Causes and symptoms of neurasthenia
What is neurasthenia?
Neurasthenia is a dystrophic lesion of peripheral nerves associated with exhaustion of the nervous system (it combines various types of pathological changes in the functions of the nervous system). This disease is a type of neurosis, it means non-psychotic disorders that arise after a long stay of a person in a stressful situation.
Causes of neurasthenia
In the development of neurasthenic disorders, a number of reasons of a different nature play an important role, such as, for example, the effect of intoxication, a lack of vitamins in the body, impaired immune defense, tumor processes and many others. Often, this disease develops in diabetes mellitus. But basically the underlying causes lie in the discrepancy between mental capabilities.
The ailment can be triggered by mental and physical stress, experiences.
Excessive stress on the nervous system does not allow you to relax and rest. Lack of rest leads to overload, resulting in severe depletion of the nervous system (distress). The companions of neurasthenia are irritability, chronic fatigue. Neurosis occurs in people between the ages of 20 and 40, men are more likely to suffer from the disease than women.
Neurasthenia has several forms:
1) The hypersthenic form is expressed by increased mental excitability. In patients, irritation can be caused by the slightest trifle such as noise, loud conversation, music. It is difficult for them to be in crowded places. They are characterized by impatience, uncontrollable self-control. All this affects the ability to work, mental incoherence appears, a person becomes distracted, attention decreases. In such a state, it is impossible to concentrate on anything. Sleep is disturbed.
2) Irritable weakness is a form of neurasthenia that manifests itself in patients with an unrestrained, choleric temperament. This form can appear with a strong and balanced nervous system when the pathogenic situation does not change and there is no recovery at the stage of hypersthenia. In this case, patients can get down to business, but quickly get tired, they have a headache, they do not think well, feel nervous weakness, powerlessness. So fatigue alternates with an attempt to resume working capacity, a feeling of nervous exhaustion sets in. Irritability can be pronounced, a person screams, but to replace such a reaction and excitement, mental impotence quickly comes, resentment appears and everything ends in tears.
3) The hyposthenic form occurs in people with a weak central nervous system with increased mental fatigue, in suspicious people, people who are often visited by anxious thoughts. They are irritable, physically and mentally weak. Lethargy, sadness, decreased mood, indifference, tearfulness and emotional instability are manifestations of a neurotic nature in the hyposthenic form.
Symptoms of neurasthenia
The very first sign of the development of neurasthenia is insomnia. Violation of night sleep, when a person falls asleep with difficulty, or wakes up many times and falls asleep again, sees disturbing dreams, and in the morning barely rises with a bad mood, with migraines. Among the complaints, there is general malaise, weak memory, discomfort.
Patients react extremely emotionally to bright light, they have an increase or decrease in body temperature, interruptions in heart rate, intestinal sensitivity, decreased libido, impotence may occur in men. Today it is generally accepted that neurasthenia is depression. Its manifestations are increased excitability, depressed mood, uncertainty.
The symptoms of the disease are variable and varied painful sensations, light pressure, constriction, tingling in the temporal and occipital region, a feeling of heaviness in the head and anxiety. The appearance of pain along the ridge, in the trunk, in the extremities with sudden movements of the head or body, the occurrence of noise and ringing in the ears, dizziness, soreness of the skin are the most serious symptoms confirming the development of pathology.
Diagnosis of neurasthenia
Diagnosing neurasthenia is not a difficult process. Usually, such a diagnosis can be made according to the description of the patient's condition. Violent emotional outbursts, irritability reactions, agitated behavior for no reason, fussiness and impatience, always sudden and quickly fading away are good reasons to accurately determine the type of nervous disorder.
The advanced stages of the disease lead to gloom, lethargy, drowsiness, loss of appetite. The doctor can make a medical opinion on the patient's complaints about the phenomenon of heartburn, belching, bloating, heaviness in the gastrointestinal tract.
Treatment of neurasthenia
In the treatment of neurasthenia, methods of physiotherapy, reflexology are successfully used, massage is applied, and a diet is prescribed. The main most effective methods of treatment are suggestion and hypnosis. It is also very good for the patient to re-develop the skills of positive thinking, learn to be aware of and control actions and deeds.
Complex treatment of neurasthenia, the use of biostimulants, neurotropic drugs, antidepressants should be strictly individual. Doctors are guided not only by the clinical form of neurosis, but also by the stage of the disease and the personal characteristics of the person who has undergone the disease. The age of the patient is taken into account, because such a disease can occur at any age.
Treatment should be combined with proper rest, temporary exclusion of mental work. In some cases, sedatives are prescribed. Usually, patients with neurasthenia need daily walks in the fresh air, they feel the need to replenish iron in the body, therefore it is recommended to take medications containing this important element. Calcium glycerophosphate and the method of autogenous training contribute to the rapid restoration of the functions of the nervous system.
Prevention of neurasthenia
The main place among the preventive measures that prevent the appearance of neurasthenia is adherence to the daily regimen, good sleep, prevention of emotional overstrain, the use of special vitamin complexes designed to strengthen the immune system.
Article author: Mochalov Pavel Alexandrovich | d. m. n. therapist
Education: Moscow Medical Institute. IM Sechenov, specialty - "General Medicine" in 1991, in 1993 "Occupational Diseases", in 1996 "Therapy".