2023 Author: Josephine Shorter | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 04:34
19th week of pregnancy
According to the obstetric method, week 19 corresponds to the third week of the fifth month of pregnancy. The main achievement of this period is that almost all women feel fetal movements. If this is not the case, do not worry - everything is individual, the appearance of the first movements before 22 weeks is considered the norm. It is important to provide the baby with maximum comfort - not to be nervous, to walk more often in the fresh air, to relax, and not try to redo all the homework at once.
- What's going on with mom?
- Fetal development
- Belly - what has changed?
- Parameters of the uterus
- Feelings and movements
- Multiple pregnancy
- Prevention of pain
- Allocations - norm and pathology
- Mandatory tests at week 19
- Weight dynamics
- Signs of a frozen pregnancy
- Diet and vitamins
What's going on with mom?
There may be a decreased level of hemoglobin in the blood this week. If the test results confirm such a violation, it is worth starting taking medications containing iron. Weight grows, articular cartilage softens, preparing the pelvic bones for the upcoming birth. Due to the divergence of the joints, the woman feels pain in the lower back. To prevent hypodynamia, you should postpone your business every hour and walk for 5-10 minutes or perform several simple exercises. It is not necessary to sit for a long time if the chair does not have a back, it is also undesirable to take a "cross-legged" position.
A woman's weight is gaining momentum, her posture and gait change due to her growing belly. Moving internal organs under the pressure of the enlarging uterus, especially the diaphragm, sometimes leads to a lack of air. Breathing exercises will help relieve fatigue and restore the rhythm of breathing.
The fetal brain is constantly growing and improving, its nerve cells are differentiating. The child gradually moves from chaotic and spontaneous movements to purposeful activity. Frequent movements and changes in the position of the fetus inside the uterus serve as a kind of training for the musculoskeletal system. The baby's neck is already so strong that he performs head turns with a significant amplitude.
In addition to the development of movements, nerve endings are formed that are responsible for the activity of the senses: taste, touch, hearing and vision. After 1-2 weeks, the development of the retinal receptors will end, and the child will be able to raise and lower the eyelids, responding to changes in lighting.
On the surface of his skin, the production of lubricant began, which will cover the baby's body until the moment of birth. The grease has a pearly gray hue, it has antibacterial properties, protecting the epidermis from germs and the soaking effect of amniotic fluid. The entire fruit is covered with vellus hair under lubrication, which will disappear during the neonatal period.
Fetal parameters at week 19:
- CTE (coccygeal-parietal size) - 15 cm;
- Weight - 250 g.
The respiratory system of the fetus is continuously improving, at 19 weeks a bronchial tree with alveoli, bronchi, lungs, bronchioles is formed. Its development will continue almost until the moment of birth. The child's urinary system is functioning well - the volume of urine excreted in 1 hour by his kidneys is 2 ml.
Video about prejudices associated with pregnancy, about the development of the baby's respiratory system, about the first movements:
Belly - what has changed?
At this stage of pregnancy, a woman must wear a prenatal bandage. It greatly facilitates well-being, serves to prevent pulling pains after a long walk or standing on your feet, and reduces the stretching of the abdominal skin.
Stretch marks on the abdomen may well appear due to its rapid growth, when the cells of the epidermis are not dividing as intensively as the uterus grows and the abdominal wall stretches. For the prevention of stretch marks (striae), you can rub olive or almond oil into the skin of the abdomen, a moisturizing cream with a high level of safety from a series of pharmaceutical cosmetics.
Another problem that has arisen due to the enlarged abdomen is posture during sleep. You cannot sleep on your stomach or on your back because of the fear of harming the baby. In the supine position, the enlarged uterus compresses the vena cava that supplies blood to the placenta, and the fetus begins to feel a lack of oxygen. The only correct position is to sleep on your side. It is very comfortable to sleep on a special maternity pillow, like a large banana, which is squeezed between bent knees.
Parameters of the uterus
The uterus rises higher and higher, now it does not reach the navel 1.5 cm. Its weight is approximately equal to 300-320 g. From time to time, there may be slight pulling sensations, not accompanied by pain, when the uterus seems to be "stiff". If there is no bloody discharge, there is no need to be frightened - this is how “training fights” take place. However, you should tell your doctor about this symptom.
Feelings and movements
The appearance of fetal movements is a kind of turning point. It is now that pregnancy is no longer perceived as a state of the body, and the child, on the contrary, for many is only now becoming an animate being. Women who are undergoing a second and subsequent pregnancies experienced this wonderful sensation already 1-2 weeks ago.
A decrease in vascular tone under the relaxing effect of progesterone leads to a drop in blood pressure. If, moreover, a woman's hemoglobin level is lowered due to an increase in blood volume, then she will feel weak and dizzy. It is advisable not to get up suddenly out of bed or from a chair, so that coordination of movements is not disturbed. Your doctor will most likely recommend iron supplements. If it is impossible to take a deep breath or exhale, you need to breathe often and shallowly, "like a dog."
At week 19, a woman may feel tachycardia, excessive sweating. The increased volume of fluid circulating in the body also affects the volume of vaginal discharge. At this stage of pregnancy, it is quite possible for colostrum to flow out of the breast. It should not be expressed, so as not to cause contractions of the uterus and the threat of miscarriage. To prevent bacterial infection, the nipple areola is wiped with a damp cloth, washed with cool water, leaving the breast to dry in the open air. This tactic will simultaneously start preparing the nipples for breastfeeding.
Due to an increase in the level of melanin in a pregnant woman, the armpits and the skin of the vulva darken, and sometimes age spots appear on the face. These phenomena will disappear soon after giving birth.
At this stage of pregnancy, the belly of the expectant mother of twins or twins is noticeably larger than that of women with a singleton pregnancy. Accordingly, she experiences more problems with well-being - constipation, heartburn, frequent urination due to the pressure of the uterus on the stomach. It is especially necessary to wear a supporting bandage, a rich diet, and timely rest.
Prevention of pain
Most often, abdominal pain is associated with an ongoing stretching of the round ligaments of the uterus. They constantly withstand significant stress, which increases with bending and intense movements of the trunk. The nature of the pain is episodic, implicitly expressed. The condition does not require treatment.
With cramping pains of low intensity, the cause may be an increased tone of the uterus. You should immediately lie down and relax as much as possible by taking a No-shpy pill, using candles with Papaverine. If the condition of uterine hypertonicity has not passed within 1-2 hours, you should seek emergency help.
The threat of miscarriage at the 19th week of pregnancy is minimal, however, spontaneous abortion can occur due to physical strain, severe stress, an accident, abdominal trauma, or a fall. At the same time, severe pains in the lower abdomen with contractions and profuse spotting are felt. In some cases, the life of the child and the health of the mother depend on a timely visit to a doctor. If placental abruption begins, uterine bleeding with high blood loss may occur. Therefore, you should not ignore the appearance of pain and atypical discharge. With timely access to medical care, pregnancy can be maintained.
Allocations - norm and pathology
Normally, vaginal discharge at week 19 should be light, uniform, almost transparent, not too abundant. They have a subtle sour milk smell. A change in these parameters - the addition of an unpleasant odor, a change in color to yellow or green, the appearance of foamy, purulent or cheesy inclusions - is a sign of infection of the vagina.
If the cause of pathological leucorrhoea is sexually transmitted diseases, they should be treated immediately under the guidance of a dermatovenerologist.
The appearance of yellow-green, profuse leucorrhoea in the form of pieces of cottage cheese with symptoms of itching and burning is a sign of candidiasis, or thrush. This fungal disease often occurs in pregnant women due to a temporary decrease in immunity. Candidiasis is provoked by the frequent use of sweets, pastries made from wheat flour. Thrush is treated in both spouses at the same time to avoid relapses.
Mandatory tests at week 19
Before visiting a gynecologist, which at this time is carried out at monthly intervals, a pregnant woman takes a mandatory urine test and a blood test for hemoglobin. At the doctor's appointment, the midwife measures her blood pressure, weight, and the height of the uterus. The doctor listens to the fetal heartbeat, gives recommendations on nutrition.
A second elective ultrasound scan is usually done between 20 and 24 weeks, but for medical reasons it may be done 1 to 2 weeks earlier. The main purpose of the study is to assess the development of the fetus, the state of the placenta and uterus. If genetic and chromosomal abnormalities are suspected, the examining physician evaluates the size of the nasal cartilage and the parameters of the fetal collar zone.
What can be determined during an ultrasound scan:
- The state of the myometrium (muscle layer of the uterus);
- Placenta location, risk of presentation;
- The state and volume of amniotic fluid;
- The ratio of the size of the uterus and the fetus;
- Assessment of the state of the internal organs and heartbeat of the child;
- Baby's gender.
Since the unborn baby already has a peculiar sleep and wakefulness regime, during the study, you can find him sleeping, or, conversely, actively frolicking in the amniotic fluid.
Weighing is recommended to be carried out weekly, at the same time of the day, in the same clothes. Weight dynamics is an important parameter for assessing the course of pregnancy. In the second trimester, weight gain averages 250-300 g per week. If you count from the first days of pregnancy, by the nineteenth week, the expectant mother should not gain more than 6.3 kg. The individual characteristics of a woman are of great importance here - the initial weight, constitutional features, the course of pregnancy.
While there is an opportunity for relaxation, it is worth allowing yourself a short romantic trip in the same climatic zone. Sexual relations at this stage of pregnancy are quite acceptable if there is no placenta previa and multiple pregnancies. Usually the doctor discusses the topic of sex individually with each patient, focusing on her condition.
Signs of a frozen pregnancy
If at this time the fetal movement is not felt, the woman suspects that her pregnancy has stopped, has stopped. At 19 weeks, a frozen pregnancy is extremely rare, but this possibility cannot be completely ruled out.
The main symptoms of pathology:
- Termination of the started movements;
- Absence of signs of pregnancy - tension of the mammary glands, nausea, if toxicosis is prolonged);
- Lack of fetal heartbeat (determined by the doctor during the examination);
- The appearance of pain in the abdomen like contractions;
- Bloody, bloody, brown discharge;
- Signs of infection - headache, fever.
At the first suspicion of fading pregnancy, you should consult a doctor to confirm the diagnosis. If the child dies, the ovum is immediately removed in order to avoid poisoning the woman's body with decay products. She is given anti-inflammatory therapy to prevent sepsis and pathologies of the reproductive organs.
The reasons for the fading of pregnancy can be Rh-conflict, hormonal imbalance, the consequences of alcohol and drug use, congenital pathologies of fetal development.
Diet and vitamins
The filling of the menu during this period is made with one goal - to provide a pregnant woman with a full set of proteins, trace elements, vitamins, healthy fats. An excellent source of protein is lean beef and veal, nuts, rabbit meat, dairy products.
For calcium and iron intake, it is recommended to include in the diet buckwheat and oatmeal, figs, dried apricots, persimmons, blueberries, tomato juice, eggs, greens, apples. You should not eat foods with food additives, dyes and flavor substitutes. Hot spices, smoked meats, pickles and marinades are best temporarily set aside. Sweets are also unhealthy, since they stimulate weight gain and provoke exacerbations of thrush.
To control body weight and not starve, it is better to eat often, in small portions. The best cooking methods are boiling and baking.
The author of the article: Lapikova Valentina Vladimirovna | Gynecologist, reproductologist
Education: Diploma in Obstetrics and Gynecology received at the Russian State Medical University of the Federal Agency for Healthcare and Social Development (2010). In 2013 completed postgraduate studies at N. N. N. I. Pirogova.
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