2023 Author: Josephine Shorter | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 04:34
28 week of pregnancy
The 28th week of pregnancy is the seventh obstetric month and the very beginning of the third trimester, that is, most of the gestation period has been left behind. The belly continues to grow, although by this time it has already reached an impressive size. The expectant mother has very little time to prepare for the meeting with the baby.
- Fetal development at 28 weeks gestation
- How does a woman feel at 28 weeks?
- What happens to the stomach?
- Can labor start at 28 weeks gestation?
- What tests need to be done at 28 weeks?
- Ultrasound at 28 weeks of gestation
- Woman weight
- What can be the discharge?
- Intimate life
- What dangers can lie in wait at the 28th week of pregnancy?
- Answers to popular questions
Fetal development at 28 weeks gestation
Not a single day goes by for the fetus at this time without some "improvement". The baby continues to actively prepare for the upcoming birth. At this time, his body weight is about 1.5 kg or more. Moreover, weight is gained due to the formation of subcutaneous fat as well. Growth reaches 38.5 cm.
- The fetal skeletal system becomes stronger.
- Alveoli form in the lungs, which allow the baby to breathe on its own.
- The baby's brain is developing intensively, new grooves and convolutions are formed in it.
- The skin of the baby begins to smooth out gradually.
- At this time, the child opens his eyes for the first time. They will be blue in color, but over time, the shade may change. The baby's eyes are already bordered with eyelashes, which, like the hair on the head, continue to grow rapidly.
- The child already hears very well. He can distinguish between familiar voices and sounds, give a reaction to them. For example, with loud music, the baby begins to move more actively, and, hearing the calm voice of the mother, he calms down.
Although the child at this time in the uterus becomes a little cramped, its activity does not decrease. It makes itself felt not only during the day, but also at night.
How does a woman feel at 28 weeks?
During this period, a woman must definitely feel the movements of the child. They are quite active and regular. It is important not only to enjoy every movement of the crumbs, but also to track them. This is especially true for the morning and evening time.
Most often, the most active fetal movement is observed in the evening. During the day, the baby is usually rocked by the measured movements of the mother. However, as soon as she lies down, the baby begins to take action.
The child's activity may increase after the woman has eaten. It is a natural reaction of the fetus to the mother's blood glucose level. In a similar way, the baby reacts to the adrenaline rush, which always occurs against the background of emotional overexcitement or stress.
If we take the average statistics, then the fetus at the 28th week of pregnancy makes about 10 movements in 10 minutes. However, some children are more active and some less. Therefore, the norm is considered to be 10 or more movements per hour. If there are fewer of them, then you should consult a doctor about this. When there are no movements at all throughout the day, an urgent need to consult a doctor.
What happens to the stomach?
The woman continues to "round", her belly already looks big enough. At this time, the skin on it is strongly stretched, which can provoke an itching sensation. If the abdomen rapidly increases in size, then crimson stripes may appear on it - these are striae (stretch marks). It will be very problematic to get rid of them in the future, so it is easier to prevent their occurrence. For this purpose, you can use special creams, lotions and gels. Oils and their mixtures also work well against stretch marks. You can use coconut, olive, and almond oil in various combinations.
The uterus continues to grow and may begin to contract slightly. This is expressed in the appearance of a feeling of slight tension in the lower abdomen, which is sometimes accompanied by mild pain. You should not worry too much about this, in this way the body trains and prepares for the upcoming birth. However, if the pain becomes more intense, bloody discharge appears, the duration of the contractions increases, then it is necessary to call an ambulance.
Now the uterus is normally 8 cm above the navel and 28 cm above the pubic joint. This is not the limit, as the child grows, it will rise even higher.
A woman at 28 weeks pregnant may experience various pains. First of all, discomfort occurs in the lumbar region and in the back. Such pains are caused by increased load on the spinal column, as well as softening of the joints and ligaments before the upcoming birth.
Sometimes the pain starts in the back, extends to the thigh and reaches the knee. This is due to the fact that the enlarged uterus compresses the sciatic nerve. In this case, the pain occurs periodically and is not too intense.
An immediate call for an ambulance requires the appearance of sharp and intense pain in the lumbar region, which proceeds as contractions. Such sensations may indicate a premature onset of labor.
Periodically, a woman may experience pain in the abdomen. They need to be treated carefully.
Depending on the nature and location of pain, they may be due to the following reasons:
- Sharp, but instantly passing pain in the right hypochondrium is due to the active movements of the child.
Dull pain in the right side, which appears several hours after eating, may indicate gallstone disease or cholecystitis. Especially in the case when symptoms such as belching, nausea, a pulling feeling in the lower abdomen occur in parallel.
- Leg pain caused by muscle spasm may indicate a lack of calcium in the body. In this case, you need to see a doctor who can prescribe special medications. Massage the legs and calf muscles allows you to relieve the condition.
Special attention should be paid to edema. Mild swelling can be a concern for almost every pregnant woman. Concern should be exercised when the swelling becomes severe. This may be the first sign of dropsy of pregnancy, which in the future can develop into gestosis. Therefore, you need to carefully monitor your diet, regularly monitor body weight gain. You may need to reduce your fluid intake.
If you have a tendency to edema, you need to drink about 1.5 liters of water per day. In order not to feel thirsty, you should give up products that can provoke it. This applies to all salty, spicy and fried foods. Salt intake should also be limited. It is equally important to monitor the volume of urine excreted. Normally, more than the volume of fluid that came from the outside should be released per day.
Can labor start at 28 weeks gestation?
It sometimes happens that at 28 weeks the baby decides to leave the mother's belly. In this case, labor is considered premature, although the fetus is already viable. Moreover, the probability of the child's survival is very high, but at the same time the woman in labor and the baby will need qualified medical care and connection to special equipment.
Often, childbirth at such a time is of a rapid nature, which is not very good for the woman herself. Among the possible complications: weak labor, early discharge of amniotic fluid, bleeding during and after childbirth, trauma to the birth canal and cervix.
If a woman's contractions suddenly begin to intensify, one should not hesitate to see a doctor. The fact is that at the initial stages they can be stopped, which will allow the pregnancy to be carried before the due date.
What tests need to be done at 28 weeks?
At this time, the woman should visit the gynecologist's office, who will refer her to the following tests:
- General urine analysis;
- Clinical blood test;
- Blood sugar test;
- A blood test for antibodies (subject to a negative Rh factor in a woman).
The latter analysis is necessary to identify the Rh-conflict, if any. Its timely diagnosis will avoid many complications of pregnancy. According to the testimony of a woman, the drug can be administered. Its action will be aimed at suppressing the production of specific antibodies that the mother's body can produce against the fetus.
The beginning of the third trimester must necessarily start with a visit to the gynecologist. Now doctor visits are increasing up to 2 times every 30 days. During each appointment, the woman receives a referral for urine tests (blood is taken for research as needed). Also, the doctor will definitely measure blood sugar and monitor blood pressure. In this way, it will be possible to prevent the development of diabetes in the early stages.
Ultrasound at 28 weeks of gestation
If the pregnancy is normal, then no ultrasound is performed at 28 weeks. According to the plan, three ultrasound examinations are recommended: the second has already passed, and the time for the third has not yet come. Of course, in the presence of indications, an ultrasound scan can be performed, but the doctor must decide whether it is necessary.
Every day, starting from the first week of the third trimester, a woman will gain 50 g per day. Thanks to simple calculations, you can find out that the weekly weight gain is about 350 g. This is the average figure, which is in the normal range between 300-500 g. The total weight gain since the beginning of pregnancy will be equal to 8-10 kg. At the same time, you need to carefully monitor your weight and track it daily. It is best to get on the scale every morning.
The way a woman eats and what is included in her menu affects the health of the child as a whole. Therefore, it is very important that the nutrients enter the crumbs in the proper amount. A properly structured diet will not only allow you to better endure pregnancy, but also make it possible to facilitate the process of delivery.
It is necessary to take food in small portions, but often (up to 6 times a day). A woman should receive about 3000 kcal per day with the use of the most high-calorie food in the morning. The last meal should take place 2-3 hours before bedtime. Of course, if hunger is pursued, then you can muffle it with an apple, kefir, cottage cheese, milk, vegetable salad or other light foods.
We should also pay attention to the amount of salt consumed. It must be limited in order to prevent the appearance of edema.
Avoiding the addition of extra pounds will allow the refusal to use sweets (chocolate, candy), baked goods based on white refined flour.
The more easily digestible carbohydrates a woman has, the higher her risk of developing diabetes during pregnancy. Therefore, you need to try to include foods that contain complex carbohydrates in your menu. They allow you to prevent a sharp jump in blood sugar and do not put stress on the pancreas. Among such products, almost all cereals, whole grains, bread based on coarse flour. It is imperative that the body receives a sufficient amount of fiber, which is abundant in vegetables and fruits. Thanks to this, it is possible to regulate the work of the digestive tract and normalize the digestive processes.
What can be the discharge?
A woman has very few options as to which discharge at 28 weeks of gestation can be considered normal. They should be light or milky, free of impurities, with a slight sour smell.
It is imperative to consult a doctor if the discharge becomes cheesy, acquires a green, yellow or brown tint, blood or mucus appears in them. Infection may additionally be indicated by an itching and burning sensation in the intimate area.
Discharge with blood does not tolerate delay, the ambulance team must be called immediately. It does not matter if the woman has heavy bleeding or weak. Bloody discharge may indicate placental abruption or the onset of premature labor. All these conditions threaten the life of the child and the mother. It is necessary to contact the ambulance dispatching service even if the woman does not experience pain against the background of bleeding.
Watery discharge is also not normal and often indicates amniotic fluid leakage. They can be released in small portions or poured out in large quantities. This happens due to a violation of the integrity of the fetal bladder, which requires medical attention.
If the pregnancy is going well, then it is allowed to have sex during this period. Intimacy can bring joy to a woman, improve her mood, and bring pleasure. Damaging the fetus is now impossible, provided both partners are careful. It is important to choose a position that does not allow pressure on the abdomen.
In the case when a doctor says that it is best to abstain from an intimate life, he has good reasons for this. It is imperative to follow the doctor's recommendations.
What dangers can lie in wait at the 28th week of pregnancy?
- A woman becomes clumsy not only because of a growing belly, but also because of a significant increase in weight. Therefore, it is so important to be very careful to avoid injury.
- During this time, many women begin to experience symptoms of anemia, as the volume of circulating blood increases significantly and the level of hemoglobin decreases.
- Perhaps a woman will be worried about increased swelling in her arms and legs.
- It is important to keep track of the number of movements of the child per hour. The norm is at least 10 jerks in 60 minutes.
- Signs of increasing anemia are weakness, dizziness and pallor of the skin. If they occur, you must consult a doctor and donate blood to determine the level of hemoglobin.
- It is good if there is an opportunity to attend courses for pregnant women.
- The menu must necessarily include products such as honey, cranberries, prunes, nuts. This will saturate the body with iron.
- All dishes that are included in a woman's diet must be freshly prepared.
- According to some experts, a woman's emotional state directly affects digestion. The better the mood, the more active the intestinal villi are, which means that the child receives more nutrients.
Answers to popular questions
- Is lower abdominal pain that occurs at 28 weeks gestation normal? Mild pains that do not cause discomfort to a woman can be considered normal. Their cause lies in the stretching of the ligaments of the uterus. Training contractions during this period can also be palpable, but not painful. Therefore, if severe pain occurs, you should immediately consult a doctor.
- What indicates water leakage at 28 weeks gestation? As a rule, it is impossible not to notice the leakage of water, even if it is not too intense. In any case, only a doctor can determine what kind of discharge a woman has. Therefore, if you suspect water leakage, you must consult a doctor.
- I have a very small belly for 28 weeks of pregnancy, while the baby is of normal size. Is it possible? The size of the abdomen is a purely individual indicator. In this case, the height of the bottom of the uterus matters - if this indicator is normal, then you should not worry.
- I am 28 weeks pregnant and my uterine tone is increased. This is very bad? Is it okay to have sex? With an increased tone of the uterus, intimate life is prohibited. Moreover, a woman may even be hospitalized. Therefore, it is important to consult a gynecologist on this topic.
- The child is in breech presentation. Can it change at 28 weeks gestation? There is still enough room in the uterus for the baby to change its position. Sometimes doctors recommend doing special exercises that will allow the fetus to roll over.
The author of the article: Lapikova Valentina Vladimirovna | Gynecologist, reproductologist
Education: Diploma in Obstetrics and Gynecology received at the Russian State Medical University of the Federal Agency for Healthcare and Social Development (2010). In 2013 completed postgraduate studies at N. N. N. I. Pirogova.
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