2023 Author: Josephine Shorter | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 04:34
12 weeks pregnant
At this time, the first trimester of the obstetric period ends, the period of formation of the fetal organs is coming to an end. Now nature will be busy improving its work. Early toxicosis stops in most expectant mothers, with the exception of those who undergo multiple pregnancies. For them, the unpleasant sensations of toxicosis, if any, will end after a few weeks.
- What happens to your baby at 12 weeks old?
- Uterus and abdomen
- Weight of a pregnant woman at 12 weeks
- Fetal ultrasound
- What determines screening at 12 weeks gestation?
- What tests need to be done at 12 weeks?
- Painful sensations
- Bleeding and its causes
- Vaginal discharge
- Viral respiratory diseases
- Temperature increase
- attitude to alcohol
- Sex and pregnancy
- Diet at 12 weeks
- Special problems
What happens to your baby at 12 weeks old?
Although the organs and systems of vital activity of the unborn child are fully formed and are already functioning, they continue to improve. The intestines have already settled in the abdominal cavity and are gradually beginning to contract. The liver produces bile, the kidneys excrete urine, the nervous system coordinates the work of a small organism.
Fetal parameters at 12 weeks:
- Weight - 14 g;
- CTE - from 6 to 9 cm;
- The volume of amniotic fluid is 50 ml.
At 12 weeks, the cerebral cortex is formed, at this stage its projection is similar to the silhouette of a butterfly. New opportunities allow the baby to move freely, moving in the uterine cavity, wiggle arms and legs, touch his face with his fingers, place them in an open mouth, and grimace. The development of skin receptors increases the sensitivity of the fetus, he senses the mother's movements, her cough, sneezing through the amniotic fluid.
Marigolds have already begun to form on the fingers and a unique skin pattern on the pads has begun to form. The top layer of the skin (epidermis) has begun its first renewal, exfoliating all over the body. On the face, in the place where the eyebrows and eyelashes will be, as well as on the chin and on the upper lip, the rudiments of vellus hair appear.
Changes also appeared in the circulatory system - the bone marrow began to produce leukocytes, now, together with red blood cells, they create the immune system.
Fetal heartbeats are clearly audible during ultrasound with a Doppler. The thyroid gland and pituitary gland begin to produce their own hormones. Small joints are formed, bone tissue matures.
Uterus and abdomen
At this stage of pregnancy, the uterus begins to rise above the level of the bosom, since it no longer fits in the small pelvis. A pregnant woman will immediately feel these changes, since the uterus is no longer pressing so hard on the bladder, and the urge to urinate stops. Now a new problem may appear - due to the growing uterus, intestinal peristalsis is disturbed, constipation appears.
The width of the uterus at 12 weeks is approximately 10 cm. The hormonal background of pregnancy is fully supported by the placenta. The hormone estradiol is produced in a volume 5-6 times higher than the same indicators before pregnancy. Estradiol and progesterone promote the growth of the uterus and reduce its contractility.
The belly of a pregnant woman is not yet visible, although in thin women who are carrying a child for the first time, roundness is already noticeable below the waist. During the second and subsequent pregnancies, as well as in the case of twins, an increase in the abdomen can be noticeable in clothes that have suddenly become tight.
Weight of a pregnant woman at 12 weeks
From this stage of pregnancy, a stable weight gain begins. Every week, body weight will increase by 0.5 kg. If there was no early toxicosis, when a woman loses some weight due to poor appetite, then before this period there has already been a weight gain of 1.5-3.5 kg. Too high a rate of weight gain is undesirable, as it is an additional burden for the body, which already has to work "for two".
The body weight of a pregnant woman increases due to an increase in the weight of the fetus, amniotic fluid, uterus and placenta, breast tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue. To control the figure, you will have to limit frequent "snacks", change your sedentary lifestyle to a feasible physical education, walks in the fresh air.
Symptoms of toxicosis are a thing of the past, and along with them emotional instability, mood swings go away. Due to the growth of the uterus and impaired blood flow in the vessels of the small pelvis, a predisposition to varicose veins may arise. To prevent this condition, you should wear compression tights, stockings, and bandage your legs with an elastic bandage. Such measures will help to avoid excessive blood filling in the veins of the lower extremities. Increased blood flow can also trigger dizziness and headaches.
Fluid retention in the body can cause swelling of the face, hands and feet. To prevent this condition, you should reduce the salt content in your food, and normalize your drinking regime.
The hormone prolactin contributes to the enlargement of the mammary glands, their preparation for breastfeeding. At this stage of pregnancy, the first stretch marks may appear on the skin of the chest and abdomen - striae. Their occurrence can be partially prevented by rubbing a moisturizer, olive oil into the skin.
Due to the action of progesterone, which has a relaxing effect on the tissues of the body of a pregnant woman, the septum between the esophagus and the stomach loses its tone. A small amount of stomach acid is thrown into the esophagus, and the pregnant woman experiences heartburn.
Possible preventive measures:
- Drink clean cool water;
- Drink 1 / 2-1 glass of milk;
- Eat often, in small portions.
Feelings in the abdomen, what is happening, ultrasound, symptoms, screening, doctor's advice:
12 weeks is the best time for the first ultrasound examination of the fetus, if it has not been done before.
- Condition of the uterus and placenta, uterine tone;
- The exact date of pregnancy, the possible date of delivery;
- Fruit size, number of fruits;
- The presence or absence of deviations in the development of the child.
If the ultrasound scan presumably identified fetal malformations, found signs of genetically determined pathologies, the woman is sent for an in-depth examination, for a consultation with a geneticist. Complex pathologies may require termination of pregnancy.
Is it harmful to do an ultrasound at 12 weeks of gestation:
What determines screening at 12 weeks gestation?
A comprehensive study on the pathology of fetal development is carried out in each trimester, and the first of them is at 11-13 weeks of pregnancy. In addition to ultrasound, screening includes a double test - a biochemical blood test:
- Determination of the concentration of free chorionic gonadotropin;
- Determination of the concentration of PAPP-A (plasma protein A).
During an ultrasound scan, the parameters of the collar zone of the fetus are examined - the area of fluid accumulation between the skin tissues. This inconsistent indicator only gives informative results from 11 to 13 weeks. The size of the collar zone is different in the norm and in the presence of chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome or Edwards syndrome.
Determination of an increased amount of hCG in the blood of a pregnant woman will help to detect the risk of trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome) in a child in time, a reduced amount - the risk of trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome). The results obtained are not a verdict, they require confirmation by more accurate analyzes, for example, an extremely informative study of the fetal chorionic villi. A woman with a suspicion of fetal chromosomal abnormalities or genetic pathologies must consult a geneticist.
What tests need to be done at 12 weeks?
In addition to screening studies, a woman who has not previously been registered for pregnancy takes the following tests:
- On blood biochemistry;
- General blood analysis;
- Blood per group and Rh factor;
- Blood sugar;
- General urine analysis;
- Smear for urogenital infections;
- Pap smear;
- Blood for AIDS, hepatitis, syphilis.
If the pregnant woman has already visited the antenatal clinic in the early stages, and feels satisfactory, the tests are limited to the delivery of a general analysis of blood and urine.
Normally, at this stage of pregnancy, a woman may feel slight pulling pains on the right, left and lower abdomen. They are explained by the stretching of the ligaments that support the growing uterus, as well as the shift in the center of gravity and the reaction of the vertebral discs to this.
Another cause of pain in the lower abdomen is cystitis, or inflammation of the bladder, which is often found for various reasons during pregnancy. The focus of infection in the urinary tract should be immediately eliminated by contacting a urologist. The doctor must be sure to tell about his pregnancy so that he selects safe drugs. Strict adherence to the recommendations will help to avoid the transition of acute cystitis into a chronic form.
It is dangerous if the pain in the lower abdomen is accompanied by bloody discharge from the vagina. Their spasmodic nature, duration of at least 2-3 hours should alert a woman. These are symptoms of an incipient miscarriage, which should be eliminated in a hospital setting. Timely treatment will help avoid placental abruption and keep the pregnancy without consequences for the fetus.
Bleeding and its causes
If the vaginal discharge has a red or brown color of coagulated blood, accompanied by pain in the lower back and lower abdomen, you urgently need to get qualified medical care. It is possible that this is the beginning of the termination of pregnancy, which poses a threat to the child's life. If bleeding is caused by intercourse or manipulation by a gynecologist, it is most likely a symptom of cervical erosion. Such a diagnosis must be confirmed and a course of treatment carried out after childbirth.
The appearance of the discharge at this stage of pregnancy is due to the action of hormones - progesterone and estrogen. The discharge has a small volume, they are transparent or milky white, homogeneous, practically odorless. Deviations from the norm, the appearance of pus, mucus in the discharge, the addition of an unpleasant odor, a change in structure is a sign of infection of the vagina, a symptom of an STD or candidiasis. All pathologies must be treated as soon as possible, since the waste products of pathogenic bacteria can penetrate the placental barrier.
Viral respiratory diseases
Colds accompanied by high fever can affect a pregnant woman due to a temporary weakening of the immune system. Complications of acute respiratory infections and acute respiratory viral infections can adversely affect the health of the fetus, cause hypoxia, and spontaneous abortion. You cannot self-medicate colds, since some of the drugs are contraindicated during pregnancy.
Possible therapeutic measures:
- Bed rest, ensuring rest;
- Abundant drink - tea, lingonberry and cranberry fruit drinks, currant infusion;
- Treatment of cough with warm milk with honey or with Borjomi mineral water;
- Rinse the nose and rinse the mouth with saline.
Complications of a cold in the form of a severe cough, high fever, the appearance of headaches are treated in a hospital setting.
Progesterone still affects a woman's health and raises her body temperature to + 37 + 37.5 ° C. If a general blood test, which a woman takes regularly when visiting a gynecologist, shows an increased level of leukocytes and a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, then the temperature is due to a hidden infectious process or exacerbation of somatic diseases.
Hyperthermia can jeopardize pregnancy, cause miscarriage, so this condition cannot be ignored. The temperature is reduced by wiping with a damp cloth, taking the minimum dose of paracetamol.
Video about the causes of miscarriage, fetal condition at 12 weeks:
attitude to alcohol
Ethyl alcohol toxins can penetrate the fetus, cause intellectual disruption, malformations, and even alcohol dependence. If a child is born outwardly healthy, then he may still have minimal damage to the structures of the brain, leading in the future to persistent failure in school, to antisocial behavior. To do this, it is enough to take the minimum dose of alcohol during the formation of the central nervous system of the fetus.
Sex and pregnancy
There are no contraindications for intimate relationships at 12 weeks, except for the threat of miscarriage and multiple pregnancy. With a low location of the placenta, it is desirable to limit sexual intercourse. If a woman does not feel negative changes in well-being, sex will not bring complications to pregnancy.
Diet at 12 weeks
Adequate fiber in the diet, most of which is consumed raw, in vegetable and fruit salads, can help prevent constipation. The main meals of a pregnant woman's diet are dairy and lactic acid products, low-fat baked fish or meat. It is advisable to postpone the main meal in the first half of the day, leaving a light dinner for the evening, a fruit snack and a glass of milk, fermented baked milk or kefir for the night. You should not try to eat "for two" - excess weight will become a burden for the body, create an unwanted load on the cardiovascular system.
At 12 weeks, a woman may develop vascular "stars" on the skin of the thighs, arms, face. This is a temporary phenomenon, as is the pigmentation on the face and neck caused by metabolic changes. After giving birth, everything should return to normal. The same problem includes a dark streak on the skin of the abdomen, which appeared under the influence of melanin.
From this period of pregnancy, weight will begin to grow rapidly, so it is better to get comfortable clothes in advance that do not hinder movement and breathing. It is better if it is made of natural fabrics that allow the skin to "breathe".
It is better to postpone the resolution of conflicts at home and at work until later, but for now receive only positive emotions from communication with nature, art, and benevolent interlocutors. In the culture of different nations, there is a tradition that forbids a pregnant woman to look at unpleasant things and events. It is important to remember that the child feels the emotional state of the mother, so you need to protect his peace.
The author of the article: Lapikova Valentina Vladimirovna | Gynecologist, reproductologist
Education: Diploma in Obstetrics and Gynecology received at the Russian State Medical University of the Federal Agency for Healthcare and Social Development (2010). In 2013 completed postgraduate studies at N. N. N. I. Pirogova.
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