Hypochromic Anemia - Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Table of contents:

Video: Hypochromic Anemia - Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Video: Hypochromic Anemia - Causes, Symptoms And Treatment
Video: Anemia | Causes, Symptoms and Treatment 2023, June
Hypochromic Anemia - Causes, Symptoms And Treatment
Hypochromic Anemia - Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Hypochromic anemia

Hypochromic anemia, or, as it is also called, hypochromia is a disease characterized by a decrease in the level of hemoglobin in the blood. This pathology can be detected thanks to a simple study - a clinical blood test.


  • Hypochromic anemia - what is it?
  • Causes of hypochromic anemia
  • Symptoms of hypochromic anemia
  • Varieties
  • Diagnostics of the hypochromic anemia
  • How to treat?
  • Prognosis and complications of hypochromic anemia
  • Disease prevention

Hypochromic anemia - what is it?

Hypochromic anemia
Hypochromic anemia

Hypochromic anemia is not just one disease. Several types of anemias are combined under this term. However, each of them is characterized by a decrease in the level of hemoglobin in the blood. Hemoglobin is a protein that contains iron. Hemoglobin is transported by erythrocytes and is responsible for gas exchange in the body. If the level of hemoglobin in the blood falls, then this leads to the development of hypoxia of organs and tissues. As a result, they are unable to function normally, which seriously affects human health.

If you turn to the Greek language, you can find out that anemia is translated as anemia. This concept perfectly reflects the essence of this violation. Anemia can accompany a wide variety of diseases that are in one way or another associated with the hematopoietic system.

In addition to the fact that with hyperchromia, the level of hemoglobin in the blood decreases, the number of erythrocytes in it decreases. People with anemia are more exposed to attacks from various viruses and bacteria. It was found that patients with anemia are 2 times more likely to visit doctors for intestinal and respiratory viral infections.

Hyperchromic anemia is characterized by a decrease in the color index of the blood. Erythrocytes change from their normal biconcave disc shape to an annular shape. In the middle of these red blood cells, a light circle appears, which is bordered by a dark ring.

Anemia is a common disorder not only among adults but also among children. Immediately after birth, the baby has a certain amount of iron, which he received from his mother. If these reserves are not replenished, then the baby will develop anemia.

Causes of hypochromic anemia

Causes of hypochromic anemia
Causes of hypochromic anemia

Depending on the type of anemia, the reasons leading to its development will differ.

These include:

  • Bleeding accompanied by blood loss in large volumes: with prolonged and heavy menstruation, during surgery or against the background of an injury.
  • Errors in nutrition with insufficient intake of vitamins and minerals from food. Often vegetarians and people adhering to strict diets turn to doctors for anemia.
  • Latent internal bleeding, which may be present on an ongoing basis, or recur from time to time. A person may not notice such blood loss. Sore gums, inflamed hemorrhoids, diseased intestinal or stomach walls, uterus, and ovaries are often sources.
  • Chronic infectious diseases. These include tuberculosis and hepatitis. Iron in the body is redistributed and poorly absorbed. In older people, kidney and liver diseases often lead to anemia.

  • Poisoning the body with various poisons and chemicals.
  • During gestation, a woman's body needs iron more than during normal periods of her life. Therefore, pregnancy is always associated with the risk of developing anemia.
  • Parasitic infestations, in particular, infection with worms, can lead to the development of anemia.
  • All sorts of blood pathologies can cause the development of anemia.
  • Autoimmune diseases lead to the death of red blood cells, which also contributes to the development of anemia.

Separately, it should be noted the causes of anemia in babies who have recently been born, as well as in children who were born prematurely.

These include:

  • Rhesus conflict between mother and child.
  • Infection of the fetus during its intrauterine development with hepatitis viruses, rubella or other diseases.
  • Serious errors in the menu of a pregnant woman.
  • Injuries received during childbirth.

If you feed the child incorrectly, without following the recommendations of the pediatrician, then this will necessarily lead to the development of anemia. Often a similar situation is observed in children who eat artificial mixtures.

Adolescents are also at risk of developing anemia. This is facilitated by hormonal changes and periods of active growth of the body.

Symptoms of hypochromic anemia

Symptoms of hypochromic anemia
Symptoms of hypochromic anemia

Symptoms of mild hypochromic anemia can really be confused with chronic fatigue, nervous strain or physical fatigue. However, the severity of their manifestation directly depends on the hemoglobin stage of anemia. The less it is in the blood, the more noticeable the signs of existing anemia will be.

The first symptoms of anemia include:

  • Deterioration of health, which manifests itself in a slight malaise.
  • Fast fatiguability.
  • Weakening of concentration.
  • Constant feeling of physical fatigue.
  • Increased sleepiness.

Depending on the severity of the anemia, the symptoms will differ. You can find out about this from the table.

The severity of the anemia Symptoms of anemia
First (mild) severity Often, there are no symptoms of a violation, a person does not know about his pathology. Slight weakness and slight malaise are possible.
Second (medium) degree
  • The patient is dizzy.
  • The patient may notice shortness of breath in himself, which was not previously.
  • The skin and mucous membranes acquire an unnatural pallor.
  • The heart begins to beat faster.
Third (severe) degree
  • Periodically, there is a feeling of numbness in the arms and legs.
  • The nails become brittle.
  • Hair begins to fall out.
  • Taste preferences change, the sense of smell is distorted.

If anemia is not treated, then death is possible.

Symptoms of anemia in childhood

The child may not have symptoms of anemia at all. Often, this violation is diagnosed only after donating blood for analysis. In order not to miss the onset of anemia, adults should closely monitor the health of the child.

Such manifestations should be alarming:

  • The child looks very pale in comparison to his peers.
  • The kid does not sleep well. He has no appetite.
  • The child is apathetic and lethargic.
  • The child is often sick.
  • Small cracks may appear in the corners of the mouth.
  • The child's physical and mental development is delayed.

If left untreated, anemia can lead to serious health problems and, in severe cases, can even be fatal.



Hypochromic iron deficiency anemia can be of several types, including:

  • Microcytic iron deficiency anemia. This type of anemia is the most common. A disorder develops against the background of bleeding, with insufficient supply of iron from the outside (with food), or provided that the body is not able to adequately absorb this microelement. Also, this type of anemia is often diagnosed in nursing mothers and in pregnant women. The risk group includes children and women of childbearing age.
  • Sideroachrestic, or as it is called, iron-saturated anemia. This type of disorder is characterized by a normal level of iron in the blood, but it cannot be absorbed, which leads to a decrease in the number of hemoglobin molecules in erythrocytes. Such anemia is more susceptible to the elderly, alcoholics, and patients who have undergone poisoning with pesticides or drugs.

  • Iron redistribution anemia develops when the level of iron in the blood rises against the background of destruction of red blood cells. A similar condition often accompanies tuberculosis, as well as diseases accompanied by purulent processes.
  • Mixed type anemia. Such anemia develops against the background of a lack of vitamin B12 and iron in the body. A person suffering from such a disorder often gets tired, his body's natural defenses deteriorate, and edema is observed, concentrated in the area of the hands.

For many people who first encountered the diagnosis of hypochromic anemia, the question arises - what is it: hereditary or acquired disease? In fact, pathology can be inherited and develop throughout life. The congenital form of anemia manifests itself in the presence of other blood diseases, and the acquired form is a consequence of surgical interventions, infection and intoxication.

The World Health Organization cites frightening statistics. According to them, every 3 women and every 4 men on the planet suffer from anemia. Moreover, the violation occurs in them in a chronic form. The reason for this is latent diseases, errors in the diet, which contributes to a lack of iron for the normal production of hemoglobin. At the same time, people themselves do not go to doctors for help. They believe that their increased fatigue and poor health is directly related to frequent stress and physical fatigue.

Diagnostics of the hypochromic anemia

To make a diagnosis, the doctor examines the patient and listens to his complaints. Without fail, the doctor clarifies whether the closest blood relatives suffered from anemia. The next stage of diagnosis is laboratory tests. Be sure to donate blood for analysis to calculate the level of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in it.

Age and gender

Normal hemoglobin level in g / l Deviations from the norm in g / l


130-160 Less than 130


120-150 Less than 120

Pregnant women

110-150 Less than 10

Children under the age of five



Less than 145
1-14 days 130 Less than 130
15-28 days 120 Less than 120
1-5 years old 110 Less than 110

One erythrocyte should contain 0.85-1.15 hemoglobin. Hypochromic anemia is characterized by a decrease in this indicator less than 0.85.

To clarify the diagnosis, you will need to go through a number of additional diagnostic procedures, which also allow you to find out the cause of anemia:

  • Delivery of feces for the detection of hidden blood in it.
  • Passage of EGD for examination of the mucous membrane of the stomach and duodenum 12.
  • Colonoscopy involves examining the intestines.
  • Delivery of urine for analysis.
  • Ultrasound examination of the kidneys.
  • X-ray examination of the lungs.
  • All women must undergo a gynecologist.
  • Bone marrow puncture is performed.
  • A blood test is done to determine the level of serum iron.

How to treat?

How to treat
How to treat

Treatment of hypochromic anemia is based on the causes of it. To eliminate the clinic of anemia, iron preparations and vitamin B12 are used. It should be taken into account that vitamins are not retained in the body and are quickly excreted by the kidneys, therefore, it will not be possible to achieve a lightning effect.

Basic principles of therapy:

  • Preparations - sources of iron are prescribed for a period of 1 to 1.5 months. This increases the level of hemoglobin in the blood. Such medicines are: Ferrum Lek, Hemofer, Fenyuls. If the patient is shown drugs for parenteral administration, then the treatment should be carried out in a hospital setting, since injections are associated with a high risk of developing an allergic reaction.
  • Cyanocobalamin is prescribed when the patient is diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency. The duration of the therapeutic course can be from 30 days to 2 months.
  • If a deficiency of folic acid is found, oral administration will be required. The duration of therapy is one month.

Depending on the individual indications, the doctor may prescribe to the patient drugs of various forms of release: in tablets, in capsules, in solution, in syrup, etc. Injection administration of drugs is indicated only if a person has an acute disease of the digestive system, or the condition is extremely serious. In this case, the patient must be hospitalized.



Treatment of anemia involves adherence to a diet.

Basic rules to be followed:

  • Every day, a person should get about 130-150 g of animal protein. And the emphasis should be on beef and veal. Protein is the basis for the synthesis of hemoglobin and red blood cells.
  • Fatty foods on the menu should be limited, as they have a negative effect on the process of hematopoiesis.
  • To increase the patient's appetite, a variety of dishes should be introduced into his diet. It can be fish, meat, mushrooms.
  • The diet should contain foods that are a source of B vitamins - eggs, cottage cheese, yeast, fish. Every day you need to eat at least 100 g of liver.

Products that must be on the menu:

  • Low fat liver, meat and fish. Especially useful is beef, which is a source of heme iron and vitamins.
  • Cottage cheese.
  • Mushrooms.
  • Eggs.
  • Bread.
  • Brewer's yeast.
  • Pomegranate juice. It can also be diluted in equal proportions with beetroot juice.
  • Peas, lentils, and beans.
  • Various berries are eaten as a source of vitamin C.

There are also foods that prevent iron from being absorbed in the body. These include: cereals (millet and oatmeal), tea, herbs, whole milk, coffee, fatty foods. They should be excluded from the menu.

Indicative menu for 1 day for a person with hypochromic anemia:

  • First meal: boiled soft-boiled egg, millet porridge with apple, pomegranate juice.
  • Snack: cottage cheese and rosehip broth.
  • Lunch: vegetable soup, potato zrazy and boiled vegetables, fried liver, berry salad and compote.
  • Snack: yeast-based drink, baked beetroot.
  • Dinner: stewed beef ribs, salad with green peas, beans and vegetable oil, mountain ash juice.

Cooking recipes:

  • To make millet porridge, you need 0.25 kg of flakes and 0.5 liters of apple juice. The flakes are poured with juice and left to infuse overnight. In the morning, boil the porridge in a saucepan for 10 minutes.
  • To cook baked beets, you need to wash them, grease them with vegetable oil, sprinkle with salt and bake in the oven. Baking time is 45 minutes at 175 ° C.
  • Yeast drink. 10 g of live yeast are dissolved in 100 ml of water and left for an hour. After this time, the drink can be drunk.
  • Salad with berries: mix raspberries, strawberries and blackberries, add chopped banana and an apple to them, pour lemon juice and a teaspoon of honey.
  • Rowanberry juice. Berries in an amount of 100 g are crushed, rowan flowers and mint (10 g) are added to them. For 2 tablespoons of the mixture, take 0.2 liters of boiling water, pour mountain ash into it, let it brew.

Prognosis and complications of hypochromic anemia

Prognosis and complications of hypochromic anemia
Prognosis and complications of hypochromic anemia

If the treatment was started on time, then most often it is possible to completely get rid of anemia.

When therapy is absent, it threatens with the following complications:

  • Immune powers are weakened.
  • Children begin to lag behind in mental and physical development.
  • The heart works in an increased mode, which can lead to the development of cardiomyopathy and heart failure.
  • The liver increases in size.
  1. Anemia becomes chronic.
  2. The nervous system suffers.

Disease prevention

In order to prevent the development of anemia, you need to eat right, adhering to a balanced menu. To do this, you need to include beef liver and kidneys, quail and chicken eggs, fresh vegetables and fruits in your diet.

Since women are at risk of developing anemia, they should donate blood for a clinical analysis more often than men, which will allow timely detection of the disease. If a person, regardless of gender and age, has found signs of anemia, then he should consult a doctor and start treatment. Otherwise, serious health problems will not be avoided.


The author of the article: Shutov Maxim Evgenievich | Hematologist

Education: In 2013 he graduated from the Kursk State Medical University and received a diploma "General Medicine". After 2 years, completed residency in the specialty "Oncology". In 2016 completed postgraduate studies at the National Medical and Surgical Center named after N. I. Pirogov.

Popular by topic

Interesting Articles
Egg Capsule (plant) - Useful Properties And Application Of Egg Capsule, Root And Flower Capsule. Yellow Capsule, Small, Japanese
Read More

Egg Capsule (plant) - Useful Properties And Application Of Egg Capsule, Root And Flower Capsule. Yellow Capsule, Small, Japanese

Egg capsuleUseful properties and application of the yellow capsuleUseful properties of the egg capsuleThe water lily is a perennial herb of the popular water lily family. The presented plant has a horizontal rhizome with numerous cord-like processes

>> Red Root - Useful Properties And Uses Of Red Root, Tincture Of Red Root, Red Root For Men And Women
Read More

>> Red Root - Useful Properties And Uses Of Red Root, Tincture Of Red Root, Red Root For Men And Women

Red rootUseful properties and application of red root tinctureDescription of the red rootThe red root is an interesting herbaceous perennial, whose height varies from 25 to 50 cm. It has a long woody root, which can be up to 5 meters long

>> The Coffee Tree - The Beneficial Properties And Uses Of The Coffee Tree, The Fruit Of The Coffee Tree, Care And Cultivation
Read More

>> The Coffee Tree - The Beneficial Properties And Uses Of The Coffee Tree, The Fruit Of The Coffee Tree, Care And Cultivation

A coffee treeUseful properties and uses of the coffee treeDescription of the coffee treeThe coffee tree is an evergreen tree, small, reaching a height of 6 m, but the cultivated species are slightly lower. This tree has dark green leaves, wavy at the edges, have an elongated shape, the length of which is 20 cm