Increased / Decreased Granulocytes In The Blood - What Does This Mean?

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Video: Increased / Decreased Granulocytes In The Blood - What Does This Mean?

Video: Increased / Decreased Granulocytes In The Blood - What Does This Mean?
Video: Neutrophils count; High or Low?? Know the Reasons 2023, March
Increased / Decreased Granulocytes In The Blood - What Does This Mean?
Increased / Decreased Granulocytes In The Blood - What Does This Mean?
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Granulocytes in blood test results

Granulocytes in blood test results
Granulocytes in blood test results

Leukocytes are of two classes - granulocytic and agranulocytic. Granulocytes include neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils, since they contain tiny granules. There are no such granules in leukocytes of the agranulocytic class. These include lymphocytes and monocytes.

Granulocytes "stand guard" of human health, protecting the body from microbes. They are the first to detect them and rush to the place of defeat. Granulocytes are directly involved in the body's immune response.

Content:

  • Granulocytes - what is it?
  • Granulocytes in blood test results
  • Why does the body need granulocytes?

Granulocytes - what is it?

In granulocytes, nuclei are present that have an irregular shape. These nuclei are divided into 2-5 particles, therefore the second name of granulocytes is polymorphonuclear cells.

Granulocytes make up about 75% of all leukocytes. They are represented by eosinophils, basophils and neutrophils. These cells are present not only in blood, but also in human tissues. Depending on the cause of the inflammation that occurs in the body, various granulocytes come into play. This does not mean that they function in isolation from each other, they always interact with each other and with other substances. So, neutrophils act in a tight bundle with macrophages, eosinophils with basophils.

Granulocytes
Granulocytes

Granulocytes are born in myeloblasts. After maturation of myeloblasts, they are transformed into promyelocytes, then into myelocytes. Large myelocytes are immature maternal forms, and small myelocytes are referred to as mature daughter cells. In the form of myelocytes, granulocytes can no longer divide, they possessed this ability only during the period when they were represented by promyelocytes. It will not be possible to detect myelocytes in the blood. Normally, they do not leave the bone marrow. If emergency situations occur, when all neutrophils are involved in other reactions in the body, then immature granulocytes come to their aid. Only in this case can they be detected in the blood.

For anaerobic glycolysis, granulocytes take energy even from edematous and inflamed tissues that are not supplied with sufficient oxygen. The lifespan of granulocytes is 2-10 days, depending on the type of cell. Having fulfilled their function, they die, and new granulocytes come in their place.

Granulocytes in blood test results

Granulocytes are represented by the following elements:

  • Eosinophils account for 1 to 5%.
  • Basophils account for 0 to 1%.
  • From 40 to 70% are neutrophils.

Granulocytes make up about 50-70% of the total number of blood leukocytes. That is, there can be from 2500 to 7000 cells in 1 ml of blood. To calculate the number of granulocytes, you need to subtract the number of lymphocytes and monocytes from the total number of leukocytes.

If the level of these blood cells is elevated, then this is a sign of inflammation developing against the background of the infection. The level of basophils increases with allergic reactions in the body, the number of eosinophils increases against the background of parasitic invasion and with allergies.

Table: norms of granulocytes (eosinophils, neutrophils) and other leukocytes:

Granulocytes in blood test results
Granulocytes in blood test results

Normally, the physiological level of granulocytes can be increased under the following conditions:

  • Second half of pregnancy.
  • Childbirth.
  • The beginning of the menstrual cycle.
  • Active physical activity.
  • A hearty meal.

If the granulocyte count is below normal, then a viral infection, collagenosis, or liver disease can be suspected.

Also, bone marrow diseases, taking medications (sulfonamides, anticancer drugs, antibiotics, etc.) can lead to a drop in the level of granulocytes. Their deficiency can also be due to hereditary pathologies. The lower the level of mature granulocytes in the blood, the more often a person suffers from skin and respiratory infections.

The level of leukocytes in older children is equal to the level of leukocytes in an adult. In addition, in the leukocyte form, individual cells are counted, and not all leukocytes as a whole. Moreover, in children, the level of neutrophils increases after 6 years, in accordance with a decrease in lymphocytes.

Some leukocytes move freely in the blood, while others are fixed on vascular endothelial cells and "wait" for the time when they are needed. Therefore, granulocytes counted in the leukocyte formula represent only a part of these cells. These will be those granulocytes that move freely in the bloodstream. Normally, in an adult, the number of leukocytes is 5.0 * 10 11, that is, about 2000-9000 cells in one cubic millimeter of blood. In children, the number of granulocytes is slightly lower (at the age of 3-6 years), since there are more lymphocytes in their blood. This is a physiological norm.

Why does the body need granulocytes?

All granulocytes perform certain functions in the body:

  1. Neutrophils are the main granulocytes that all the time protect the body from pathogenic flora. They fight bacteria and toxins, so their blood level rises sharply in case of infectious diseases. If the pathology has a severe course and there are not enough neutrophils, then metamyelocytes (immature granulocytes), which are located in the bone marrow, come to their aid.

  2. Basophils work in the body in conjunction with lgE antibodies, the level of which increases significantly against the background of an allergic reaction. Basophils bind them, resulting in, for example, anaphylactic shock. After contact with an allergen, such a reaction can occur within a few seconds. If the allergic reaction is delayed in time, then not only basophils, but also eosinophils with neutrophils take part in it.

  3. Eosinophils exist in the blood for several hours, after which they go to the tissues and die there. During their short life, they manage to destroy pathogenic proteins, take part in phagocytosis, and produce plasmagen. Also, eosinophils direct their efforts to fight parasites.

Why does the body need granulocytes?
Why does the body need granulocytes?

So, basophils are responsible for allergic reactions of an immediate type, eosinophils and neutrophils are responsible for the elimination of acute infections and parasitic invasions. Lymphocytes are more responsible for the binding of other immunoglobulins - the lgG and lgM class. However, such reactions refer to delayed-type reactions and they develop after 1-3 days and even several months after the invasion of the body by foreign agents. In turn, granulocytes even take part in such reactions, since they are responsible for the formation of humoral immunity.

Sometimes the functions of granulocytes can be impaired from birth, which is caused by genetic abnormalities:

  • Lazy white blood cell syndrome.
  • Chronic granulomatous disease.

  • Ch├ędiak-Higashi syndrome.

In addition to the fact that the working capacity of granulocytes can be impaired by congenital developmental anomalies, they can be influenced by external and internal factors that affect the body throughout its life. If granulocytes do not fully perform their functions, then a person becomes vulnerable to many infections.

Video: what are granulocytes - medical animation:

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The author of the article: Shutov Maxim Evgenievich | Hematologist

Education: In 2013 he graduated from the Kursk State Medical University and received a diploma "General Medicine". After 2 years, completed residency in the specialty "Oncology". In 2016 completed postgraduate studies at the National Medical and Surgical Center named after N. I. Pirogov.

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