Causes and types of belching after eating
- Belching reasons
- Belching after eating
- Frequent (persistent) belching
- Types of belching
- Belching in a child
- How to get rid of belching?
Belching is a sudden (often sonorous) release of air through the mouth opening that has accumulated in the esophagus or stomach, sometimes along with a small amount of stomach contents. Belching occurs due to the contraction of the stomach muscles with an open cardiac sphincter.
Everyone, both healthy and sick, faces this unpleasant phenomenon. Belching haunts us from birth, as almost all babies, without exception, swallow excess air during the sucking process. But with full development and growth, this problem goes away.
With proper functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, there is practically no belching, and if it does, it is extremely rare and mostly empty (air). We regularly swallow a small amount of air, which allows the body to regulate gastric pressure, but then, it comes out in such scanty portions that we do not notice it.
Hence - the conclusion: belching can have a physiological and pathological origin.
Consider the reasons for the appearance of physiological belching.
Periodically, belching occurs in people with a normally functioning gastrointestinal tract. As a rule, this is belching with air, or with the smell of what was eaten or drunk the day before. It occurs when a person:
- has a heated conversation while eating;
- in a hurry and, practically without chewing, swallows food;
- eats in a state of emotional stress;
- suffers from aerophagia (excessive swallowing of air while eating and outside eating).
Remember Professor Preobrazhensky's remark from the film Heart of a Dog about reading newspapers at dinner? Any gastroenterologist will fully agree with him.
However, people face this problem not only in connection with how they eat, but also because of what they eat.
It's no secret that some foods and drinks increase gas production. The gas accumulated in the stomach will certainly escape through the esophagus.
- carbonated drinks;
- oxygen cocktails popular today;
- ice cream;
- Legumes and cabbage can also cause belching, but the main consequence of excessive consumption is flatulence.
But do not be too frivolous about persistent belching with air, as it can be a harbinger of stomach cancer.
The causes of pathological belching are diseases of the digestive system:
- gallbladder disease
- hernia of the esophagus,
- peptic ulcer.
Persistent belching of air with a feeling of fullness in the stomach, later acquiring a rotten smell, can be a symptom of stomach cancer.
Belching after eating
The reasons for belching after eating can be due to both physiological, which have already been mentioned above, and pathological processes that disrupt the digestive tract. These are diseases such as:
- chronic or acute pancreatitis,
- biliary dyskinesia,
- gastritis with high acidity,
- esophagitis (inflammation of the lining of the esophagus).
Note that the often repeated belching after eating in an adult can be a symptom of health problems, and not only concerning disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, so you should not neglect professional advice.
Frequent (persistent) belching
The human body can react in a similar way to:
- on regular errors in the diet;
- on improper organization of food intake;
- aerophagia, including neurotic character;
- on various pathological processes.
Constant belching may indicate:
- for diseases of the digestive tract;
- for cardiovascular diseases.
In addition, excessive and frequent belching may occur:
- with problems with the lower alimentary sphincter caused by a hernia of the alimentary opening of the diaphragm;
- with stomach / duodenal ulcer;
- with non-ulcer dyspepsia;
- with gastroesophageal reflux;
- with pathology of the pancreas and biliary tract.
Types of belching
Types of belching:
- Sour belching after eating
- Belching bitter
- Belching with acetone
- Odorless belching
Depending on what is causing the belching, it can be:
- acidic, which indicates an increased acidity of gastric juice;
- bitter - when bile is thrown into the stomach;
- putrid or give away with acetone - with stagnation and fermentation of undigested food in the stomach and with diabetes mellitus;
- air - with aerophagia, dietary disorders and early stages of various gastrointestinal diseases.
Let us consider in more detail the causes of various types of pathological belching.
Sour belching after eating
Sour belching after eating can be a symptom of:
- Inflammatory disease of the gastric mucosa - gastritis;
- gastroesophageal reflux;
- Peptic ulcer;
- More formidable diseases, including stomach cancer.
Eructation of sour always accompanies pathological processes in the gastrointestinal tract, and it is impossible to get rid of this problem without starting treatment of causative diseases.
- regularly regurgitates sour, later belching can give rotten;
- loses appetite;
- suffers from heartburn, accompanied by profuse salivation;
- experiences bouts of nausea, even when consuming a portion of the most benign food, slightly exceeding the norm;
- feels heaviness in the epigastric region after eating, sometimes developing into severe pain.
This means that he needs to seek help from a gastroenterologist, since all these signs may indicate gastritis or peptic ulcer disease.
Usually, belching occurs regularly after eating, sometimes gastric contents enter the oral cavity along with gases.
"Sour belching" indicates that the stomach contains more acid than is needed to digest food.
With gastrointestinal reflux, the muscle valve that separates the esophagus from the stomach does not work properly, and acidic gastric juice regularly enters the esophagus, and from there into the oral cavity.
In 10% of cases, this condition can cause the development of Barrett's syndrome, in which, due to frequent irritations of the esophageal mucosa with an acidic gastric nipple, its structure changes. It becomes similar to the intestinal mucosa.
The constant companions of this disease are:
- very frequent belching sour;
- sharp or dull pain in the upper stomach.
According to recent studies, the risk of developing esophageal cancer is especially high in people with reflux, because they take drugs that relieve symptoms and do not go to specialists in time to monitor their health.
Belching with bitterness is also a sign of certain diseases or disorders, occurs when:
- Gastroduodenal reflux. Bile from the liver must enter the duodenum and further into the lower intestines. In case of dysfunction of the gatekeeper and increased pressure in the duodenum, which can be caused by some diseases, bile moves in the wrong direction and enters the stomach;
- Injuries, hernias, neoplastic diseases of the abdominal organs. With mechanical squeezing of the duodenum, bile, which is under pressure, overcomes the pyloric sphincter and again enters the stomach;
- Taking certain medications. Muscle relaxants and antispasmodics lower the muscle tone of the sphincter, which forms a gap between the duodenum and the stomach;
- Operational interventions. If part of the sphincter muscles was cut during the operation, then bile will constantly enter the stomach;
- Chronic duodenitis. Inflammation and edema of the duodenal mucosa increases pressure, due to which the duodenal contents are thrown into the stomach;
- Pregnancy. The reason is the same pressure on the duodenum.
From time to time, bile enters the stomach and in healthy people. If this is rare, then there are no symptoms.
Belching with acetone
Belching with acetone can be caused by diabetes.
Digestive disorders, a faithful companion of which is belching, are characteristic of late complications of diabetes mellitus:
- prolonged hyperglycemia;
- diabetic neuropathy;
- violation of the compensation of carbohydrate metabolism.
Reasons for belching with acetone in diabetes:
- an autonomous form of neuropathy, in which the nerves responsible for the functioning of the digestive tract are affected. Food moves through the esophagus, stomach and intestines with disruptions due to disturbances in the normal rhythm of muscle contractions. There is a delay in the evacuation of the contents, and reflux develops.
- decreased tone (paresis) and paralysis (atony) of the stomach. These conditions cause stagnation of food masses in the stomach cavity and create favorable conditions for the reproduction of pathogenic bacteria.
People with diabetes, complicated by gastrointestinal disorders, are worried about belching, heartburn and nausea, which intensify after eating.
Diabetic ketoacidosis (violation of carbohydrate metabolism) causes acute atony of the stomach and intestines, the mucous membrane of which can be irritated by ketatin acids and acetone.
All described conditions require an appeal to an endocrinologist, followed by treatment and supervision.
The causes of odorless belching can be:
Physiological belching can be caused by:
- aerophagia - the ingestion of excess air during meals, which then exits through the oral cavity;
- diseases of the oral and nasal cavity;
- drinking carbonated drinks or beer;
- hot or cold drinks;
- whipped, "airy" drinks - cocktails;
- some products (milk, ice cream, onions);
- binge eating;
- second phase of pregnancy;
- chewing gum abuse;
- snacks on the go;
- poor chewing of food;
- playing sports and other physical activity after eating;
- sleep after eating;
- eating in a state of strong emotional stress;
- other eating disorders.
Constant and frequent empty belching is a concomitant symptom of certain diseases. Pathological causes:
- Neurotic aerophagia. In this case, a person swallows air not only while eating, but at any other time;
- Disorder of motility and stomach tone;
- Chronic gastritis;
- Peptic ulcer;
- Pyloroduodenal stenosis;
- Narrowing of the esophagus.
In addition, empty belching can be a sign of cardiovascular disease:
- cardiovascular insufficiency;
- aneurysm of the descending aorta.
The body of a healthy person can be compared to an orchestra in which all instruments are debugged and always come into play on time.
Belching, albeit odorless, may indicate that pathological changes are occurring in the work of the gastrointestinal tract, which should not be ignored in order to prevent the development of the disease.
Belching in a child
For infants, belching is considered a normal body reaction.
Swallowing small amounts of air during feeding is necessary to regulate intragastric pressure.
Due to the imperfection of the infant's gastrointestinal tract, the gas bubble is retained in the stomach or passes into the intestines. In this case, the child has a sharp bloating, which can provoke intestinal spasms. The baby will worry and cry until it regurgitates air. Therefore, pediatricians recommend not to lay the child right after feeding, but to hold him in an upright position, waiting for regurgitation. But with full development and growth, this problem goes away.
Highly excitable babies who are worried and crying during feeding should be monitored by a neurologist and feed breaks should be taken to hold them upright to regurgitate excess air. These babies should be prepared to eat. Carry on hands, calm down.
If frequent eructations are observed in a child after a year, you need to see a doctor, and you need to start with a consultation with a pediatrician.
At this age, the state of the child's nervous system is also of great importance. If the baby is excitable, then he is more prone to gastrointestinal diseases.
Belching with food or air can be caused by:
- improper nutrition of the child;
- exciting games while eating;
- watching cartoons that cause an emotional outburst;
- chronic tonsillitis and rhinitis;
- increased salivation.
The reasons for persistent belching in preschoolers and schoolchildren may be the same as in adults. These are diseases:
- Gastrointestinal tract,
- biliary tract.
How to get rid of belching?
With occasional belching, treatment is usually not required, since it occurs due to nutritional disorders and dietary errors.
The reason for visiting the doctor is a constant belching, repeated for an hour for five days. It may indicate pathology, requires identifying the cause and a thorough examination.
The specialist will diagnose and prescribe treatment for the disease that caused the persistent belching.
What medicines to drink? List of medicines for belching
With regard to physiological belching, in order to get rid of it, you must:
Correctly organize the process of eating, that is:
- eat slowly, chewing food thoroughly;
- do not conduct emotional conversations while eating, and in general, do not start eating with nervous excitement;
- do not subject yourself to heavy physical exertion.
- Refuse soda, beer, oxygen cocktails;
- Do not eat foods that cause belching. By the way, belching can be an individual reaction of a person to a product that can be identified and stopped consuming;
- Eat full-fledged, high-quality foods that satisfy the body's need for trace elements and vitamins;
- To observe moderation in food, the golden rule is very relevant here: "Better not before … than before …", you can eat less, but more often;
- Do not drink too hot tea or coffee;
- Do not use straws when drinking;
- Give up chewing gum, there are many other ways to freshen your breath;
- Quit smoking;
- Walking after eating, even half an hour is enough.
If pain in different areas of the abdomen joins the belching with or without smell, then you should not postpone seeking help from a gastroenterologist, self-medication is unacceptable. They can be the harbingers of very formidable diseases, the timely diagnosis of which becomes the key to successful treatment.
[Video] Dr. Berg - What to do if you have bloating, constipation, acid belching?
The author of the article: Gorshenina Elena Ivanovna | Gastroenterologist
Education: Diploma in the specialty "General Medicine" received at the Russian State Medical University named after N. I. Pirogova (2005). Postgraduate studies in the specialty "Gastroenterology" - educational and scientific medical center.