14 weeks pregnant
Week 14 is the line between the first and second trimester, or between the first and second half of the fourth month of pregnancy in obstetric terms. The negative symptoms of toxicosis are already behind, the abdomen is not yet large enough to restrict the movement and the usual way of life of a woman - we can assume that the most pleasant stage of pregnancy is coming.
- How does the fetus change at 14 weeks?
- Influence of toxins on fetal development
- Mandatory tests at week 14
- The uterus and its size
- The belly is already visible
- Allocations: norm and pathology
- Vaginal bleeding
- Infectious diseases and fever
- How to organize proper nutrition?
- Sexual relationship
How does the fetus change at 14 weeks?
At this stage of pregnancy, the fetus is actively moving, making targeted movements, pushing off the walls of the uterus. Its skeletal system and muscle tissue are strengthened, the skin becomes stronger and denser. The face of the unborn child acquires certain features, the ears move to their permanent place, the cheeks and the bridge of the nose are formed. The eyes of the fetus are still closed, they will remain so until the retina finishes its development.
Despite the growth of muscle tissue, the fetus is still very thin, its skin is translucent, and there is almost no fatty tissue. The whole body and head of the baby are covered with a protective lubricant, under which there is a delicate fluff - lanugo. These thin hairs keep the lubricant on the body until the moment of delivery, when the baby will have to slide freely along the birth canal. On the child's head there is already a soft fluff, and on the face - eyebrows and eyelashes.
Although the respiratory system is not yet functioning while the fetus is in the amniotic fluid, the diaphragm rises and falls as if breathing. While the future baby makes training movements, "inhaling" amniotic fluid.
Fetal parameters at week 14:
- Weight - 25 g;
- CTE (coccygeal-parietal size) - 8-10 cm;
Body length from heels to crown is about 12 cm;
- Thigh length - 1.6 cm;
- Transverse (biparietal) head size - 3 cm;
- Chest circumference - 2.6 mm;
- The heart rate is 120-150 beats per minute.
The fetus reacts to the mother's emotional outbursts (excitement, stress) with an increased heart rate, chaotic movements. At this stage of pregnancy, you can find out the Rh factor and blood group of the unborn child, although the bone marrow still has to work hard to form the final blood composition.
The swallowing reflex has already formed by the 14th week - the fetus swallows the amniotic fluid. His taste is selective, he reacts to the mother's consumption of sweets with frequent swallowing movements, and to sour and salty, on the contrary, with more rare sips.
The organism of the unborn child began to produce its own hormones, these are insulin and thyroid hormones. The intestines with the rudiments of the villi, the excretory system function. At this time, with a good scanner resolution, it is possible to determine the sex of the baby, although not quite accurately.
Influence of toxins on fetal development
Although all the main organs of the unborn child are already functioning, and there is no need to fear mutations due to toxic effects, developmental disorders of the child are possible due to exposure to nicotine, alcohol, drugs. The placenta is an excellent barrier to protect the baby, but it also cannot protect against certain toxins. Alcohol and nicotine, once in the blood, will immediately appear in the child's circulatory system, penetrate into the brain.
These toxic factors cause placental insufficiency, and the fetus immediately experiences a lack of oxygen and nutrients. Passive smoking, staying in a smoky room has the same property.
Video about the condition of the fetus at week 14, about toxins that affect the well-being of a woman:
This study is planned for all pregnant women registered at the antenatal clinic for a period of 11-14 weeks. It helps to determine not only the exact duration of pregnancy and the date of birth, but also to assess the development of the main internal organs, to determine the presence of pathologies.
It is not difficult for an experienced specialist with clear visualization to establish the proportions of the femurs and other long bones, the shape of the feet and hands, to examine the structures of the heart, liver, digestive and excretory systems, and the brain.
A comprehensive screening study is prescribed in each trimester of pregnancy to assess malformations (genetic and chromosomal abnormalities). The optimal time for its implementation in the first trimester falls on the 12-14 obstetric week. It was during this period on ultrasound that it is easy to determine by the state of the collar zone the presence of Down syndrome and Edwards syndrome - irreversible chromosomal pathologies. Second trimester screening is done at 15-20 weeks of obstetric time.
In addition to ultrasound, as part of the screening, a double test is performed to determine the content of hCG and a specific protein in the blood serum. Increased values give a basis for an in-depth study of the chorionic villi, placenta, or amniotic fluid.
Mandatory tests at week 14
Before the next visit to your gynecologist, you need to pass a general blood and urine test, if the doctor has not ordered an in-depth study. If, after screening, he has grounds for analyzing amniotic fluid, you should prepare for the examination. Puncture of the uterus for the collection of amniotic fluid is carried out according to strict indications, in agreement with the pregnant woman. In one case in two hundred, there is a risk of miscarriage.
Sampling is carried out under the control of an ultrasound scanner so as not to harm the fetus. This analysis is extremely informative, according to its results, it is possible to confirm or deny pathologies of fetal development with 100% accuracy.
It is possible that at this stage of pregnancy, women who are expecting a second and subsequent child will feel the first weak movements of the fetus. They can be confused with intestinal motility with flatulence, but it is still possible to recognize the child's movements. The first, not very pleasing changes in appearance appeared: brittle nails and hair, peeling of the skin, age spots, bleeding gums.
If these changes are too pronounced, you need to take vitamin complexes to restore the content of deficient trace elements. Lack of calcium, actively used by the fetus, is felt by leg cramps. To compensate for this condition, you should take calcium-containing drugs, introduce cottage cheese, cheese, dairy products into the diet.
The symptoms of toxicosis at week 14 are invisible, nausea, dizziness, and increased irritability disappeared. This will benefit the fetus, which is sensitive to the state of the mother. The pregnant uterus begins to put pressure on the abdominal organs, especially on the intestines. These changes cause heartburn, discomfort, and pain that passes quickly. The negative symptoms disappear if the woman is able to relax and lie down. A complex of special exercises for pregnant women will help bring your feelings back to normal.
Often, a pregnant woman experiences lower back pain. This symptom is caused by wearing high-heeled shoes or significant weight gain in a short time. The body's center of gravity shifts, and the spine cannot quickly adapt to such changes. Dangerous back pain associated with pyelonephritis - inflammation of the renal pelvis. Sometimes pain is the only symptom of this disease. Pyelonephritis should be managed under the guidance of a urologist who should be aware of pregnancy in order to find safe medications.
Another reason for negative feelings is headaches. They can be caused by the fact that the vessels cannot cope with the increased blood volume, sleep disturbances, and overwork. It is advisable to avoid the use of drugs, it is better to use not drugs, but rest, massage of the temporal zone, cool compresses.
Mild pain in the lower abdomen can be a symptom of a sprain in the ligaments holding the uterus. When the tissues adapt to the increased stress, these pains will cease to be felt. Much more dangerous is cramping pain in the lower abdomen in combination with profuse blood or bloody discharge. Such symptoms are characteristic of miscarriage or expulsion of a frozen pregnancy. If the fetus is alive, it is possible to preserve it by timely contacting the gynecological hospital.
The uterus and its size
At 14 weeks, the bottom of the uterus is between the navel and the pubic joint. The upper edge is 11-13 cm above the pubis, the uterus rises to the navel relative to the pubic bone. It can be easily felt through the peritoneum by simply placing a hand on the abdomen.
The belly is already visible
At this time, almost all women have a slightly noticeable tummy. This is to be expected as at 14 weeks the fetus reaches the size of a medium apple and the uterus enlarges even more. To prevent the appearance of stretch marks, you can use special products for pregnant women, olive or almond oil. They are applied to the skin of the chest and abdomen, softening it in advance. All cosmetic products must be certified and intended for expectant mothers.
By this time, not only the belly was indicated - the waist was rounded, the chest increased. Now is the time to change your wardrobe, avoiding tight clothes, tight belts and synthetic underwear.
Allocations: norm and pathology
Normally, vaginal discharge has not changed much since the beginning of pregnancy - it is a transparent or milky-gray discharge with a minimum volume. If the discharge is accompanied by burning, itching of the external genital organs, the appearance of pus or mucus, it means that the woman is infected with gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, and other genital infections.
Such manifestations should be diagnosed by taking a smear for urogenital infections, and treated taking into account pregnancy.
A decrease in immunity, a change in the microflora of the vagina becomes an impetus for the multiplication of fungi that cause candidiasis, or thrush. A characteristic symptom of candidiasis is a yellow-green cheesy discharge, a burning sensation in the vagina. Candidiasis is treated under the guidance of an obstetrician-gynecologist leading a pregnancy.
Bloody discharge that is not accompanied by abdominal pain is a symptom of cervical erosion. Most often, a woman notices such a discharge after intercourse or a gynecological examination using a mirror.
The appearance of a large amount of bloody discharge, accompanied by cramping pains in the lower abdomen, radiating to the lower back, speaks of the spontaneous abortion that has begun.
- Placental abruption;
- Fetal developmental abnormalities;
- Injury, fall, abdominal contusion;
- Hormonal imbalance.
If you provide a woman with timely medical care, you can try to maintain the pregnancy. To do this, you should seek emergency help.
Infectious diseases and fever
At this time, it is not so dangerous to become infected with a viral respiratory disease as in the first weeks and months of pregnancy, but the danger to the fetus lies in the high temperature (over + 38 ° C). Hyperthermia can cause miscarriage and must be addressed. The doctor will recommend medications based on pregnancy to effectively relieve symptoms of the disease. Before consulting a specialist, you need to stay in bed, use warm drinks, lotions and rubdowns.
Perhaps an elevated temperature signals an inflammatory process in the genitourinary or respiratory system:
- Rotavirus infection.
The focus of inflammation occurs due to lowered immunity, changes in tissue structure. To clarify the diagnosis, the woman will have to undergo additional tests, and if the process worsens, undergo hospital treatment. If the temperature is caused by the introduction of infection, there is a high risk of infection of the fetus by pathogenic microorganisms.
How to organize proper nutrition?
An important task of the diet at 14 weeks of gestation is to supply the fetus with enough calcium to build a strong skeletal system. If there is not enough calcium, the child will receive it from the tissues of the mother's body, which will cause convulsions, tooth decay. For an additional supply of calcium, cottage cheese, cheese, dairy products should be included in the diet of a pregnant woman more often. Adequate nutrition will allow you to do without additional drugs.
It is imperative to add fish and seafood to the menu as a source of essential amino acids, phosphorus, vitamin D. A pregnant woman gets a complete protein from dietary meats: lean beef, veal, rabbit and poultry. To prevent the child from developing allergic manifestations in the future, caviar, chocolate, and citrus fruits should be limited in their diet. Strong broths, smoked and canned dishes are unhelpful. It is better to bake, stew or cook products, rather than fry them.
An obligatory component of the menu is vegetables and fruits, lactic acid products. Their components will help to avoid constipation, indigestion.
If there are no prerequisites for termination of pregnancy, the baby will not suffer from sexual intercourse. It is protected by the walls of the uterus and amniotic fluid. Sexual relationships can sparkle with new colors at this stage of pregnancy. Improving the well-being of the expectant mother, the gentle and caring attitude of her husband to her, increased libido will bring harmony to the intimate relationships of the spouses.
Sports exercises, swimming, water aerobics at the 14th week of pregnancy will reduce the load on the spine and bring a lot of positive emotions. Regular walks will help improve the health of the baby and expectant mother.
The author of the article: Lapikova Valentina Vladimirovna | Gynecologist, reproductologist
Education: Diploma in Obstetrics and Gynecology received at the Russian State Medical University of the Federal Agency for Healthcare and Social Development (2010). In 2013 completed postgraduate studies at N.N. N.I. Pirogova.
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