Panic Attacks - How To Cope? Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Table of contents:

Video: Panic Attacks - How To Cope? Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Video: Panic Attacks - How To Cope? Causes, Symptoms And Treatment
Video: Panic disorder - panic attacks, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & pathology 2023, March
Panic Attacks - How To Cope? Causes, Symptoms And Treatment
Panic Attacks - How To Cope? Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

How to deal with panic attacks?

Panic attack
Panic attack

A panic attack is an attack of intense fear that occurs suddenly. It often develops at night and reaches its maximum intensity in a few minutes. A person's heart rate increases, he begins to choke, pains appear in his chest, and a lump rises in his throat. The attack can last from 10 minutes to 2 hours. The average attack duration is half an hour. Gradually, fear passes, giving way to anxiety. After suffering a crisis, the fear of its recurrence develops.

In medicine, a panic attack is called cardioneurosis, sympathoadrenal crisis, or vegetative crisis. Such attacks are never isolated. They remind of themselves constantly. This leads to the formation of phobias, which affect the personal characteristics of the patient. If panic attacks become regular and repeated throughout the year, then doctors talk about panic attack syndrome or panic disorder. This means that a single attack or several repetitions of it within a month cannot yet be regarded as a mental disorder. Both adults and children over 3 years old suffer from panic attacks.

Attacks do not pose a threat to life, science is not aware of a single case of death of a person due to a panic attack. This is due to the mechanism of its development. The body, sensing a threat, is mobilized (in the same way it reacts to a real danger). It must be remembered that panic attacks can signal the presence of a high risk of bleeding, stroke, bronchial asthma, and temporal lobe epilepsy. Sometimes attacks of animal fear are harbingers of thyrotoxicosis or migraine.

Panic attacks can act as a side effect of medication. In any case, they should not be ignored. You need to find out the reasons for their occurrence and be able to cope with them.


  • Statistics
  • Theories of the origin of panic attacks
  • Development mechanism
  • Causes of Panic Attacks
  • Panic attack symptoms
  • Symptoms of an atypical panic attack
  • Symptoms that occur between attacks
  • How to deal with a panic attack?
  • Diagnosing panic attacks
  • Panic attack treatment and prevention
  • Panic attacks in children


Panic attacks are common. It is believed that every 5 people endured it at least once in their life. However, no more than 1% of the population suffers from panic disorder. Women are 5 times more likely to suffer attacks of anxiety than men. The disease is diagnosed mainly at the age of 25-35 years. Although sometimes attacks happen in children, adolescents and the elderly.

Every 5 patient tries to treat attacks of animal fear with alcoholic drinks or heavy psychotropic drugs. This leads to the formation of persistent addiction.

In fact, dealing with panic attacks is not difficult. Moreover, this does not always require the use of psychotropic drugs.

Theories of the origin of panic attacks

There are several theories that try to explain what happens to the body at the time of the attack. And all of them are not devoid of meaning.

Catecholamine theory

Catecholamine theory
Catecholamine theory

Proponents of this hypothesis believe that the hormones catechins are the cause of panic fear. They are produced by the adrenal medulla. These include: adrenaline, dopamine, norepinephrine. The leading role in the development of the attack belongs to adrenaline. It makes the nervous system more active, increases heart rate. This is necessary so that all organs are washed in sufficient quantities with blood. In parallel, an increase in blood pressure occurs, and breathing becomes more frequent. At such moments, the brain receives the maximum amount of oxygen. The body reacts to danger in the same way.

With a panic attack, catechins increase their number not only in the blood and urine, but also in the nervous tissue. It has been proven that with intravenous adrenaline administration, the same panic attack develops. Therefore, the more catechins in the human body, the higher his tendency to develop crises.

Genetic theory

Panic attacks that occur in one identical twin are 50% more likely to occur in the other. In 15-20% of cases, blood relatives suffer from them. Therefore, there is a theory that the disease develops due to violations in the structure of certain genes. This means that the child has a tendency to its occurrence from birth. Panic disorder will make itself felt as soon as favorable conditions arise for this, for example, severe stress is transferred, hormonal changes in the body occur, a person becomes seriously ill, etc.

Psychoanalyst theory

The famous Z. Freud was engaged in the study of panic attacks. He and his followers were of the opinion that they develop in people who have an intrapersonal conflict that remains unresolved, but suppressed. Lack of emotional discharge leads to cardioneuroses.

Behavioral theory

It is believed that panic attacks occur in people who suffer from an obsessive fear of drowning, getting into a disaster, etc.

Cognitive theory

The adherents of this theory believe that a panic attack is a consequence of a person's misinterpretation of his own feelings. For example, an increase in breathing and heart rate that occurs in response to physical exertion or fear, they regard as a signal of imminent death. This leads to the fact that they develop panic.

Development mechanism

Development mechanism
Development mechanism
  1. Under the influence of stress, adrenaline rushes.
  2. The hormone provokes vasoconstriction, promotes increased respiration and heart rate.
  3. Vascular spasm leads to an increase in blood pressure.

  4. Carbon dioxide is removed from the body faster, which provokes an increase in anxiety.
  5. Low CO 2 levels cause dizziness and numbness in the limbs

  6. Vessels spasm only on the periphery: in the skin, in adipose tissue and muscles. All blood rushes to vital organs: to the brain and heart. The rest of the tissues suffer from hypoxia, which leads to the accumulation of lactic acid in them. It enters the systemic circulation and contributes to increased panic.

Causes of Panic Attacks

Causes of Panic Attacks
Causes of Panic Attacks

A panic attack can be caused by any strong experience, upcoming surgical intervention, fear of illness, etc.

Most often, an attack develops in the presence of mental abnormalities, but sometimes it can be caused by such reasons as:

  • Myocardial infarction that a person suffered.
  • Ischemic heart disease.
  • Mitral valve prolapse.
  • Childbirth.
  • Pregnancy.
  • Early sexual intercourse.
  • Climax.
  • Pheochromocytoma (a tumor of the adrenal gland that produces adrenaline).
  • Thyrotoxic crisis.
  • Drug therapy: glucocorticosteroids, anabolic steroids, cholecystokine.

Panic attacks can act as symptoms of mental illnesses such as:

  • Phobias.
  • Depression.
  • Schizophrenia.
  • Schizotypal disorder.
  • Mental disorders caused by an injury, for example, getting into an accident or natural disaster.
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder. At the same time, the person is constantly haunted by the fear of illness or other disaster. As a result, obsessions are formed. For example, he constantly checks the condition of electrical appliances, washes his hands too often, etc.

If a person is constantly in a state of stress, or lives in an accelerated rhythm (this may be related to work), then he is more susceptible to panic attacks. Children often have involuntary separation of urine or feces during an attack.

Provoking factors

Scientists have identified risk factors that increase the likelihood of a panic attack, even in a healthy person.

These include:

  • Leading a sedentary lifestyle. Lack of physical activity is especially dangerous for teenagers. Sports activities help to get rid of negative thoughts and emotions, find peace of mind, and put things in order in thoughts. Physical inactivity leads to restlessness, increased impulsivity, which leads to panic attacks.
  • Excessive consumption of drinks containing caffeine. The nervous system is depleted under the influence of this substance.
  • Smoking. Substances contained in tobacco smoke have a negative effect on human blood vessels and affect stress resistance.
  • Long-term containment of emotions within oneself.
  • Chronic lack of sleep. Excessive amounts of adrenaline and other hormones enter the bloodstream, which leads to panic.
scheme of occurrence
scheme of occurrence

Panic attack symptoms

A panic attack manifests itself in both physical and mental symptoms. They need to be considered separately.

Mental manifestations of a panic attack

Panic attack symptoms
Panic attack symptoms

Mental symptoms manifest themselves as clearly as possible:

  • The person has a feeling that his life or health is in danger.
  • An acute fear of death appears. It is present in the first 2-3 attacks, after which it is supplanted by the fear of illness, heart attack, stroke, etc.
  • There is a fear of going crazy.
  • A lump forms in my throat.
  • The perception of the world is distorted. It may feel like time is slowing down.
  • A person looks at himself as if from the outside and cannot control his own actions.
  • Sometimes the condition approaches semi-fainting. Consciousness is clouded.

Some people try to hide or run away, while others, on the contrary, fall into a stupor.

The symptoms listed may vary. The same person has crises with a low emotional component, or bouts of pronounced fear, up to a state of passion. On average, they are repeated once every 7 days. Sometimes seizures may not bother a person for months. Mild panic attacks can occur up to several times a day.

Physical symptoms

Physical symptoms
Physical symptoms

The physical manifestations of panic attacks include:

  • Increased heart rate. Sometimes the heart beats so fast that a person has the feeling that it is "bursting out of the chest." This symptom develops under the influence of adrenaline and dopamine. Normally, the level of these hormones rises when a real danger arises. Thus, the body prepares to escape.
  • Hot flashes or chills. These sensations are due to the contraction of the vessels that penetrate the subcutaneous fat.
  • Increased breathing.
  • Dryness in the mouth. It occurs due to the stimulation of the autonomic nervous system.
  • Sweating. This way the body cools itself to optimize energy expenditure.
  • Diarrhea or constipation. Stool disturbance occurs due to the fact that intestinal nutrition deteriorates against the background of vascular spasm.
  • Chest pain on the left side.
  • Coldness of feet and hands.
  • Disorders in the work of the digestive system: nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, liquefaction of feces.
  • Trembling in the hands and throughout the body.
  • Dizziness, blurred consciousness, some disconnection from reality, weakness. All of these symptoms are caused by a decrease in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. It leaves the body faster due to rapid breathing.

The average duration of a crisis is half an hour. Sometimes it ends earlier. The end of the attack in children is most often excessive urination or vomiting. The patient feels tired, weak and depressed.

Sometimes similar symptoms occur with other diseases, such as stroke or bronchial asthma. However, there are still differences. The more severe the pathology, the worse the person feels.

Symptoms of an atypical panic attack

Symptoms of an atypical panic attack
Symptoms of an atypical panic attack

Sometimes the symptoms of a panic attack differ from the classic clinical picture. The person does not feel terrible fear. He is simply experiencing strong inner tension.

Physical manifestations may be absent altogether, or they will be weakly expressed (there is a temporary failure in the work of one organ):

  • Loss of voice.
  • Deterioration of vision.
  • Dumbness.
  • Unsteadiness of gait.
  • Feeling of stiffness in the hands.

Doctors call such panic attacks hysterical neurosis. Most often they occur in crowded places.

What can trigger an attack?

What can provoke an attack
What can provoke an attack

A panic attack can manifest itself in different ways.

There are 3 options for the development of events:

  • The person does not suffer from any disease. A panic attack occurs after a nervous or physical overstrain, or after recovering from a binge. Most often, people cannot find the objective cause of an attack, but they accurately indicate the time of its onset.
  • If a person suffers from prolonged depression or asthenic syndrome, then the attacks are most often manifested by physical symptoms. They do not carry a bright emotional coloring. A panic attack with a full range of symptoms develops after stress, surgery, or illness.
  • A person's anxiety can cause an attack to develop.

What can make an attack worse?

Some people suffer from panic attacks worse. As a rule, a similar situation is observed in fearful individuals with increased anxiety. Artistic and dramatic natures, as well as people with an unstable psyche, are prone to pronounced panic attacks.

Scientists have found that it matters how the person interpreted their first panic attack. If he perceived it as a heart attack, or for some kind of illness, then the attacks will be repeated often. They will become the basis for the emergence of obsessive fears.

The stronger the person's emotional excitement during a panic attack, the more he will be afraid of the next attack.

What can make an attack easier?

Panic attacks are more easily tolerated by a person if he has the following personal characteristics:

  • Independence.
  • Internal fullness.
  • Hard work.
  • Composure.
  • Having your own point of view.

Nightly Panic Attacks

Nightly Panic Attacks
Nightly Panic Attacks

Most often, panic attacks develop in people at night. Moreover, strong-willed and restrained people are subject to them. On the eve of an attack, a person cannot fall asleep for a long time; he lies in bed, overcome by various anxieties and thoughts. This becomes the trigger for the development of the attack. Sometimes a person wakes up in the middle of the night with a feeling of terrible fear. He tries to run away and hide, although he does not even understand in which direction to move and from what exactly to run.

The seizure debuts after 24:00. It can go on for a long time. After sunrise, the attack resolves on its own. Communication with another person brings relief. Sometimes the panic subsides after the lights are on.

The symptoms of attacks that occur at night are the same as those that occur during the day. Although sometimes they are more intense. Many people who experience nocturnal panic disorder do not see a doctor. They believe that the fear was caused by nightmares, not disease. This point of view is fundamentally wrong. You need to contact a specialist.

A person suffering from nocturnal panic attacks does not get enough sleep. The next day he will feel sleepy, tired and apathetic. This leads to a deterioration in performance and inattention. If professional activity is associated with the management of mechanisms, then there is a real threat to life.

The fear of another attack does not allow him to fall asleep normally, and during the day he suffers from drowsiness. Inadequate rest leads to exacerbation of chronic diseases. This contributes to the aggravation of mental disorders. In addition to panic attacks, the patient will begin to suffer from depression, neurosis, etc.

Panic attacks with menopause

Panic attacks with menopause
Panic attacks with menopause

In women over 45, symptoms appear that indicate the development of menopause.

They may resemble signs of a panic attack:

  • Hot flushes in the upper part of the body.
  • Hyperemia of the face, neck, chest.
  • Excessive sweating.
  • Headaches.
  • Increased heart rate.
  • Difficulty falling asleep.
  • Sleepiness during daytime.
  • Excessive irritability.

Menopause symptoms can be distinguished from panic attack symptoms by the following signs:

  • No panic fear
  • Lack of anxiety that prevents you from thinking about anything else.
  • Improving well-being while taking hormonal drugs. The gynecologist prescribes such medicines.

Panic attacks during menopause are not uncommon. They disturb every 6 women.

The risks of their occurrence increase in the presence of the following violations:

  • Migraine.
  • Diseases of the heart and blood vessels.
  • Emphysema.
  • Allergy.
  • Thyrotoxicosis.
  • Past panic attacks that preceded menopause.

Seizures can be triggered by factors such as:

  • Emotional shock.
  • Alcoholism.
  • Chronic fatigue.
  • Physical overload.

During menopause, the female body is especially vulnerable, so panic attacks can be triggered by even minor experiences.

Vegeto-vascular dystonia

Dystonia is characterized by an imbalance between sympathetic and parasympathetic NA. This failure can occur at any age. The starting factor is often stress, injuries, diseases, blood loss. Do not exclude a hereditary predisposition to VSD.

Vegeto-vascular dystonia always accompanies panic attacks. Therefore, the diagnosis in the patient's card may sound like "VSD with panic attacks."

The clinical picture of dystonia is diverse. The leading symptom is often chest pain, cardiac arrhythmias, hyperhidrosis, blood pressure surges, asthma attacks, irritability. Patients present these complaints to the doctor. However, during the examination, no pathologies on the part of the internal organs are detected.

Against the background of VSD, panic attacks often develop. Attacks are accompanied by tremors of the limbs, cold perspiration, hot flashes, numbness of the arms and legs. Man experiences an animal fear of death.

The diagnosis of "VSD with panic attacks" indicates that the internal organs of a person are healthy. Therapy should be aimed at combating the attacks themselves.

Symptoms that occur between attacks

Symptoms that arise
Symptoms that arise

In addition to the symptoms that occur during a panic attack, a person may be disturbed by the following well-being disorders:

  • An incessant feeling of anxiety.
  • Fear of being in the same situation as the first panic attack.
  • Formation of phobias.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome. A person will experience constant weakness, his cognitive functions decrease, and tearfulness increases. He's always in a bad mood.
  • Depression. The person will be focused on their inner experiences.
  • Hysterical seizures, which may be accompanied by loss of consciousness.
  • Fear of the future.
  • Having obsessions and thoughts.

In case of panic attacks provoked by VSD, symptoms such as:

  • Sensation of an acute lack of oxygen.
  • Chest pain.
  • Dry mouth.
  • Nausea, diarrhea, bloating.
  • An increase in body temperature to 37.5 ° C. Subfebrile condition is not characterized by any other signs of infection or a cold.
  • Chills.
  • Dizziness.
  • Excessive sweating.

How to deal with a panic attack?

How to proceed
How to proceed

With a developing attack of a panic attack, you need to adhere to the following recommendations:

  1. Measure body temperature, pressure, pulse, breathing rate. All indicators will be overstated. However, knowledge of these health parameters will make it possible to distinguish between a panic attack accompanied by a sympathoadrenal crisis (high blood pressure, rapid pulse) from a panic attack with a vagoinsular crisis (the main symptoms are caused by excessive activity of the parasympathetic nervous system). In the latter case, the pulse will be slowed down. The rules for assisting the patient will differ depending on the type of panic attack.
  2. Think about the drugs the person was taking. Agents for treating diseases of the cardiovascular and nervous system can provoke a panic attack. It is possible that further therapy should be abandoned. If a person is sure that the attack is due to drugs, then you can take Smecta, Activated charcoal or another similar drug. Be sure to read the instructions for use. It is possible that it contains very specific instructions.
  3. If your heart rate rises, you need to start coughing. This will bring it back to normal.
  4. If there is pain in the chest on the left side, you should not wait for the end of the attack. You need to take 1 Aspirin tablet and call the medical team.

    An ambulance call is required in the following cases:

    • The attack lasts more than half an hour.
    • Before the onset of the attack, hallucinations arose, there was a haze in front of my eyes, and the feeling of reality of what was happening disappeared. Thus, both migraine and temporal lobe encephalopathy requiring immediate therapy can manifest.
    • The face becomes asymmetrical, and the movements of the limbs become uncoordinated. Goosebumps run on the skin.
    • The body temperature rises, pains in the throat and muscles appear,
    • The patient was previously diagnosed with bronchial asthma. Before the arrival of the medical team, you need to take the drug, which he always used to stop seizures.
  5. With an increase in blood pressure and an increase in heart rate up to 65 beats per minute, you need to take Anaprilin. A 10 mg tablet is placed under the tongue. This will facilitate the work of the heart, the pressure will decrease, the pulse will return to normal. Under the influence of the drug, the body stabilizes the work of the sympathetic nervous system.
  6. If the panic attack was triggered by an attack of tachycardia, then you can use a simple technique. The thumb of the left hand should be raised up, and the rest of the fingers should be folded into a fist. At the base of the thumb, a fossa is formed, represented by three tendons. You need to place the middle finger of your right hand in it and feel the pulse. Having pressed this area, it is necessary to count up to 60. The counting rate should not exceed the speed of movement of the second hand. After such actions, the panic attack should end. If a person feels that his pulse is severely beaten, it is necessary to call a medical team. Before they arrive, you need to focus on depth and breathing rate.
  7. You need to inhale deeply, taking a breath every time. After 2 seconds, the air is exhaled. Gradually, the depth of inspiration is increased, bringing the count to four. You need to mentally imagine how the air fills the lungs. You need to breathe with your stomach.
  8. During a panic attack, you need to force yourself to smile. Let your mouth be stretched out into an unnatural smile. Facial expressions are firmly connected with the brain, so it will soon react to them with positive emotions.
  9. To distract yourself, you need to concentrate on an unusual activity. For example, you can start counting pigeons.
  10. The person must convince himself that the panic attack is not life threatening and will end soon.

Diagnosing panic attacks

Diagnosing panic attacks
Diagnosing panic attacks

When examining a patient with a panic attack, even a specialist may not always be able to immediately make the correct diagnosis. To clarify it, you will need to evaluate reflexes, examine the skin, perform an ECG, count the pulse and heart rate, measure the level of oxygen in the blood. Only after the results of the diagnosis are known, it is possible to determine the diagnosis.

When the attack is over, the patient is examined to identify pathologies such as:

  • Tachycardia and other serious heart rhythm disturbances. The patient is shown daily ECG monitoring.
  • Ischemia of the heart muscle. Perform an ECG at rest and during exercise, ultrasound of the heart.
  • Stroke and brain tumor. The patient is shown to undergo CT or MRI.
  • Bronchial asthma. Allergy and breath tests are performed.
  • Internal bleeding. An ultrasound of the internal organs is performed.
  • Diseases of the psyche. Consultation with a psychiatrist is required.

Panic attack is said in the following cases:

  1. Within 10 minutes, the attack is gaining maximum intensity.
  2. During an attack, a person experiences animal fear.

The patient has at least 4 of the following symptoms:

  • Lump in throat.
  • Heart palpitations.
  • Dry mouth.
  • Pain or discomfort in the abdomen.
  • Feeling of lack of air.
  • Fear of death.
  • Dizziness.
  • A condition close to fainting.
  • Feeling hot or cold.
  • Fear of going crazy.
  • Numbness of the body.
  • Chest pain.
  • Increased sweating.

To diagnose an atypical panic attack requires the fixation of symptoms such as: periodic hearing or vision impairment, seizures, gait disturbances. If the attack occurs once and never recurs again, then this cannot be regarded as panic disorder.

Panic attack treatment and prevention

Method of rendering assistance

When a person is alone

When Relatives Can Help

Emotional support

You need to convince yourself that the attack is not life-threatening. the body is simply exercising.

Relatives must reassure the person that the attack will not harm their health. You need to make it clear that you will be next to him and will come to the rescue at any time.

Breathing exercises

You need to focus on breathing, take deep breaths and long exhalations. You can breathe into a paper bag.

You need to breathe with the patient together, holding the breath while inhaling for 2, then 3 and 4 seconds.


You can take a contrast shower, massage your ears or fingertips. Rubbing lavender oil into your palms helps a lot.

Massage the back, neck, shoulders. Aromatic oils can be used. A person is offered tea with mint or lemon balm, linden or chamomile. Playing video games, watching a movie, reading a book, or coloring pictures can help you calm down.

Distracting techniques

You can start counting any objects or objects on the street. You can try to get angry at the attack and "argue" with him that you will defeat him.

Together, count the objects burning in the apartments, windows, cars, birds. You can pinch a person slightly. Joint singing of songs soothes well.

Herbal medicines

10 drops of the drug (optional) help to calm down:

  • Valerian tincture.
  • Peony tincture.
  • Motherwort tincture.
  • Valocordin.

The selected preparation is diluted in a glass of water.

Taking medications

Only a doctor can prescribe any medicine. Sometimes it is required to take tranquilizers (Phenazepam, Gidazepam, Sibazon), or antidepressants. It is strictly forbidden to increase the dose on your own. During antidepressant therapy, alcoholic beverages should not be consumed; cheese, smoked meats, sauerkraut, legumes, pickled and dried fish are removed from the menu. Alcoholic drinks are strictly prohibited.

After you manage to cope with the attack, you need to continue treatment at home.

You should not rely on medicines, you need to follow some of the recommendations of specialists:

  1. Relax with proper breathing technique. It is necessary to smoothly fill the lungs, mentally imagining how oxygen penetrates into every cell of the body. You can enhance the effect if you constantly say a given phrase, for example, "I am calm and relaxed." After relaxation, lightness should be felt in the head and body.

  2. Technique "tension - relaxation". It is necessary to take the most comfortable position, sitting on a chair. Clothing should not hinder movement. The toes are extended, straining the calves and feet, remain in this position for a few seconds, and then relax. After that, you need to rest your heels on the floor, raise your toes up, strain your calves and feet for 10 seconds, and then relax. Then the legs are lifted up, kept parallel to the floor for 10 seconds.

  3. Meditation. First you need to turn on pleasant music, sit with your back straight and close your eyes. It is best to meditate alone. Thoughts should be concentrated on breathing, thinking that panic attacks will no longer bother you. You should not expect that after one session of meditation recovery will come. The effect will be noticeable only when a person learns to receive a charge of vivacity and control his emotions. As a rule, it takes about six months to master this technique.

  4. Sports activities. Exercise promotes the release of endorphins into the bloodstream. Cycling and rollerblading are useful, you can go to the pool and dance. Sometimes even a regular morning run is the best cure for panic attacks.

  5. Regular muscle relaxation. All techniques are useful: self-hypnosis "tension - relaxation", yoga, meditation, visualization.

    The following recommendations help to increase the body's resistance to stress:

    • Raising self-esteem. There is no need to compare yourself with others and look for flaws in yourself. You should record all your achievements, put on bright clothes, learn to say "no".
    • It's easier to relate to your mistakes, not to dwell on them.
    • Watch programs that set you up for the positive.
    • Doing things that are fun.
    • Learn new things.
    • Drawing (art therapy).
  6. High quality and good rest. It is important to allow adequate sleep time.

  7. Keeping a personal diary. It should be noted when the attacks occurred and what preceded them. Situation analysis helps to better resist panic.

  8. Refuse or reduce the amount of alcohol, coffee, tea, nicotine consumed.

  9. Eat properly, in small portions and on a schedule.

  10. Take herbal decoctions and teas based on linden, mint, hop cones, motherwort, valerian, chamomile.

  11. Include products such as:

    • Rosehips, bell peppers, citrus fruits, apples and kiwi are all sources of ascorbic acid.
    • Avocados, brown rice, bananas, beans - they contain magnesium.
    • Turkey, beef, grain products - they contain a lot of zinc.
    • Cottage cheese, cheese, tofu, salmon - they are rich in calcium. However, these products are contraindicated in patients undergoing therapy with Aurorix or Pyrazidol.

If it is impossible to do without taking medications, then the patient can be prescribed drugs such as:

  • Tranquilizers: Signopam, Diazepam, Dormikum.

  • Tricyclic antidepressants: Desipramine, Anafranil, Melipramine.

  • Antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors: Pyrazidol, Auroriks.

  • Antidepressants-serotonin reuptake inhibitors: Paxil, Tsipramil, Zoloft, Fevarin, Prozac.

  • Nootropics: Lecithin, Glycine, Mexidol, Pyritinol.

All medications must be prescribed by a doctor. The specialist selects the dose and determines the duration of the therapy. It is necessary to strictly follow the instructions of the doctor. Abrupt withdrawal of drugs is dangerous.

The psychotherapist can prescribe such psychotherapeutic techniques as:

  • Psychoanalysis.
  • Gestalt therapy.
  • Body-oriented psychotherapy.
  • Systemic family psychotherapy.
  • NLP.
  • Hypnosis technique.
  • Desensitization and processing by eye movements.

Panic attacks in children

Panic attacks in children
Panic attacks in children

Panic attacks in children and adolescents do not occur often, but they cannot be ruled out. They develop in both girls and boys. Shy and responsible children with a high level of anxiety are prone to seizures.

Stress can provoke a panic attack: the death of close relatives, divorce of parents, difficulties in communicating with peers. Most often, adolescents aged 15-19 years, as well as boys and girls during puberty, suffer.

In preschoolers, panic attacks are manifested by respiratory arrest. Sometimes parents confuse them with respiratory diseases, but the body temperature does not rise.

In older children, heart failure and increased breathing are observed. They have increased blood pressure, increased sweating. They indicate abdominal pain, fear and anxiety. Vomiting and diarrhea are common during an attack. The attack ends with the discharge of a large amount of urine. In general, a crisis has the same clinical picture as in an adult.

To make a diagnosis, you need to contact a child psychiatrist. It is important to avoid visiting areas where the child has had a panic attack. Be sure to exclude meningitis, epilepsy, stroke, diseases of the cardiovascular system.

Treatment of panic attacks in children is carried out in the following areas:

  • Taking medicines. The most commonly prescribed antidepressants are serotonin reuptake inhibitors. As additional therapy, nootropics, B vitamins, diuretics, venotonics can be prescribed.

  • Psychotherapeutic assistance. Good results can be obtained with the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques.

  • Physiotherapy treatment: electrophoresis with magnesium sulfate, bromelectrosleep.

Parents should distract the child from his fears, teach him to relax, help him adapt in society and fight his phobias.


Article author: Mochalov Pavel Alexandrovich | d. m. n. therapist

Education: Moscow Medical Institute. IM Sechenov, specialty - "General Medicine" in 1991, in 1993 "Occupational Diseases", in 1996 "Therapy".

Popular by topic

Interesting Articles
How To Remove The Smell Of Garlic From The Mouth? The Most Effective Methods
Read More

How To Remove The Smell Of Garlic From The Mouth? The Most Effective Methods

How to remove the smell of garlic from the mouth?The smell of garlic from the mouth after its use is felt by others for up to 3-4 days. In order not to give up an exceptionally useful product, you need to know the tricks of how to get rid of the smell of garlic from the mouth

Choleretic Herbs For Gallstones And Bile Stasis
Read More

Choleretic Herbs For Gallstones And Bile Stasis

Choleretic herbs for gallstones and bile stasisContent:Calamus rootAnise fruitBlack elderberryHighlander serpentineDandelionMarshmallow rhizomeWormwoodPeppermintDill (seeds)ParsleyStrawberries (leaves)CelandineIf a person suffers from stagnation of bile, he is shown the use of herbs that eliminate this stagnation

Ginger - Beneficial Properties And Use Of Ginger Root, The Harm Of Ginger. Ginger Treatment, Ginger Tea For Children And For Weight Loss
Read More

Ginger - Beneficial Properties And Use Of Ginger Root, The Harm Of Ginger. Ginger Treatment, Ginger Tea For Children And For Weight Loss

The benefits and harms of ginger root, its use and treatment with ginger teaContent:Beneficial featuresGinger harmGinger rootGinger for coldsGinger for childrenGinger teaSlimming gingerGinger + honey + lemonGinger treatmentContraindicationsHealing gingerGinger, in addition to the well-known taste and its use as a seasoning, also has a healing effect