Acne: types and treatment
Acne is a common problem that everyone has encountered at least once in their life. They can appear anywhere, but are most commonly found on the face, back, and chest. Acne is an inflamed area of skin. An inflammatory reaction develops due to the fact that the sebaceous glands are clogged with skin secretions.
Acne that occurs at a young age is often the cause of severe psychological discomfort. Often, skin rashes appear in adults. Therefore, this problem cannot be considered exclusively adolescent.
- Acne - what is it?
- How acne develops
- Acne classification
- Types of acne
- Acne treatment
Acne - what is it?
Acne is a consequence of a blockage of the sebaceous glands. They become clogged with sebum and particles of dead epidermis. These conditions are ideal for bacteria to grow. Pustules become a visible manifestation of inflammation. During adolescence, acne is a normal variant. It develops due to hormonal changes in the body. Acne is caused by both internal and external causes.
Internal causes that lead to the formation of acne:
- Hormonal imbalance in the body. An increase in the number of acne is observed in women and girls before the next menstruation.
- Decreased immunity.
- The presence of chronic diseases. Often ovarian diseases lead to acne in the chin area.
- Diseases of the digestive system and liver.
- Weighed down heredity. In this regard, the activity of the sebaceous glands, their size and number are important. Acne often becomes a problem for blood relatives.
External causes that can lead to the appearance of acne:
- Interaction of the skin with substances that have a comedogenic effect. They cause the sebaceous glands to become clogged and the skin becomes rough. An example of such substances can be oil, grease, preparations with tar. Sometimes people suffer from acne due to the nature of their professional activities.
- The use of cosmetics that contain a fatty component. This is true for powder, blush, and tanning oils.
- Prolonged exposure to the sun, the use of oily creams to protect against ultraviolet radiation.
- Friction of clothing against skin against a background of excessive sweating of a person Injury to the dermis.
- Insufficient personal hygiene. Poor or infrequent use of exfoliating products can cause the epidermis to clog the sebaceous glands.
- Taking hormonal drugs, steroids.
- Frequent stress, which leads to increased work of the adrenal glands and the release of excess hormones into the blood.
Acne does not form overnight. This process goes through several stages: the sebaceous glands secrete an excess amount of secretion, the skin layer thickens, bacteria are activated, and inflammation develops.
Sometimes acne is caused by a subcutaneous mite. It lives in an inactive state on the skin of many people. The tick begins to parasitize due to the influence of pathogenic factors on the body.
How acne develops
Blockage of the sebaceous glands leads to acne. They increase in size due to the increased separation of sebum. Skin pores, which normally should not be visible, expand and become visible. At the mouth of the gland, the stratum corneum of the epidermis thickens, as the skin begins to peel off more often. Dead cells completely block the duct, sebum ceases to be excreted, the gland is stretched. In such conditions, bacteria quickly begin to multiply. They are always present on the surface of the dermis, but they do not show pathological activity until favorable conditions are created for this. As a result of these processes, inflammation develops.
Comedone is a term that describes an inflamed gland filled with sebum. The inflammatory secret cannot go out, it remains under the skin and turns into white acne. Sometimes blackheads are black. This happens when the comedone breaks through the surface of the skin, oxidizes, mixes with melanin, which causes its characteristic color.
Acne can appear on the skin for a variety of reasons. To install them, you need to consult a dermatologist. If acne is a consequence of hormonal disorders in the body, then a visit to an endocrinologist is required. A beautician can help in the event that skin rashes are the result of poor quality or improper care of the dermis.
Depending on the severity of the disease, there are several degrees of acne:
Mild severity. There is no inflammation, but it is noticeable that there are comedones, pustules and papules on the dermis. There are few of them, the total number of rashes does not exceed 10 pieces. The therapy is not difficult.
Moderate degree. The number of closed and open comedones is 10-25 pieces, there are also many acne. In this case, therapy will last at least 2 months. The prognosis for complete restoration of the dermis is favorable.
Severe acne. There are multiple rashes on the skin, their number can be 30-50 pieces. Complex therapy is required to cope with acne.
Extreme severity. The patient's skin is covered with papules, pustules, nodules, cysts, comedones. The therapy is complex and lengthy; it will not be possible to cope with the violation on your own.
If a person has multiple rashes on the skin, then they should not be left unattended. Self-medication can worsen the course of the disease.
Drugs purchased at a pharmacy will not solve the problem unless prescribed by a doctor. It is very difficult to choose the best remedy for acne on your own.
Types of acne
Acne can be of several types. Various reasons lead to their formation.
Varieties of acne:
- Acne vulgaris
- Whiteheads (milia)
- Acne rosacea (rosacea)
- Blackheads (comedones)
- Steroid acne
- Acne conglobata
- Subcutaneous acne
Most often, acne vulgaris appears during adolescence. As a rule, they pass closer to 20 years. Less commonly, acne vulgaris occurs in adults. They can be the result of a disruption in the functioning of the digestive system, liver. Sometimes they are caused by endocrine disorders.
At the initial stage of acne formation, the skin becomes covered with small red spots. They are opened, and a purulent cavity is formed in their place. After such acne, scars and scars remain on the dermis, and skin pigmentation changes.
Acne vulgaris appears on the face - this is their favorite place of localization. Sometimes the rash covers the skin of the back and chest.
The main cause of acne vulgaris is hormonal imbalance. Often this problem can be traced in blood relatives, which indicates the influence of the factor of heredity. Other causes of acne vulgaris include: inaccuracies in nutrition, improper skin hygiene, parasitic damage to the dermis.
Acne vulgaris is more of a problem for young people. However, it is impossible to exclude their occurrence at 40 and even at 60 years old.
Milia are white acne that appears due to excess sebaceous glands. Whiteheads can develop due to the effect of any traumatic factors on the skin, for example, when an excessive amount of ultraviolet radiation hits it. Also, internal inflammatory processes in the body can provoke their appearance.
White eels do not reach large sizes, their average diameter is 2-3 mm. They are quite dense, have a yellow color, and resemble grains in appearance. Often, such acne appears on the temples, on the nose, on the cheeks, and around the eyes. They can be single or multiple.
White acne is, in fact, an accumulation of sebum that is in a pore and has no way to get out. The head of the eel is white as it shines through the dermis.
Whiteheads often appear due to improper lifestyle, due to excessive exposure to the sun, when eating salty, fried, smoked and fatty foods.
It is impossible to exclude such reasons for the development of white acne as: hormonal imbalance, poor skin hygiene, diseases of the digestive system. Many people ignore the appearance of whiteheads by delaying treatment. This should not be done as it may exacerbate the problem.
Acne rosacea (rosacea)
Rosacea most often appears on the skin of people over the age of 30. They are accompanied by the formation of papules, which further fester. Most often, women suffer from this problem.
Symptoms of rosacea:
- Hyperemia of the skin. The forehead, nose, cheeks, chin become red. Acne can spread to the chest and back.
- The appearance of a red rash on the skin. Over time, it transforms into acne.
- Thickening of the skin. This occurs in the later stages of the development of the disease.
- Expansion of blood vessels. The vascular mesh is visible through the dermis.
- A sensation of grit or other foreign body appears in the eyes. Lacrimation intensifies, the whites of the eyes turn red.
The more time a person spends in the sun or in the cold, the worse the skin condition becomes.
Blackheads appear on the skin without a preliminary inflammatory reaction. They most often form on the nose, forehead, chin, and cheeks. Blackheads are rarely found on the back and chest.
The formation of comedones can be triggered by hormonal disruptions, disturbances in the functioning of the ovaries or thyroid gland, and the consumption of fatty or carbohydrate foods.
To deal with the problem, skin cleansing is required. However, such a procedure is not enough for a long time, it will need to be repeated systematically. With age, the activity of the sebaceous glands decreases, so blackheads rarely appear on the skin.
These blackheads look extremely unaesthetic. This is precisely their main harm. Steroid acne appears on the dermis due to steroid medication treatment. Canceling them allows you to cope with rashes. The main problem comes down to the fact that it is not always possible to refuse a drug.
Steroid acne looks like small ulcers that are bright red in color. They can cover the whole body, or a certain part of it. Sometimes acne is concentrated only in the area where the person applies the hormonal drug.
Steroid acne can cause a burning sensation and intense itching.
These eels are globular and appear on the arms, legs, neck and back. Acne is located deep in the subcutaneous fat layer of the dermis. Sometimes they respond with severe pain and are blue-purple in color. There is a pustule in the center of the eel. Conglobate eruptions can appear on the cheeks, chest, neck, and back. Most often men suffer from them, age does not matter.
Such violations can provoke the appearance of conglobata acne:
- Stress, emotional overload, depression.
- Hormonal imbalance, diabetes mellitus, abnormalities in the endocrine glands.
- Chronic infectious diseases.
- Excess iodine and bromine in the body.
- Treatment with certain drugs.
- Smoking, external negative factors.
The skin over the acne is uneven and may leave scars after it heals.
This type of acne can appear in both adults and teenagers. Subcutaneous acne is formed due to excess accumulation of pus against the background of inflammation of the sebaceous glands. Most often the back and shoulders, neck, face and chest are affected.
Acne is white because it contains pus. The eel is edged with a red rim. It is represented by an area of inflamed skin.
Reasons for the appearance of subcutaneous acne:
- Hormonal imbalance in the body.
- Immunity disorders.
- Diseases of the digestive system.
- Infection with a subcutaneous tick.
- Liver disease.
- Power supply errors.
- Excessive sweating.
- Hereditary predisposition.
- Chronic diseases.
When a pimple is located under the skin, it is difficult to squeeze it out. At the same time, the appearance of a person deteriorates significantly, the dermis becomes unattractive. If you try to squeeze out subcutaneous acne yourself, this can lead to severe skin damage and even blood poisoning. After such manipulations, scars may remain on the face and other parts of the body.
To get rid of acne, you need to establish the cause of their appearance on the skin. In this case, consultation of such narrow specialists as: endocrinologist, dermatologist, gastroenterologist, gynecologist may be required. Blood and urine are taken from the patient for analysis, the biochemical composition of the blood is examined, and the level of hormones in the body is assessed. It may be necessary to donate feces for dysbiosis, sometimes the patient is prescribed an ultrasound of the internal organs.
If the acne is mild, then the doctor may recommend means for local skin treatment: gels, ointments, lotions, creams. They contain substances that allow you to fight acne, dry the skin, reduce the production of secretions, and eliminate the inflammatory reaction. Devices containing tretinoin, benzoyl peroxide, azelaic acid, etc., can cope with such problems.
If the disease is severe or moderate, then antibacterial drugs are required. Sometimes therapy is performed to stabilize the hormones in the body.
Drugs that can be prescribed to a patient to treat acne:
Antibacterial agents. The drug of choice is Minolexin. It can be prescribed to patients over 8 years old. It dissolves well in fats, therefore, it allows you to quickly stop the inflammatory process in the clogged sebaceous glands.
Sebostatic drugs such as Isotretinoin. They will be used only when there are severe skin lesions.
Hormonal drugs. They are selected by the doctor on an individual basis.
If acne has a running course, then its elements are eliminated mechanically. The procedure is performed in a beauty parlor. The skin is cleaned using peels. They also conduct massage, cryotherapy, laser therapy sessions.
To cope with acne, you need to rethink your diet. It is necessary to remove fatty, fried and spicy foods from the menu. Minimize the consumption of sugar, smoked meats, pickles, coffee and red berries. At the same time, low-fat meats, rice, fruits, nuts, fish, almonds, green and orange vegetables are introduced into the menu.
Timely initiation of treatment will avoid serious problems. Therefore, when acne appears, you need to see a doctor. This will make it possible to preserve the beauty and health of the skin of the face and body.
[Video] Dr. Berg - HOW TO GET RID OF ACNE?
The author of the article: Gorshenina Elena Ivanovna | Gastroenterologist
Education: Diploma in the specialty "General Medicine" received at the Russian State Medical University named after N. I. Pirogova (2005). Postgraduate studies in the specialty "Gastroenterology" - educational and scientific medical center.