Why Does The Lower Abdomen Hurt In Women?

Table of contents:

Video: Why Does The Lower Abdomen Hurt In Women?

Video: Why Does The Lower Abdomen Hurt In Women?
Video: Why do I have lower abdominal pain? Ask The Gynaecologist 2023, March
Why Does The Lower Abdomen Hurt In Women?
Why Does The Lower Abdomen Hurt In Women?

Why does the lower abdomen hurt in women?

At a gynecologist's appointment, the most common complaint of women is a complaint of pain in the lower abdomen. Such pain can indicate not only problems in the genital area, but also diseases of the nervous system, as well as acute surgical pathology. It is impossible to endure severe pain in the lower abdomen; it is necessary to consult a doctor as soon as possible and undergo an examination.


  • Causes of pain in the lower abdomen in women
  • Pain before and after menstruation
  • Ovulation and pain
  • Pain in the lower abdomen after intimacy
  • Pregnancy and lower abdominal pain
  • Pain not associated with the menstrual cycle
  • What to do if a woman's lower abdomen hurts?

Causes of pain in the lower abdomen in women

Causes of pain in the lower abdomen in women
Causes of pain in the lower abdomen in women

Organic causes of pain in women in the lower abdomen:

  • Pathology of the reproductive system. These can be diseases such as: inflammation or apoplexy of the ovaries, endometriosis, ovarian cyst or torsion of its legs, uterine fibroids.

  • Pain can be triggered by an intrauterine device, if there is one in a woman's body.
  • Pathologies requiring surgery, such as appendicitis.
  • Acute inflammatory diseases of the gallbladder, such as cholecystitis.
  • Damage to the organs of the urinary system: inflammation of the kidneys or bladder.
  • Pain can occur during pregnancy, for example, when there is a threat of miscarriage, with the development of an ectopic pregnancy, with early placental abruption, after an abortion.

Functional reasons that can provoke the occurrence of abdominal pain:

  • Disruptions in the menstrual cycle and dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
  • Ovulation.
  • Stagnation of menstrual blood after curettage or bending of the uterus.

The pain can be of varying intensity and duration.

Inflammation of the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes. The inflammatory process manifests itself with a sharp increase in body temperature, the appearance of intense pain in the lower abdomen. In parallel, the symptoms of intoxication are increasing.

Inflammation of the ovaries and fallopian tubes is expressed in severe pain, which is localized in the left or right side, in the lower abdomen. During a gynecological examination, the doctor palpates painful appendages.

If a woman develops endometritis, then the pain is localized in the center of the abdomen. With the help of palpation, a painful and enlarged uterus is found.

If the inflammation of the appendages or endometrium of the uterus is chronic, then the pains are not acute, but aching, occur with a certain frequency. The uterus thickens, responds with increased sensitivity to touch.

To relieve inflammation, a woman is prescribed a course of antibiotic therapy, infusion treatment, taking vitamin complexes, and local treatment using vaginal suppositories.

Endometriosis Endometriosis is the proliferation of uterine endometrial cells in atypical locations. Pain with endometriosis appears before the onset of the next menstruation, and during bleeding it becomes very intense.

The location of the pain depends on where the endometrium has grown:

  • Endometriosis of the uterus - pains are localized in the center of the lower abdomen.
  • Endometriosis of the appendages - the pain is concentrated in the groin.
  • Retrocervical endometriosis - pain is localized behind the pubis.

The stronger the proliferation of the endometrium, the more intense the pain. Other symptoms of pathology: violations of the timing of the menstrual cycle, a change in the nature of menstrual flow, the inability to conceive a child.

To get rid of endometriosis, you need to undergo hormonal treatment. Sometimes the help of a surgeon is required.

Ovarian apoplexy. In the middle of the cycle, an ovarian hemorrhage may occur. In this case, the main follicle ruptures, the vessels of the ovary are damaged, and internal bleeding develops. Blood enters the peritoneal cavity, fallopian tubes and uterus.

Apoplexy can occur against the background of intimacy, with pronounced physical exertion. The woman begins to experience severe pain in the lower abdomen, which are localized on the side where the damaged ovary is located. At the same time, a sharp drop in blood pressure occurs, the skin becomes pale, fainting is possible.

Ovarian apoplexy
Ovarian apoplexy

Taking any medications in this situation is inappropriate, surgical intervention is necessary.

Myoma of the uterus. When the neoplasm reaches an impressive size, the woman experiences pain, as the tumor begins to put pressure on neighboring organs and tissues, pinching the nerve endings.

The pain is aching and dull. When the birth of the myomatous node occurs, the pain proceeds as contractions, it becomes very intense. Bleeding opens in parallel.

Cystic tumor of the ovary with torsion of its legs. Torsion of the cyst legs can provoke physical exertion, sudden movements, deep torso bends. If the angle of torsion is more than 90 ° C, then there is a violation of the venous outflow of the cyst, it increases in size. At the same time, aching pains occur.

If there is a complete torsion, then the cyst begins to suffer from a pronounced violation of the blood supply. A woman at this time is experiencing severe pain, signs of intoxication of the body begin to increase, and body temperature rises. In this case, only surgical intervention can help, and you need to seek medical help immediately.

Inflammation of the appendix. Appendicitis is characterized by abdominal pain. First, they are localized in the upper abdomen, in its center, and then move to the right side. In addition, a person's body temperature rises, weakness increases, and the desire to eat disappears. If the patient is not urgently hospitalized and operated on, he will develop inflammation of the peritoneum, which will lead to death.

Case from practice: A woman is admitted to the hospital with severe pain in the lower abdomen. They are localized in the right side. She is examined by a surgeon and a gynecologist, but none of the doctors can say that the patient's pathology is in his direction. Nevertheless, experts are inclined to believe that the woman has a gynecological disease. As a result, they decide to conduct a diagnostic laparotomy, according to the results of which it is possible to establish that the uterus and appendages are healthy, but the appendix is inflamed. The reason why the surgeon could not immediately establish the correct diagnosis is the atypical location of the appendix.

Inflammation of the gallbladder. The most common cause of the inflammatory reaction is the presence of stones in the organ cavity. The disease begins acutely, a person's body temperature rises, nausea appears, and vomiting may occur. As the level of bilirubin in the blood becomes very high, it causes itchy skin. Pains are localized on the right side, under the ribs, they also radiate to the lower abdomen, lower back, back and subclavian region. After a person eats, the pains become worse. To stop inflammation, you will need to follow a gentle diet and take drugs aimed at normalizing the outflow of bile. If the stones are very large, surgery may be required.

Inflammation of the kidneys and bladder. With cystitis, cutting pains, very sharp, are localized in the pubic region. They become especially intense during the emptying of the bladder.

If the patient has kidney inflammation, then the pain is concentrated in the lumbar region and in the lower abdomen.

Both with cystitis and with pyelonephritis, an increase in body temperature, a violation of the outflow of urine is possible.

To stop the inflammatory process, antibacterial drugs and nitrofurans are required.

Ectopic pregnancy. When the ovum does not reach the uterus, but is attached in the tubes, a woman has pain in the groin area. As the embryo grows, they begin to disturb more and more often. If an ectopic pregnancy was not diagnosed in time, the epididymis will rupture. In this case, internal bleeding opens, acute pains appear with irradiation into the vagina and rectum. Treatment is only surgical.

To suspect an ectopic pregnancy, you need to focus on the following signs: a positive pregnancy test, no menstrual bleeding, the appearance of blood from the vagina after another attack of pain.

Pain before and after menstruation

Pain before and after menstruation
Pain before and after menstruation

Pain before menstruation begins can be triggered by the following:

  • Algodismenorrhea, which is most often observed at a young age.
  • PMS.
  • Bend of the uterus.
  • Inflammation of the organs located in the pelvis.

If pain occurs after the end of menstruation, then the presence of an endometrioid cyst, or chronic endometritis, can be suspected.

Find out more: How can you reduce your period pain?

Ovulation and pain

Typically, when ovulation occurs, most women experience pain. However, it has a low intensity and does not cause a pronounced disturbance of well-being. Painful sensations do not last more than 2 days and may be accompanied by the release of a small amount of blood. No therapy is required.

Practical case: A young patient came to the gynecologist's appointment without ovulation. According to the plan, she was scheduled for ovarian resection, since the diagnosis sounded like polycystic ovary disease. On the night before the operation, she comes in with internal bleeding. During surgery, ovarian apoplexy is detected. It turns out that the patient had ovulation for the first time and it ended so unfavorably. During the operation, the ovaries were removed.

Pain in the lower abdomen after intimacy

Pain in the lower abdomen after intimacy
Pain in the lower abdomen after intimacy

Frustration after intimacy is quite common. A woman does not receive moral satisfaction from intimacy, which leads to pulling pains.

Other causes of pain after intercourse:

  • Chronic inflammation of the appendages.
  • Chronic inflammation of the endometrium of the uterus.
  • Inflammation of the cervix.
  • Rough actions of the partner, which led to damage to the integrity of the vaginal wall.
  • Endometriosis
  • The presence of tumor growths.

Pregnancy and lower abdominal pain

During pregnancy, pain in the lower abdomen may indicate that there is a threat of termination. This can happen before 22 weeks of pregnancy. In addition to pain, blood may appear from the genital tract. An emergency hospitalization is indicated for a woman with a threat of miscarriage.

A placental abruption in the early stages can cause pain in the lower abdomen. In addition, bleeding develops. This situation requires an emergency caesarean section.

Pain not associated with the menstrual cycle

Pain not associated with the menstrual cycle
Pain not associated with the menstrual cycle

The abdomen may start to ache suddenly, and the cause of the pain will not depend on the menstrual cycle. In this case, one of the following pathologies can be suspected:

  • Salpingo-oophoritis or inflammation of the uterine appendages. The pains are localized in the lower abdomen, and discharge with impurities of pus appears from the vagina. Also, the pain can intensify after intimacy. Other symptoms of inflammation: increase in body temperature, general weakness, increased sweating, increased tone of the abdominal muscles, pain during urination. The cause of salpingo-oophoritis is pathogenic microorganisms. If you ignore the disease, then it threatens with serious health problems.

  • Torsion of the epididymis. Pain during torsion of the epididymis is localized in the lower abdomen, and may radiate to the lower back. Other signs of torsion: palpable induration in the lower abdomen, nausea and vomiting, fading of pain when changing body position. The adhesion process most often becomes the cause of torsion.

  • Previous abortion. Lower abdominal pain is expected if a woman has had an abortion. It occurs as soon as the action of the analgesic ends. Normally, the pain should not be too intense and after a few days they completely disappear. If this does not happen, then you should immediately consult a doctor. Abortion is always associated with a high risk of complications that need to be identified and addressed in a timely manner. In addition to pain, a woman may experience bloody discharge from the genital tract, the menstrual cycle may malfunction, an increase in body temperature.

  • Cyst rupture. Severe lower abdominal pain may be due to a ruptured cyst. This process is accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and increased weakness. Elevated body temperature is not eliminated by taking antipyretic drugs.

  • Cancer neoplasms of the uterus. With uterine cancer, the pain is monotonous, appears periodically, so the woman gets used to it. In parallel, vaginal discharge can be observed, which have an unpleasant odor, as well as intermenstrual bleeding.

  • Ovarian cancers. A pulling pain in the lower abdomen that bothers you for a long time can be a symptom of ovarian cancer. In addition to pain, there may be an increase in the size of the abdomen, as well as the occurrence of bleeding between menstrual cycles.

  • Adhesion process. Lower abdominal pain, fever, nausea, weakness, and vomiting can all indicate adhesions. These are cords of connective tissue that grow between adjacent organs. With adhesions, varicose veins of the pelvic organs are often observed, which provokes increased pain.

What to do if a woman's lower abdomen hurts?

What to do
What to do

An ambulance team should be called immediately if the pain is acute and severe. Until the time when doctors arrive at the site, you should refrain from taking any pain medications. If the pain is very difficult to endure, then it is permissible to drink 2 No-shpy tablets. This will reduce muscle spasm. While waiting for the doctors, you need to lie down on the bed, open the window. Cold helps relieve pain. To do this, you can put a bottle of ice water on your stomach. Any warming up is unacceptable.

If pain is present on an ongoing basis, then you should consult a doctor and be examined. The doctor will prescribe the treatment to be followed. An infusion of aspen buds, which is taken 5 times a day, 2 tbsp, helps to reduce pain. l.

To minimize the risks of pain in the lower abdomen, you need to adhere to the following recommendations:

  • Support the immune system, take vitamin and mineral complexes.
  • Observe the rules of intimate hygiene.
  • Do sport.
  • Undergo preventive examinations in medical institutions.
  • To refuse from bad habits.
  • Spend more time outdoors.

You cannot endure abdominal pain, and when they appear, you should seek help from a specialist.


The author of the article: Lapikova Valentina Vladimirovna | Gynecologist, reproductologist

Education: Diploma in Obstetrics and Gynecology received at the Russian State Medical University of the Federal Agency for Healthcare and Social Development (2010). In 2013 completed postgraduate studies at N. N. N. I. Pirogova.

Popular by topic

Interesting Articles
Leg Pain In The Elderly
Read More

Leg Pain In The Elderly

Leg pain in the elderlyWith age, people more and more often complain of such unpleasant ailments as tired legs and pain in the legs. In some, joints are sensitive to changes in the weather, in others, the foot burns after walking. To reduce these phenomena or completely get rid of them, first of all, it is necessary to establish their cause

Lower Back Pain Radiates To The Leg
Read More

Lower Back Pain Radiates To The Leg

Lower back pain radiates to the legBack pain radiating to the leg is a typical manifestation of lumboishalgia. This disease is very serious and is accompanied by severe consequences, so it is not recommended to start it and self-medicate. Without the correct, complete course of treatment, the pain, as a rule, does not go away and only gets worse over time

Why Legs Hurt - Why Heels, Calves, Feet, Toes Hurt, Why Legs Hurt In The Morning
Read More

Why Legs Hurt - Why Heels, Calves, Feet, Toes Hurt, Why Legs Hurt In The Morning

Why do legs hurt?Foot problems bother us quite rarely - especially when it comes to young people. If something hurts, many often write it off as self-evident factors, such as excessive walking and do not pay attention. However, when a problem arises with the legs, it immediately becomes clear how much they affect our mood and life in general