Symptoms and treatment of staphylococcus in the nose
Staphylococcus aureus in the nose is the presence of bacteria in the nasal mucosa that can cause a purulent-inflammatory disease. There are more than 20 varieties of staphylococcus, and most of them are constant human companions and are normally present on the mucous membranes, including the nose. At the same time, they do not cause an inflammatory process.
However, among all the species, there are several pathogenic bacteria, the most dangerous of which is Staphylococcus aureus. Normally, it should not be in the body. Once inside, including on the nasal mucosa, staphylococcus begins to actively multiply, poisoning the human body with its toxins and causing an inflammatory process.
In addition to Staphylococcus aureus, inflammatory processes in the nasal cavity can cause epidermal and hemolytic staphylococci.
According to statistics, up to 20% of the adult population are permanent carriers of staphylococcus in the nose, while in 60% of people it lives in the nasopharynx periodically, and only in 5% of people the nasal mucosa is not inhabited by these bacteria, due to the excellent working local immunity.
- Symptoms of staphylococcus in the nose
- How is staphylococcus aureus transmitted in the nose?
- What is the danger of staphylococcus in the nose?
- Staphylococcus aureus in the nose
- Treatment of staphylococcus in the nose
Symptoms of staphylococcus in the nose
In some cases, a person may not be aware that one or another type of staphylococcus lives in his nose. This is asymptomatic carriage. But in the presence of a number of disposing factors, for example, with a decrease in immune forces, with an exacerbation of chronic diseases, with hypothermia, with injuries to the nose and for other reasons, the bacterium begins to actively grow and multiply. In some people, pathogenic staphylococcus aureus, immediately after contact with the nasal mucosa, causes inflammation.
This leads to the appearance of a characteristic clinical picture:
- The appearance of a cold, which is called rhinitis in medicine.
- An increase in mucous secretion, which is transparent at first, but after a short time, impurities of pus are found in it.
- Difficulty breathing due to blockage of the nasal passages.
- Violations of the sense of smell, inability to fully sense smells.
- Changing the timbre of the voice, its nasalness and hoarseness.
- Breathing through the mouth, which is fraught with the development of complications in the form of inflammation of the larynx, trachea and bronchi.
- An increase in body temperature, with acute rhinitis, it can reach 38 ° C. With the development of complications - 39 ° C or more.
- Disturbed night rest, difficulty falling asleep, general fatigue and malaise.
- Often, staphylococcus, in addition to the nasal cavity, inhabits the paranasal sinuses, provoking the development of sinusitis or frontal sinusitis.
- Children may have a rash on the body.
How is staphylococcus aureus transmitted in the nose?
To avoid infection, it is worth knowing how the bacteria can get into the nasal cavity.
Among the most common modes of transmission, doctors have identified the following:
- Airborne droplets. That is, a person inhales air that is infected with staphylococcus and they naturally enter the cavity of his nose, as a result of which infection occurs. They are released into the environment by human carriers when sneezing, coughing and talking. Pets can also be a source.
- The period of intrauterine development, the process of delivery and breastfeeding. Diseases of children with staphylococcal infection are almost always associated with the fact that their mother is infected. The fetus can become infected by the hematogenous route, as well as with adherence to the placenta and other violations of labor.
- Air and dust path. This route of infection is closely related to airborne droplets. That is, when an infected organism releases bacteria into the environment, they, in turn, do not immediately fall on the nasal mucosa, but settle in the dust. A healthy person becomes infected when this dust is inhaled.
- Contact and household route of infection. When an infection occurs as a result of the use of someone else's personal care products or through close contact, such as kissing or simply touching the skin.
Infection in a hospital setting.
In addition, there are additional risks that contribute to the fact that the bacterium enters the nasal cavity and begins to actively multiply there:
- Hypothermia is one of the leading provoking factors of inflammation. This is due to the fact that when a person inhales cold air, the cilia of the ciliated epithelium, which are responsible for cleansing the nasal cavity, stop actively moving. As a result, pathogenic microbes settle in the mucous membrane for a long time and begin to actively multiply there.
- SARS and influenza no less often lead to the development of staphylococcal rhinitis. Against the background of these diseases, not only local, but also general immunity decreases. Therefore, it is often during an acute respiratory illness that the infection awakens.
Prolonged use of drops, which have the property of narrowing blood vessels, leads to the fact that a person begins to suffer from rhinitis medicamentosa. Against this background, it is much easier for staphylococcus to penetrate into the nasal cavity and begin to multiply.
- Human health and age. There are certain groups of people who are most susceptible to staphylococcal infections. These groups include children under one year old, newborns, old people and people with serious chronic diseases.
- The body's susceptibility to bacteria increases due to prolonged use of medications, for example, cytostatics and corticosteroids.
- Exacerbation of chronic foci of infection - tonsillitis, adenoiditis, pharyngitis.
- Strong and prolonged stress.
What is the danger of staphylococcus in the nose?
The danger that an inflammatory reaction caused by a staphylococcal infection occurs in the nose is the possibility of a rapid spread of the process not only to the respiratory tract, but also to neighboring organs. That is, not only the nearby nasal sinuses, trachea, larynx or tonsils can be affected. By the hematogenous or lymphogenous route, the bacterium is able to reach the lungs, liver, heart, etc.
The following clinical picture is often observed: a patient who suffered only from a cold, after a few days, in the absence of treatment, begins to notice signs of otitis media, tonsillitis, sinusitis, adenoiditis, etc. In addition, in a certain category of people with a predisposition, the bacteria for several days it can cause bronchitis and tracheitis. And the beginning is a seemingly banal acute coryza.
Staphylococcal infection in the nose is extremely dangerous for children and the elderly. In them, the bacterium is capable of provoking not only bronchitis and tracheitis, but also abscesses, massive lesions of the lungs, bones, brain, kidneys and heart. In the most difficult cases, the presence of staphylococcus in the nose can lead to septic blood poisoning.
That is why the detection of staphylococcal infection in newborns is the reason for inpatient treatment.
Staphylococcus aureus in the nose
It is the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity that is the favorite place of settlement of Staphylococcus aureus. Often it exists asymptomatically there for a long time, but in the presence of such factors as: hypothermia, infection with ARVI, the use of vasoconstrictor drops for a long time, it begins to actively multiply, causing acute rhinitis.
In the future, acute rhinitis causes serious complications, which were described above. Another danger of Staphylococcus aureus is its low susceptibility to drugs of the penicillin series. That is, in order to select an adequate therapy, an antibiogram is necessary.
Before starting treatment, it is necessary to conduct a high-quality diagnosis. The main analysis that is used in medical practice when a pathogenic bacterium is suspected is their isolation by bacterial inoculation. However, the patient will need to prepare for the study in order to obtain the most reliable result.
First, on this day, you should stop using any nasal drops. Secondly, do not undergo treatment with any antibacterial agents for at least a week. The only drawback of this method is that the result will have to wait at least five days.
If the diagnosis needs to be made faster, then the microscopic method of smear analysis comes to the rescue. But unlike it, the cultural research method, namely, bacterial sowing, will not only clarify the data obtained, but also identify a specific type of bacteria, and also supplement the information with an antibioticogram.
After the results are obtained and staphylococci were detected in the nose in an amount exceeding the maximum mark of 106 units, it is necessary to start treatment.
Treatment of staphylococcus in the nose
The leading medication for neutralizing staphylococcus is antibiotics. The scheme of their reception is determined in each specific case individually, as well as the selection of the tool itself.
Most often, when an infectious process is detected in the nose, the patient is prescribed to take the drug in tablet form. Although in some cases, injections may be required:
- For the treatment of non-Staphylococcus aureus in the nose, antibacterial drugs of the penicillin series are used. Among which ampicillin is especially popular.
If the presence of Staphylococcus aureus is detected, then it is advisable to prescribe combined agents, for example, amoxiclav or flemoclave.
- In addition, they can cope with the infection: Vancomycin, Erythoromycin, Azithromycin, Cephalexin, Cephalothin.
- If the pathological process in the nose cannot be corrected with antibiotics (or they cannot be taken) and threatens with the development of serious complications, then treatment with the use of antistaphylococcal immunoglobulin or toxoid is prescribed. These funds allow you to relieve intoxication. In addition, it is advisable to take antistaphylococcal bacteriophages.
In addition to the above drugs, doctors prescribe the following systemic drugs:
- immunomodulators, which are designed to increase the general resistance of the body (Taktivin, Poludan, Immunorix);
- antiallergenic agents designed to relieve puffiness (Zirtek, Tavegil, Diazolin);
- vitamin complexes with the addition of a mineral component (Alphabet, Supradin, etc.).
In addition, to increase the therapeutic effect, the patient needs to use means for local treatment:
- Miramistin and Chlorhexidine, used in the form of solutions for washing the nasal cavity, are antiseptics.
- Protargol, Polydexa, Isofra, are used for instillation into the nose, have a vasoconstrictor and antibacterial effect.
- Erythromycin and tetracycline ointment, which is applied to the skin around the nose if purulent lesions are present on it.
- Rinsing the nose with Chlorphyllipt or instilling oil drops based on it.
- The use of immunomodulators locally, in particular, the drug IRS-19 or Immudon.
If there are large abscesses on the skin around the nose, then the question of opening them is taken by the doctor. For this, the patient is sent to a surgical room.
In addition, local treatment is required not only by treating the nasal cavity, but also by treating the throat. Absorbable tablets such as Lizobact may be prescribed. In addition to this, the throat is irrigated with Miramistin, gargles are performed with Furacilin, soda or hydrogen peroxide. This will help prevent infections of the throat and tonsils.
Do not forget about preventive measures that are aimed at preventing infection or curbing the pathological growth and development of bacteria in the nose. First of all, this is the observance of the rules of personal hygiene and the maintenance of the body's immune forces in all known ways (rejection of bad habits, rational nutrition and physical activity).
The author of the article: Lazarev Oleg Vladimirovich | ENT
Education: In 2009, he received a diploma in the specialty "General Medicine" at the Petrozavodsk State University. After completing an internship at the Murmansk Regional Clinical Hospital, he received a diploma in Otorhinolaryngology (2010)