Causes, signs and symptoms of ventricular hypertrophy
Definition of disease
Ventricular hypertrophy, or cardiomyopathy, is an increase in heart muscle mass, a dangerous condition that increases the risk of death. The body reacts in this way to high blood pressure. But in general, for such changes, the prognosis can be favorable, because there are many different modern methods of treatment.
Causes of ventricular hypertrophy
As a rule, the term myocardial hypertrophy means an increase in the left or right, as well as both ventricles. Any physical activity, bad habits, for example, overeating, smoking are undesirable for the heart. From the first minutes of birth, the heart must withstand a certain load and the strength of this important organ depends on the state of the tone of the myocardium, that is, the heart muscle.
With a heavy load on the heart, a lot of blood is required, which means more heartbeats. Each heartbeat is the passage of a certain amount of blood through the atrium and ventricles. The heart functions like a distillation pump. Pressure is created to pump blood from the atria into the ventricles, then into the aorta, after which the entire circulatory system fills.
Exercise leads to the fact that the amount of blood exceeds the norm, the heart begins to work faster, because it is necessary to cope and pump a large volume of blood, supplying it to all parts of the human body. The ventricles of the heart must have time to eject any mass of blood into the aorta, and if the heart is not able to work in such a rhythm, then the myocardium loses its elastic properties and increases in volume.
A constant pathological process contributes to the growth of myocardial hypertrophy. Hypertrophy can be provoked not only by hypertension, but also by congenital or acquired heart defects, impaired blood supply to the myocardium, overweight or excessive exercise. Also, among the reasons, doctors note a hereditary predisposition.
Enlargement of the ventricle of the heart occurs in people of different age categories, but most often children are affected. Heart hypertrophy occurs in newborns, this is due to the fact that the right side of the heart has a great load.
But most often, ventricular hypertrophy indicates a congenital heart defect, expressed in a violation of the outflow of blood from the right ventricle. Also, among the reasons, a change in the interventricular septum is distinguished, leading to a situation where both departments communicate with each other, while the blood is poorly saturated with oxygen.
Replenishing the lack of nutrition of organs, the heart works hard, causing hypertrophy. Increased pulmonary artery pressure often causes hypertrophy. From this there are dizziness, shortness of breath and multiple fainting. Another factor in the appearance of this pathology is pulmonary valve stenosis.
Signs and symptoms of ventricular hypertrophy
Myocardial hypertrophy is insidious, it may not be detected for a long time. People have been living with this problem for years without even knowing it. The diagnosis is made by an accidental or planned physical examination, or during an autopsy following a person's death.
Many people with myocardial hypertrophy experience pain in the heart that resembles angina pectoris in symptoms, fainting occurs, shortness of breath during physical activities, heart rhythm disruptions.
Diagnosis of ventricular hypertrophy
For the diagnosis of cardiomyopathy, an echocardiogram, the calculation of a special index that determines the degree of hypertrophy, a two-dimensional echocardiogram, magnetic resonance imaging, Doppler echocardiography, positron emission tomography are used. During treatment, the patient's condition is monitored mainly using an electrocardiogram.
Treatment of ventricular hypertrophy
In treatment, the main task is to reduce the size of the heart ventricle. To solve the problem, an integrated approach is needed. In addition to drug therapy, it is necessary to change the usual way of life, which caused the disease. Elimination of the phenomenon of myocardial hypertrophy is possible in the process of using highly effective, modern drugs. Their medicinal properties allow the heart muscle to return to normal.
In severe cases, surgery is performed to remove part of the hypertrophied muscle. Changing the lifestyle of patients is important, they are advised to consult with rehabilitation specialists and nutritionists. Patients who want to be healthy and at the same time are overweight are assigned an individual diet.
Treatment will be successful if you can overcome bad habits, reduce salt intake, stop drinking alcoholic beverages, eliminate foods that kill the body with cholesterol, remove smoked and fried foods from the menu.
Article author: Mochalov Pavel Alexandrovich | d. m. n. therapist
Education: Moscow Medical Institute. IM Sechenov, specialty - "General Medicine" in 1991, in 1993 "Occupational Diseases", in 1996 "Therapy".