Nausea: diseases causing nausea, treatment
Nausea is a symptom of various diseases. It is expressed in an unpleasant sensation that is concentrated in the epigastric region (upper abdomen). The discomfort often extends to the esophagus and mouth.
The reasons that can provoke a feeling of nausea can be very diverse. However, they all, in one way or another, affect the celiac and vagus nerves. These large nerves use impulses to transmit a signal to the brain, where the emetic center is located. Therefore, the person feels nauseous. If the impulses are intense, then vomiting opens.
Often, along with nausea, a person notes increased salivation, increased heart rate, weakness. His blood pressure may decrease, his skin becomes pale, and his limbs feel cold to the touch.
- Causes of nausea
- Types of nausea
- Nausea and other symptoms of health problems
- Treating nausea
Causes of nausea
Nausea can be provoked by both external factors and various diseases. If she pursues a person for several days and she is accompanied by other pathological symptoms, you must definitely consult a doctor for advice.
The following reasons can provoke nausea:
- Cholecystitis. In this condition, the gallbladder becomes inflamed, leading to nausea. Sometimes it is provoked by the stones in the organ. An unpleasant feeling develops most often during a meal. Other symptoms of cholecystitis include bitterness or metallic taste in the mouth, heartburn, bloating, pain in the right hypochondrium.
- Taking medications. In the instructions for use for various medications, nausea is indicated as a side effect. Most often, nausea is caused by iron preparations, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory drugs. Surprisingly, normal vitamins can provoke nausea.
- Poisoning the body with poor-quality food. This is one of the most common causes of nausea. It develops slowly, about 2 hours after eating a stale product. It ends most often with vomiting and diarrhea. The body temperature may rise to 38 ° C and above.
- Gastritis, which causes inflammation of the stomach lining. Nausea develops after eating. In addition to her, a person suffers from symptoms such as: heaviness in the epigastric region, a feeling that the stomach seems to be bursting from the inside. To get rid of the nausea that occurs with gastritis, you need to focus on eliminating the underlying pathology, as well as follow a diet. By the type of gastritis, gastric ulcer occurs, but the symptoms of this disease are of great intensity.
- Migraine. With severe headaches, a person may experience nausea. In addition, he is often dizzy.
- Pyelonephritis. Nausea with kidney inflammation often turns into vomiting. Other signs of kidney inflammation include pain in the lumbar region and severe discomfort during urination.
Traumatic brain injury. Nausea accompanies a concussion and bruises. In such a situation, you should immediately consult a doctor.
- Sunstroke or heatstroke will lead to nausea, dizziness, and even loss of consciousness.
- Appendicitis. With inflammation of the appendix, the patient develops severe nausea, which can turn into vomiting. The person is worried about abdominal pains, which are concentrated in the upper part. Then they move to the right side, to the lower abdomen. In parallel, the patient's body temperature rises.
- Myocardial infarction and other heart diseases. In a person with serious heart pathologies, nausea quickly turns into vomiting, abdominal pains appear, and hiccups may join. In addition, breathing difficulties arise, the skin becomes pale.
- Meningitis is accompanied by nausea, fever, and photophobia. A person has the feeling that the back of his head is bursting from the inside.
- Parasitic invasions. Certain parasites can cause nausea. This feeling arises regardless of the meal.
- Rocking a person while traveling in transport. The weaker the vestibular apparatus, the more intense the nausea will be. In such people, nausea can occur even with a sharp change in body position.
- Compliance with a diet. If the diet is not drawn up correctly, then the body will need nutrients, which contributes to the disruption of all its systems. Disruptions in the functioning of the digestive system can cause developing nausea.
- Intestinal infections. In addition to nausea, such diseases are accompanied by vomiting, abdominal pain, fever, increased weakness, and diarrhea. To prevent dehydration, you need to start treatment as soon as possible.
- Feelings of hunger are often accompanied by nausea.
Eating sweets. If a person has eaten a food containing a large amount of sugar on an empty stomach, this can lead to a feeling of nausea.
- Hypertension. With a persistent increase in blood pressure, the patient has a severe headache, dizziness pursues him, limbs may swell. Nausea most of all worries a person precisely in the morning hours, but throughout the day it continues to haunt the patient. Only its intensity decreases.
- Stroke. If a person develops a stroke, then his consciousness becomes clouded, intense headaches appear in the occiput. Nausea is always a companion of cerebral hemorrhage.
- Pancreatitis If the pancreas becomes inflamed, this will lead to severe pain in the abdomen and in the left side, to nausea and vomiting, and increased gas formation. This organ is extremely susceptible to low-quality food, alcoholic beverages, fatty and fried foods.
- Hypothyroidism When there is not enough thyroid hormone in the body, the person will suffer from nausea on an ongoing basis. In addition, daytime sleepiness will begin to haunt him, and his appetite will worsen.
- Tumors of the digestive system. Such neoplasms can be both malignant and benign in nature, but each of them will cause a feeling of nausea. Cancer treatment involves a course of chemotherapy. Taking such heavy drugs is always accompanied by nausea and vomiting.
- Carrying a baby. In this case, nausea will be a symptom of toxicosis. She worries the woman mainly in the morning. Nausea is often the first sign of pregnancy. By the end of the first trimester, this unpleasant feeling recedes.
- Menstrual bleeding can be accompanied by nausea, as during this period there is a hormonal surge in the body. Although most often this unpleasant feeling bothers a woman in the middle of the cycle. Another reason for nausea during menstruation is high water content in the body. Other companions of menstruation may be dizziness, increased nervousness, pallor of the skin.
Types of nausea
Nausea, depending on the cause of its occurrence, can be of several types: toxic, reflex, cerebral, vestibular, metabolic.
They talk about toxic nausea when it develops against the background of the ingestion of poisons, poor-quality food, chemicals, etc.
Reflex nausea develops with irritation of the vagus nerve receptors, as well as with inflammation of the stomach lining.
If a person has diseases of the heart or blood vessels, intracranial or arterial pressure rises, a brain tumor develops, then they speak of cerebral nausea.
Vestibular nausea is the result of neuroses. It often affects pregnant women and women during menopause.
If a person adheres to a strict diet, suffers from diabetes, has diseases associated with metabolic disorders, then he develops metabolic nausea.
Nausea and other symptoms of health problems
Depending on the cause that triggered the feeling of nausea, the accompanying symptoms will differ. The doctor, having analyzed them, will be able to make the most correct diagnosis.
Nausea may be accompanied by symptoms such as:
- Diarrhea and vomiting.
- Increased weakness.
- Pallor of the skin.
- Coldness of hands and feet.
- Drop or increase in blood pressure.
- Sharp darkening in the eyes.
- Fever and chills.
- Increased sleepiness.
- The feeling that the person is suffocating.
- Increased heart rate.
Nausea and dizziness
There are many diseases that are accompanied by nausea and dizziness at the same time.
The most common of them include:
- Diseases of the muscles of the organs of vision.
- Osteochondrosis of the cervical spine.
- Vestibular neuritis.
- Postponed craniocerebral trauma.
- The period of bearing a child.
- Spine diseases that develop against the background of an injury.
- Otitis media with the defeat of the labyrinth.
- Therapy with certain drugs.
- Fistula of the labyrinth.
- Brain tumors.
Diseases affecting the heart and blood vessels.
- Postponed stress.
- Meniere's disease.
- Hypertension and hypotension.
- Low level of hemoglobin in the blood.
- Intoxication of the body with alcohol-containing liquids.
- Elderly age.
Based on the symptoms that a particular disease gives, the doctor will be able to make a preliminary diagnosis. It will be possible to clarify it only when passing a comprehensive examination.
Nausea and weakness
If a person suffers from nausea, which is accompanied by increased weakness and fatigue, and at the same time his general health worsens, then the following diseases can be assumed:
- Neoplasms with localization in the brain.
- High blood pressure.
- Stroke. In addition to nausea and increased weakness, speech is disturbed in a person, coordination of movements suffers. When the first signs of a stroke appear, a person needs emergency medical attention.
- Inflammation of the pancreas.
- Vegeto-vascular dystonia.
- Low blood glucose. In severe cases, a person can lose consciousness and even fall into a coma.
- Neurological diseases. As a rule, with such pathologies, nausea and dizziness go away on their own if a person changes body position. This is one of the signs that allows one to suspect a neurological disorder.
Acute intoxication of the body. As the body temperature rises, the weakness will increase.
- Hepatitis. With liver damage, the body as a whole suffers. Metabolic products begin to accumulate in it, which disrupt a person's well-being and cause a feeling of nausea.
Other conditions that can cause nausea and weakness include older age and pregnancy. If these symptoms persist for a long time, then you need to see a doctor.
Nausea in the morning
Sometimes a person suffers from nausea in the morning. Most often, a similar situation is observed with hypertension and in the first trimester of pregnancy. High blood pressure is accompanied not only by nausea in the morning, but also by dizziness, hyperemia of the facial skin, edema and increased fatigue.
If nausea bothers a pregnant woman, then you can cope with it by eating an apple or a cookie without getting out of bed.
Nausea after eating
A person may feel sick after eating in the following situations:
- Inflammation of the stomach lining.
- Stomach ulcer.
- Inflammation of the pancreas.
- Inflammation of the gallbladder.
- Heart disease.
- Eating fatty foods.
- Renal failure
- Eating large amounts of food.
- Parasitic invasion.
- Eating stale foods.
Nausea after eating develops most often due to diseases of the digestive system. In addition, a person may experience symptoms such as: bloating, pain along the intestines, discomfort in the right or left side. Sometimes a person develops nausea due to the unpleasant odors they inhale.
Nausea and high body temperature
Pathologies that are simultaneously combined with nausea and high fever:
- Gastritis, which develops against the background of poisoning with drugs, acids, alkalis, food.
- Rubella. This viral infection is accompanied by fever, nausea and skin rashes.
- Salmonellosis. The disease develops when dangerous bacteria - salmonella, enter the digestive tract. They cause fever, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and other symptoms of poisoning.
- Measles. This disease is accompanied by an increase in body temperature to high levels, nausea against the background of intoxication of the body, chills and severe weakness.
- Angina. Nausea with angina is a consequence of the body's intoxication with decay products that bacteria release. The temperature with the defeat of the tonsils always reaches high levels.
- Hepatitis. As a rule, nausea and high body temperature are accompanied by the defeat of the body with the hepatitis A and hepatitis B viruses. A person suffers from incessant nausea, his skin turns yellow, and episodes of gratuitous vomiting occur.
- Intestinal flu or rotavirus infection is an infection that manifests itself with diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, fever, and severe weakness.
- Bronchitis. With bronchitis, the body temperature may remain at a level not exceeding 38 ° C. Nausea develops as a result of poisoning the body with pathogenic bacteria or viruses that have colonized the bronchi.
- Scarlet fever. This disease is caused by hemolytic streptococcus. Children are more susceptible to infection. The disease proceeds as a sore throat, but is accompanied by a rash on the skin that looks like a small-point rash.
- Intestinal dyskinesia. Pathology is accompanied by nausea, pain along the intestines, diarrhea and / or constipation.
- Erosion of the esophagus and stomach.
- Postponed operations on the organs of the digestive system.
Nausea and diarrhea
If, in addition to nausea, a person's stool liquefies and becomes more frequent, then this will indicate a disturbance in the functioning of the digestive system.
The following factors can provoke a similar situation:
- Infection with viruses.
- Bacterial infection.
- Inflammation of the pancreas.
- Eating insufficiently processed foods.
- Taking certain medications.
- Diet inaccuracies.
Diarrhea cannot be ignored, as it leads to rapid dehydration. This situation poses a threat to the health of both adults and children. Drink plenty of fluids during diarrhea.
Nausea in a child
A child can vomit for a variety of reasons.
These include not only disturbances in the functioning of the digestive system, but also such pathologies and conditions as:
- High intracranial pressure. In addition to nausea, the child will have a headache.
- Eating a lot of foods. If the child overeats, then he will have abdominal pain and a feeling of distention in the stomach.
- Underdevelopment of the vestibular apparatus. The child may vomit while traveling in a car or other vehicle. Therefore, it is best to choose those places where it will be less sick.
- Dehydration of the body. Sometimes children feel sick after moving around a lot but not drinking enough water. To cope with the unpleasant feeling, the child just needs to be drunk.
- Stress. Children often experience nausea at the height of emotional excitement. Therefore, it is so important to avoid such situations. If it does happen, then you need to try to calm the child down, perform breathing exercises with him.
- Allergic reaction of the body. A child may feel nauseous if he has eaten a food to which he is allergic. A similar situation is observed when undergoing treatment with drugs to which the body has an individual intolerance.
Nausea does not develop on its own, therefore, in order to get rid of it, you need to work on the cause of this unpleasant symptom. Trying to deal with nausea on your own is not recommended. It is necessary to seek the advice of a specialist, otherwise the development of severe health complications is possible.
Nausea can be managed in the following ways, depending on the situation:
- If nausea is a consequence of eating too large amounts of food, then you need to reduce portions, give up fatty and spicy foods.
- Enterosorbents, for example, enterosgel, smecta, are prescribed for nausea provoked by poisoning. These drugs allow you to quickly remove toxins from the body without disturbing its own microflora.
- If a person is seasick in transport, then you can take special pills, or use a patch with scopolamine. It is glued 6 hours before the upcoming trip.
- To cope with psychogenic nausea, psychotherapy courses allow.
- Nausea while carrying a child is well controlled by eating light foods. They should be eaten immediately after waking up, before getting out of bed. Alternatively, you can suck on the mint. When you cannot cope with nausea with food, you need to take Meclozin orally, but only after consulting a doctor. The drug is used both in candles and in tablets.
If a person is sick and dizzy, then the following recommendations will help to cope with this problem:
- You need to lie down.
- It is necessary to provide access to fresh air in the room.
- If a person faints, then you need to give him a sniff of cotton wool with ammonia.
- When nausea and dizziness are symptoms of low blood pressure, take a glass of sweet tea or coffee.
- For nausea caused by stressful situations, as well as nervous strain, you need to take a sedative. It can be valerian, motherwort tincture, Novo-passit, Seduxen, etc.
- If you cannot cope with the problem using the above methods, then the patient is prescribed Cerucal or metoclopramide.
A doctor should prescribe medications to relieve nausea.
He may recommend that the patient take such remedies as:
- Domperidone, Aminazin, Etperazin are antipsychotics.
- Diphenhydramine, Diazolin, Pipolfen - drugs for allergies.
- Cerucal and Alizapride are drugs that block dopamine receptors.
- Aeron, Motilium, Metacin.
To get rid of nausea, you need to influence the cause of its occurrence.
Video: broadcast "about the most important thing" - nausea: causes, symptoms, possible foci of the disease and treatment:
The author of the article: Gorshenina Elena Ivanovna | Gastroenterologist
Education: Diploma in the specialty "General Medicine" received at the Russian State Medical University named after N. I. Pirogova (2005). Postgraduate studies in the specialty "Gastroenterology" - educational and scientific medical center.