Second Trimester Of Pregnancy - Sensations, Discharge, Abdominal Pain

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Video: Second Trimester Of Pregnancy - Sensations, Discharge, Abdominal Pain

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Video: Second Trimester Symptoms | What to Expect in your Second Trimester of Pregnancy! 2023, January
Second Trimester Of Pregnancy - Sensations, Discharge, Abdominal Pain
Second Trimester Of Pregnancy - Sensations, Discharge, Abdominal Pain
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Second trimester of pregnancy

During this period, significant changes take place in the body of a pregnant woman - body weight is growing, more energy has appeared compared to the upcoming period, active movements of the unborn child are felt. It is believed that the second trimester is tolerated more easily than other periods of pregnancy, since the woman no longer feels the symptoms of toxicosis, and has the opportunity to lead an active lifestyle.

Content:

  • What does the expectant mother feel in the second trimester?
  • Fetal development in the second trimester of pregnancy
  • Is nausea possible in the second trimester?
  • Causes of pain in the second trimester
  • Vaginal discharge
  • Hypertonicity of the uterus
  • Second trimester screening
  • Colds in the second trimester
  • Elevated temperature
  • Frozen pregnancy
  • Organization of proper nutrition
  • We take vitamins correctly
  • Intimate relationship

What does the expectant mother feel in the second trimester?

Second trimester
Second trimester

After three months of gestation in the body of a pregnant woman, many organs and systems have been rearranged to meet the growing needs of the fetus. Some of these changes occur unnoticed for the woman, some changes were expected, and are tolerated well enough, something causes problems.

Feelings in the second trimester:

  • Breast enlargement. Hormonal changes have had their effect on the breasts since the first trimester. Now the mammary glands have significantly increased in size, a venous network has appeared on them, colostrum is sometimes excreted from the nipples, the areoles of the nipples have darkened, their diameter has increased. To prepare the breasts for the upcoming breastfeeding, you need to gently rub the nipples with a towel, and leave the mammary glands in the open air for a while. The bra must reliably support the breast, it is selected in size, giving preference to natural fabrics.

  • Enlargement of the abdomen. At the beginning of the second trimester, the volume of the hips and waist increases slightly, but by the end of this period, the mobility of the pregnant woman will significantly decrease due to the growing abdomen. To relieve the condition, a prenatal bandage should be worn.

  • Training bouts. In the lower abdomen, from time to time, there are pulling painless sensations, or false contractions. They are not accompanied by pain, during these contractions, the uterus seems to "harden", becomes dense. Thus, she prepares for the upcoming birth. False contractions do no harm to the fetus.

  • Dark spots and darkening of the skin. Pigmentation appears on the skin of the face and neck during pregnancy, which disappears after childbirth. In the second trimester, the strip of skin from the pubis to the navel becomes darker, as well as the skin of the perineum. This is due to the increased secretion of melanin.

  • Striae (stretch marks) on the chest and abdomen. Pinkish-red skin defects, the appearance of which is sometimes accompanied by itching, occur during intensive tissue growth. Over time, they become paler, or disappear altogether. To prevent the appearance of stretch marks, you can lubricate the skin with olive or almond oil, moisturizing cream from a series of pharmacy cosmetics.

  • Dizziness. Such a symptom in the 2nd trimester is associated with arterial hypertension, when the total volume of circulating blood in the body of the expectant mother increases significantly, and due to the action of progesterone, the tone of the blood vessels decreases. To prevent such vascular pathologies, one should not get up abruptly from a supine position, it is advisable to rest more, observe a drinking regimen.

  • Snoring and bleeding gums. The swelling and looseness of the mucous membranes due to the increased volume of blood circulation leads to the fact that the mucous membrane of the palate and larynx increases in size, which leads to snoring. For the same reasons, the oral mucosa swells and loosens, the gums soften and become easily injured, bleed.

  • Dyspnea. The need to transfer an increased amount of oxygen to the placenta with the help of blood increases the intensity of exhalation and inhalation. In addition, the enlarged uterus acts on the diaphragm, lifting it and the respiratory system up from the usual position. To make such changes less likely to lead to shortness of breath, you should often walk, ventilate the room where the woman is.

  • Cramps in the calf muscles. The increased consumption of minerals for the formation of organs and tissues of the unborn child can lead to their lack in the woman's body. This deficiency manifests itself as nocturnal cramps in the leg muscles. For their prevention, vitamin-mineral complexes should be taken on the advice of a doctor.

To transfer the second trimester of pregnancy without complications, one should rest more often, treat possible problems with optimism, avoid stress, remembering that the mother's condition is necessarily transmitted to the child.

Fetal development in the second trimester of pregnancy

Fetal development in the second trimester
Fetal development in the second trimester

The countdown of the second trimester begins at 13 obstetric week, and its end falls on the last days of 28 weeks of pregnancy. By 13-16 weeks of intrauterine development, the fetus has already formed all the internal organs, and the placenta has completely assumed the functions of the life-support organ of the unborn child. Since that time, the functioning of the central nervous system, the respiratory, digestive, and urinary systems of the fetus has been improved.

He has already established a mode of sleep and active wakefulness. With the development of the nervous system and the brain, the future child improves the perception of the world available to him. He can react to the bright light of a lamp brought to the mother's stomach, shudders from sharp sounds, and feels touches to the stomach from the outside.

The facial expressions of the fetus develop, he can frown and smile, swallow amniotic fluid, touch the umbilical cord, his face and suck his finger. The main achievement of the second trimester is that the mother clearly feels the movement of the baby. For her, he is no longer an abstract being, but a living child who moves, hiccups, pushes the walls of the uterus from the inside with his strengthened arms and legs. The fruit moves so intensely that it changes its position several times a day. Sometimes the belly of a pregnant woman becomes asymmetrical because the baby is predominantly in one part of the uterus.

Fetal parameters:

  • The fourth month - weight 140 g, height 15 cm;
  • The fifth month - weight 350 g, height 21 cm;
  • Sixth month - weight 900 g, height 34 cm.

By the end of the fifth month, the fetus is already beginning to open its eyes, until then hidden under the eyelids. On the skin of the body and head, thin and delicate hairs (lanugo) grow, outlining the eyebrows, eyelashes. The entire fetus is covered with original lubricant, which protects the epidermis from the action of amniotic fluid. His urinary system works well, passing through itself the products of processing of amniotic fluid swallowed by the baby.

Meconium has formed in the intestines - the original feces, which will be released after childbirth. By the end of the second trimester, the baby's respiratory system is not fully formed, although its main sections are already there, and the unborn child has repeatedly imitated respiratory movements.

The formed nervous system makes the fetus very susceptible to the mother's condition. If she endures negative emotions, he calms down, or, conversely, makes a series of sharp movements. Therefore, you should protect yourself from stress and conflicts with others. Most women feel a surge of strength in the second trimester, they are active and full of energy due to a stable hormonal background.

Is nausea possible in the second trimester?

Is nausea possible
Is nausea possible

Although in most women, early toxicosis no longer makes itself felt, sometimes its symptoms are delayed and move into the second trimester. More often than others, nausea is felt in women with multiple pregnancies - up to almost 20 weeks. To meet with such an unpleasant symptom as rarely as possible, you need to have breakfast without getting out of bed. Tea with lemon and crackers or cookies is great for this.

It is advisable to limit the consumption of fatty foods, to exclude intensively perfumed cosmetics from everyday life. If nausea persists for too long, accompanied by debilitating vomiting, this condition requires immediate medical attention. Perhaps this is a sign of gestosis - a dangerous pathology of pregnancy.

Causes of pain in the second trimester

Causes of pain
Causes of pain

The increased risk of miscarriage remained in the first trimester, and the pain associated with the risk of miscarriage should not be felt. However, there are many reasons for concern.

The causes of pain:

  • Pain due to sprained round ligament. If the painful sensations are concentrated in the lower abdomen, and they appear sporadically, this is a manifestation of the pressure of the uterus on the round ligament supporting it from below. Such unpleasant sensations pass quickly and are not accompanied by spasms.

  • Low back pain due to a shift in the center of gravity. Such pains are felt by almost all pregnant women, they are associated with the fact that the growing uterus shifts balance, and the spine has difficulty in regulating the increased load on the lower back and spinal column. The growing uterus adds loads to the vertebral discs, pushing all organs apart.

  • Pain due to diseases of the urinary system. Immunity disorders often lead to the development of a specific type of cystitis in pregnant women. If left untreated, the infectious process is understood as an ascending pathway and affects the kidneys, causing pyelonephritis. Impaired renal function is dangerous for the health of a woman and a child, it negatively affects the course of labor, therefore, such a pathology should be treated immediately.

  • Pain due to softening of the joints. After a long walk or forced sitting position, a pregnant woman may experience joint pain. This is due to the fact that in preparation for childbirth, hormonal regulation somewhat softens the pelvic bones and articular ligaments. If a woman is not wearing a support band, she will feel pain in the hip joints after every walk.

  • Pain due to intense fetal movements. The increased activity of the fetus makes a woman feel sudden pain in the right and left hypochondrium. It changes its position in the uterus and its movements cause mild painful sensations.

It is worth being alert if the pain is severe, cramping, accompanied by bloody discharge. With these symptoms, you should seek immediate medical attention.

Vaginal discharge

Vaginal discharge
Vaginal discharge

Hormones affect the nature of vaginal discharge during the second trimester. Leucorrhoea increase in volume, acquire a milky white color. They are not accompanied by itching or burning.

If the vaginal discharge has acquired an atypical appearance, the woman has a pathology of the reproductive system:

  • Green or yellow tint, foamy structure - infection with a genital infection (trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea);

  • Scant spotting is a sign of cervical erosion, pregnancy fading;
  • Cheesy discharge, accompanied by itching, burning sensation is a sign of vaginal candidiasis.
  • Abundant transparent discharge - leakage of amniotic fluid, the condition requires hospitalization;
  • Clear, foul-smelling discharge is a sign of bacterial vaginosis.

Any vaginal discharge that differs from the norm should be diagnosed by taking a smear for urogenital infections. When a pathology is detected, it is immediately treated, blocking the spread of pathogenic microorganisms, some of which can penetrate the placental barrier.

To avoid the appearance of thrush, or vaginal candidiasis, you should wear cotton underwear, refuse carbohydrate foods, and practice sex protected by condoms. Thrush is treated under the guidance of a gynecologist.

Hypertonicity of the uterus

Hypertonicity of the uterus
Hypertonicity of the uterus

Most often, the uterus is in a relaxed state in the second trimester. If it is often contracted, and this is not associated with training contractions, it is believed that the pregnant woman has uterine hypertonicity.

Its possible reasons:

  • Intravaginal ultrasound;
  • Exercise stress;
  • A state of chronic stress;
  • Lack of progesterone - the main "pregnancy hormone";
  • Uterine fibroids, history of endometriosis.

Constant pressure on the fetus can lead to its hypoxia and the following complications, therefore, the treatment of uterine hypertonicity is carried out in bed rest. The doctor prescribes antispasmodics, drugs, relaxing tone, vitamins.

Second trimester screening

Second trimester screening
Second trimester screening

In order to timely diagnose pathologies of fetal development and provide therapeutic and prophylactic assistance to the mother and child, screening tests are carried out every trimester. In the second trimester, these are:

  • Triple test, or biochemical screening for the study of special markers (hCG, estriol and? -Fetoprotein);
  • Ultrasound examination to identify genetic and chromosomal pathologies of the child's development.

A biochemical blood test allows you to determine the likelihood of the presence or absence of Down syndrome and Edwards syndrome - irreversible genetic disorders. A high degree of risk, revealed by the results of analyzes, cannot serve as a basis for a diagnosis. To clarify it, a full examination of the woman and her child is carried out.

An ultrasound scan carried out for a period of 20-24 weeks allows you to evaluate the following indicators of the course of pregnancy:

  • The exact date of the gestational period;
  • Correspondence of the size of the fetus to the gestational age;
  • Possible malformations (heart disease);
  • Amniotic fluid volume;
  • Assessment of the state of the placenta, uterine myometrium, the risk of possible presentation;
  • The gender of the unborn child.

With favorable screening results, a woman can be sure of a successful pregnancy.

The obstetrician-gynecologist will answer the questions: what changes should be expected in the second trimester of pregnancy? Videos about prenatal screening and other tests:

Colds in the second trimester

Colds
Colds

During this period, viral infections no longer pose a great danger to the development of the child, as in the first months of pregnancy. Reduced immunity makes a pregnant woman a frequent target of respiratory infections. They need to be properly treated under the guidance of a doctor in order to avoid the development of placental insufficiency.

The consequences of a cold are especially dangerous for the developing nervous system of a child. At week 14, the endocrine system of the fetus may suffer, at 16-18 weeks, a viral infection negatively affects the musculoskeletal system, which is actively strengthened during these periods. At 19-20 weeks, ARVI and ARI can cause pathology in the development of the reproductive system in a female fetus, since during this period the female eggs of the fetus are formed.

In the 2nd trimester, the list of medications that can be taken during pregnancy is expanding.

However, it is best to opt for neutral cold remedies:

  • Drinking plenty of fluids to remove the products of virus intoxication;
  • Rinsing the nose and throat with sea water or saline solution;
  • Taking herbal teas as recommended by a doctor.

Cold treatment is carried out in bed rest.

Elevated temperature

Elevated temperature
Elevated temperature

Hyperthermia in the 2nd trimester no longer has a pronounced negative effect on the fetus, does not stimulate the threat of miscarriage, as at the beginning of pregnancy. The child is reliably protected by the placenta, which does not allow viruses and microbes to reach him. An elevated temperature is most often a sign of a pregnant woman's body. Rarely, but still there are cases when a low-grade temperature of about + 37 + 37.5 ° C is a sign of increased metabolism and hormonal influence, as it was in the first trimester.

Most often, the following pathologies are accompanied by hyperthermia:

  • ARVI and ARI;
  • Herpes;
  • Tuberculosis;
  • Pyelonephritis.

If the doctor has not yet prescribed treatment, and the temperature needs to be lowered, you should not take the usual means such as Aspirin, Nurofen, Analgin. During pregnancy, it is permissible to use Paracetamol as an antipyretic agent if the temperature is steadily kept at +38.5 ° C and above these values. The low temperature is reduced with tea with raspberries and honey, cold compresses.

Frozen pregnancy

Frozen pregnancy
Frozen pregnancy

Fetal freezing is the termination of its development and death, most often occurs at 16-18 weeks of pregnancy.

Signs of a frozen pregnancy:

  • Inability to listen to the fetal heartbeat;
  • Cessation of stirring;
  • Softening of the mammary glands, cessation of painful sensations in the chest;
  • The appearance of brown or bloody discharge;
  • During a gynecological examination, the opening of the cervix is ​​noticeable, the staining of the vagina in a red-pink color.

The woman is freed from the dead ovum, a course of antiseptic treatment is carried out. The causes of pregnancy fading can be genetically determined fetal anomalies, the Rh factor, a history of abortion, the consequences of infection of the uterus.

Organization of proper nutrition

Organization of proper nutrition
Organization of proper nutrition

In the second trimester, the fetus begins to actively develop subcutaneous tissue, and he himself is experiencing a period of rapid growth, therefore, special attention is paid to the woman's nutrition. The main principle of forming the menu is a balanced diet of nutrients, vitamins and microelements.

An important source of protein is low-fat boiled or baked meat, sea and river fish, eggs. The source of calcium necessary for the formation of bones and teeth of a child is dairy products (kefir, fermented baked milk, cheese, cottage cheese). To saturate the blood with iron and prevent anemia, one should eat liver and buckwheat porridge, pomegranates and apples, drink tomato and pomegranate juices. To avoid constipation, it is recommended to include in the diet increased portions of vegetable fiber, vegetables and fruits in any form.

In order to prevent the development of diabetes in pregnant women, to maintain an optimal weight, it is advisable to limit the use of sweets, products from wheat flour. They are being replaced with bran bread and whole grain baked goods. You should not buy products with dyes and preservatives, include marinades, ready-made sauces, smoked meats in the menu. These foods are often very salty and can lead to swelling. It is strictly forbidden to consume alcoholic beverages of any strength, since alcohol immediately penetrates into the blood of the fetus.

We take vitamins correctly

We take vitamins correctly
We take vitamins correctly

The need to form the child's body, to ensure its growth, requires an increased amount of vitamins. In modern gynecology, the previous practice of prescribing multivitamin preparations for all pregnant women is abandoned. According to medical research, such methods lead to an increased number of large-fetal pregnancies, which can only be resolved with the help of a cesarean section.

A varied diet without additional inclusions can provide a woman and a child with the necessary nutrients, macro- and microelements, polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, supplementation with vitamin E and folic acid is recommended for the formation of the fetal nervous system, prevention of hypertension and preeclampsia.

Possible need for vitamins in the 2nd trimester:

  • A - development of visual receptors, skin, bones;
  • C - increasing immunity, preventing premature birth;
  • D - the formation of the musculoskeletal system, tooth buds;
  • B - development of the central nervous system, protein assimilation.

The advisability of taking vitamin preparations can only be assessed by a doctor who is pregnant.

Intimate relationship

Sexual relations between spouses in the 2nd trimester receive a "second wind", since hormonal changes in a woman's body, increased blood supply to the pelvic organs increase her libido. Intimate relationships cannot harm a child protected by the uterus and amniotic fluid, so sex is safe during this period. Contraindications to intimate relationships - low placenta previa, pregnancy with twins, the threat of miscarriage.

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The author of the article: Lapikova Valentina Vladimirovna | Gynecologist, reproductologist

Education: Diploma in Obstetrics and Gynecology received at the Russian State Medical University of the Federal Agency for Healthcare and Social Development (2010). In 2013 completed postgraduate studies at N.N. N.I. Pirogova.

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