Changes in the parenchyma of the thyroid gland
The parenchyma of the thyroid gland is an epithelial functional tissue of an organ containing actively dividing cells. Consists of bubbles of different sizes called follicles, these are structural and functional units. The average size of each follicle is 40-50 microns, they are all braided by blood vessels and lymphatic capillaries. The follicle cells produce a hormone that is involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus metabolism.
The state of the cardiovascular system directly depends on the health of the thyroid gland. Dysfunction of this important organ, the phenomenon of stagnation and accumulation of colloid in its parenchyma leads to heart failure and atherosclerosis. The number of patients who have diffuse changes in the parenchyma of the thyroid gland has been growing recently, this is due to the peculiarities of nutrition, the ecological situation.
Modern equipment for ultrasound diagnostics makes it possible to make a correct diagnosis when scanning the anterior part of the neck (location of the thyroid gland) of patients. Changes in the parenchyma of the thyroid gland can be detected by palpation of the larynx region, often an increase in the volume of the organ can be noticed.
This pathology causes an increase or decrease in hormone levels, which can lead to problems in other organs and systems. Because it is precisely three hormones secreted by the gland into the blood that affect the supply of oxygen to tissues and are involved in the exchange of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. The growth and development of the organism depends on their activity. Diffuse focal changes in the thyroid gland can be a prerequisite for the formation of benign and malignant tumors.
If you feel unreasonable irritation, drowsiness, lethargy, weakness, you must immediately be examined by an endocrinologist. Potassium iodide or the use of iodized foods help with an increase in the size of the gland. Prevention of thyroid diseases is recommended to be carried out continuously, the course and dose of drugs will be prescribed by the attending physician.
Only the fine-mesh structure of the glandular tissue is considered normal or uniform, in which the punctate hypoechoic granularity does not exceed 1 mm in diameter. If imaging reveals the heterogeneous nature of the echographic structure and there are areas that differ in echogenicity corresponding to diffuse or focal thyroid pathology, then the doctor may prescribe subsequent more accurate studies.
Detection of nodules in the thyroid gland is a serious reason for a puncture biopsy, and the treatment, accordingly, will be completely different. If the nodes of the goiter quickly grow and become large, in order to avoid crushing other nearby organs, surgical intervention is necessary. After the operation, the use of thyroid hormones is prescribed. To prevent the recurrence of goiter.
In the case of diffuse changes in the parenchyma of the thyroid gland and the presence of a heterogeneous structure, signs of inflammatory processes can be suspected. Perchymal inflammation can be normal for people living in large cities where the environment is not always up to par. In addition, this change is often provoked by stress, viral infections, during which the immune system suffers. The norm for the volume of the thyroid gland in women should be 18 cm 3, in men up to 25 cm 3.
A very important period - bearing a child requires careful, constant monitoring by an endocrinologist. It is necessary to monitor the hormone-producing function of the thyroid gland, donate blood for TSH, T4 free and AT-TPO in order to know how the thyroid gland works and whether it has enough strength to provide the mother and child with hormones. Diffuse changes in the mother's thyroid parenchyma do not affect the fetus, the main thing is that its main function is not impaired. During pregnancy and lactation, it is mandatory to take potassium iodide preparations for prophylactic purposes, the amount and timing of admission should be indicated by the doctor under whose supervision the patient is.
Most diseases of the thyroid gland in children are associated with its enlargement, which is the result of various pathological processes occurring in the parenchyma of the organ. Hyperplasia or hypertrophy of thyrocytes, infiltration of gland tissue with lymphocytes, accumulation of cystic fluid and much more is caused by a lack of iodine in food, a defect in hormone genesis, genetic predisposition, radiation damage, viral and infectious diseases, nervous disorders, etc. Examination of children includes: taking anamnesis, hormonal, immunological and cytological research.
Article author: Mochalov Pavel Alexandrovich | d. m. n. therapist
Education: Moscow Medical Institute. IM Sechenov, specialty - "General Medicine" in 1991, in 1993 "Occupational Diseases", in 1996 "Therapy".