GGT In A Biochemical Blood Test - What Is It? And What Does It Mean If It Is Promoted?

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Video: GGT In A Biochemical Blood Test - What Is It? And What Does It Mean If It Is Promoted?

Video: GGT In A Biochemical Blood Test - What Is It? And What Does It Mean If It Is Promoted?
Video: ALT, AST, ALP & GGT (Liver Function Tests) - How to Interpret 2023, March
GGT In A Biochemical Blood Test - What Is It? And What Does It Mean If It Is Promoted?
GGT In A Biochemical Blood Test - What Is It? And What Does It Mean If It Is Promoted?

GGT in a biochemical blood test - what is it?

If the liver is abnormal, certain symptoms occur that indicate this or that pathology. To clarify the diagnosis, laboratory tests, which are often called "liver function tests", also carry out enzyme tests. An enzyme such as GGT (GGTP) is of great importance in terms of detecting one or another disorder in the liver. This abbreviation stands for gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase.


  • GGT value
  • How is the analysis carried out, indicators of the norm GGT
  • Increase and decrease of GGT
  • Outcome

GGT value

GGT value
GGT value

In the test forms performed, the enzyme gamma glutamyl transpeptidase is defined as GGT (y-glutamyl transferase) or GGTP (gamma glutamyl transpeptidase). This enzyme is involved in the exchange of amino acids in the body. It can be found in various organs, but most of all in the liver, kidneys, pancreas, biliary tract and spleen. It is located in the outer membranes of organs.

GGTP takes part in the process of building protein molecules, stimulates various biological reactions necessary for the implementation of the body's vital activity. Therefore, the GGT enzyme is determined during the performance of a biochemical blood test along with such indicators as bilirubin, ALT, AST, ALP.

Attention should be paid to the level of the GGT enzyme in the case when there are symptoms that indicate inflammatory processes in the liver, but they are not enough for an accurate diagnosis. For example, in the early stages of hepatitis. Also, GGT is of no small importance in terms of tracking the dynamics of the development of chronic diseases affecting the liver parenchyma.

How is the analysis carried out, indicators of the norm GGT

To determine the level of GGT in a person, you will need to take his blood. It is taken in the morning, when the subject has not yet taken food, since after it has entered the body, enzymes that can change the blood picture will be included in the work. At the same time, it is important to refrain not only from food, but also from water.

The purity of the experiment is influenced by the incubation temperature of the sample, so you can see the indication of the temperature in degrees Celsius on the form. This makes it possible to distinguish the indicators of the norm from the indicators of pathology obtained at different temperatures.

The values of the norm depend on the age of the person, on his gender. All of them are presented in the table.

A person's age and gender

Normal value at 37 ° C Celsius in U / I (U / L)

  • Young boys aged 12-17
  • Men over 17
  • Less than 45
  • Up to 49
  • Girls 12-17 years old
  • Girls and adult women over 17 years old
  • Up to 33
  • Up to 32

Newborns in the first 5 days of life

Up to 185


  • 5 days - 6 months
  • 6 months - 1 year
  • 1 year - 3 years
  • 3-6 years old
  • 6-12 years old
  • Up to 204
  • Up to 34
  • Before 18
  • Up to 23
  • Up to 17

It should be taken into account that under the conditions of one laboratory, some reference values can be taken as the norm indicators, and under the conditions of another laboratory, slightly different indicators. Therefore, the boundaries of the norm need to be clarified in each specific institution where the blood was taken. Although, as a rule, there is no significant discrepancy in these readings.

Increase and decrease of GGT

Increase and decrease of GGT
Increase and decrease of GGT

If a person has a decrease in the enzyme under study, then this can indicate only one single condition - decompensated cirrhosis of the liver.

An increase in GGT, on the contrary, is noted against the background of various pathological conditions, including:

  • Obstructive jaundice against the background of blockage of the bile ducts. Also, the patient will have increased alkaline phosphatase and 5-nucleotidase.
  • Cholecystitis.
  • Cholelithiasis.
  • Viral hepatitis in a herd of exacerbation. At the same time, the ALT and AST indicators will decrease.
  • Compensated liver cirrhosis.
  • Chronic hepatitis.
  • Damage to the liver against the background of intoxication of the body, or with its radiation.
  • Liver cirrhosis caused by alcoholism.
  • Fatty liver hepatosis.

  • Cancer lesions of the liver, or the penetration of metastases into the organ from a tumor of another localization.
  • Chronic amyloidosis and glomerulonephritis.
  • Myocardial infarction, starting from day 4 of the disease. The enzyme will reach its maximum values 2-3 weeks after a heart attack. The content of the enzyme in the blood rises due to the fact that the body triggers mechanisms aimed at its own recovery.
  • Alcohol abuse. After a complete rejection of alcohol, the indicators will return to normal, but this will happen no earlier than after 14-21 days.
  • Taking Phenobarbital or Phenytoin to treat epilepsy.
  • Taking Rafampicin for the treatment of tuberculosis.
  • Taking hormonal contraceptives.
  • Taking drugs that can have a damaging effect on the liver parenchyma: steroids, thiazide diuretics, antidepressants, cytostatics, anti-tuberculosis drugs, anticonvulsants, anabolics, thyreostatic drugs.

GGT increases due to damage to the liver parenchyma and bile ducts. A wide variety of factors can lead to a jump in the enzyme, which negatively affect the health of the organ. Also, the level of GGT indicates the degree of alcoholic liver damage, as well as the course of chronic liver diseases.


The liver is an intermediary between the gastrointestinal tract, which receives various substances, and the human body as a whole. The liver is the organ that is directly involved in the metabolism.

Liver enzymes ALT, GGT, AST help it cope with various harmful substances, neutralizing them. As long as the liver is healthy, people are not eager to help it maintain its normal state. They begin to pay attention to the organ only after it is affected to one degree or another. Until that point in time, a person has been poisoning his liver for many years.

With an increase in liver function tests and enzymes, you should think about your state of health and continue the examination in order to try to eliminate the pathology in time.


The author of the article: Shutov Maxim Evgenievich | Hematologist

Education: In 2013 he graduated from the Kursk State Medical University and received a diploma "General Medicine". After 2 years, completed residency in the specialty "Oncology". In 2016 completed postgraduate studies at the National Medical and Surgical Center named after N. I. Pirogov.

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