is yellowish in color, can be cloudy, with an admixture of mucus.
X-rays are used to determine whether a growth in the salivary gland is benign or malignant. The cyst is exfoliated within the shell, it is carefully detached from the adjacent tissues of the salivary gland. During the operation, all manipulations should be carried out carefully, since branches of the facial nerve pass in this area, and any oversight of the surgeon leads to paralysis of the facial muscles and deformation of half of the face.
It is believed that the cyst of the parotid salivary gland develops from a rudimentary duct or parts of the gland that have been exfoliated during embryonic development. The cysts of the parotid salivary gland grow slowly, they are more often single-chambered, less often they are represented by several cavities. The prognosis for the surgical method of treating cysts of the parotid salivary gland is favorable. An attentive attitude to your health is the key to preventing diseases or quickly curing them.
At the first signs of an inflammatory process of the salivary glands, you should seek the advice of specialists. These include sharp pain while chewing food and brushing teeth, swelling on the cheek. If you have dry mouth, there is an unpleasant taste, taste is disturbed, there is difficulty in opening the mouth and the body temperature rises - these are symptoms of a disease of the salivary glands.
At the first symptoms of inflammation of the salivary glands, the patient is shown to stay in a warm room. It is recommended to cover the affected area with a warm scarf if the illness occurs in the winter. But with a cyst of the salivary ducts, you need to remember that heat and various UHF manipulations are contraindicated.
Today there are several methods for treating a cyst, and one of them is the periodic suction of its contents. The principle of this method is that after aspiration of the liquid, a hypertonic solution is injected into its cavity with a volume of 2 ml less than what was extracted. After 15-20 minutes, this hypertonic solution is removed and a pressure bandage is applied to the gland area. The course of such procedures is 2-3 suction. You can also apply the method of cauterization of the shell of the cyst. Then the gland is sutured.
The author of the article: Lazarev Oleg Vladimirovich | ENT
Education: In 2009, he received a diploma in the specialty "General Medicine" at the Petrozavodsk State University. After completing an internship at the Murmansk Regional Clinical Hospital, he received a diploma in Otorhinolaryngology (2010)
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