Seborrheic dermatitis in adults and children
Description of the disease
- Description of the disease
- Symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis
- Causes of seborrheic dermatitis
- Seborrheic dermatitis on the face
- Dermatitis of the scalp
- Seborrheic dermatitis in children
- How to cure seborrheic dermatitis?
- Diet for seborrheic dermatitis
Seborrheic dermatitis is a type of skin inflammation. There is another name for this disease - seborrheic eczema. In this state, according to statistics, most often young people find themselves. The peak age is 40 years. But there are patients who are 1 and 25 years old. Men are more often at risk. There are cases when the occurrence of seborrheic dermatitis was justified by pronounced geographical features, and researchers are trying to tie it to climatic and racial conditions.
Seborrheic dermatitis affects the scalp and facial epidermis. The reason for the appearance is excessive colonization in the cells of the fungus malassezia furfur. The places of localization of the sebaceous glands are suitable for them. They usually form in certain areas:
- on the sternum,
- interscapular zone.
It is believed that the sebaceous glands are the focus of the development of seborrheic dermatitis. The term "seborrhea" itself is translated as saline treatment. The secretion of the sebaceous glands is mainly represented by fatty acids, cholesterol, carbohydrate compounds, high molecular weight alcohols. A small percentage of the composition is represented by vitamins, salts, hormones, bactericidal substances. When sebum is excreted from the body, at the same time stocks of toxins, antibiotics, compounds of iodine, bromine, salicylic acid and a number of other drugs are removed.
It takes only a week for up to 4-5 g of normal sebum to be released on the surface of human skin. Together with sweat, it creates a thin water-fat layer. It serves to protect the skin and hair from drying out, their elasticity increases, antibacterial properties are activated. 5-7 days is enough for the antibacterial properties to cease to work, fats on the surface begin to decompose, and due to the appearance of their decay products, itching appears, the skin begins to suffer from a sensation of irritation.
The sebum also contains free and bound types of fatty acids, proteins, nucleotides. This is the best environment for the emergence of microbes, which also carry on vital activity and leave decay products. The result is a certain amount of free fatty acids that are irritating and comedogenic. Comedones appear due to excess sebum. It cannot be removed from the skin surface in a timely manner, and the pores become clogged.
Organ hormone is responsible for the control of the sebaceous glands:
- pituitary gland,
- adrenal glands,
- endocrine and nervous systems.
There are two types of seborrhea - oily and dry. Oily often occurs when puberty comes. Undoubtedly, the epidermis is badly affected by electromagnetic radiation and stress. Due to such effects, changes occur in the chemical composition, consistency and secretion of lipids, i.e. elimination of sebum from the pores of hormone-dependent glands.
Staphylococci, streptococci and other bacteria that live in the excretory ducts of the glands take part in the development of seborrhea. Complicates symptoms for some types of diseases:
- Gastrointestinal tract,
- chronic infections
Acne is a pronounced manifestation of the disease. It is easy to determine the type of disease by the condition of the hair. Hair appears to be stuck together if the patient is suffering from oily seborrhea. A greasy shine is visible, regardless of the amount of washing, sticky strands are formed, fall out strongly. A common result of this disease is baldness. Liquid seborrhea usually has no adverse symptoms. When you reach the age of 25, the secretion of the sebaceous glands begins to return to normal.
Dry (thick) seborrhea is pronounced in such a manifestation as a decline in sebum secretion. The release of fat to the surface is noticeably difficult. Complications begin to develop. These include education:
There is a mixed form of seborrhea. Then the signs of a dry and oily variety of the disease mix, appear simultaneously.
Symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis
The symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis are not difficult to recognize. Dandruff has many negative effects. In particular, it often signals seborrheic dermatitis. Sometimes it is its initial stage. But so far, a 100% relationship has not been established. There are other symptoms manifested:
- skin irritation
- redness of the face
- scales of white or yellow color,
- acne rash,
- soreness, increased sensitivity of the skin.
The combination of noticeable, greasy, dirty yellow scales with the formation of exudate creates crusts, and under them you can find red, weeping skin. Often in the affected area are eyebrows, folds near the nose, lips. The more the state of perifollicular erythema worsens, the more “islets” with desquamation are. They form foci with noticeable and clear boundaries, they are painted dull red, on top there are greasy scales. Several similar areas can be found, and a diffuse lesion covering the scalp is also found, when a dermatitis infection spreads under the frontal hairline, a "seborrheic crown" can be identified.
When scratching with a secondary infection, severe eczema may develop. In this case, significant exudation is accompanied by the formation of crusts. Due to repeated infection, inflammatory changes spread, the development of pustules.
Signs of blepharitis often appear - this is a concomitant disease of seborrheic dermatitis. At the same time, small crusts are created along the edges of the eyelids. When they are detached, they leave behind scars. It is accompanied by the destruction of individual eyelashes.
Simultaneously with seborrheic dermatitis, the skin behind the ear is severely affected when the scalp develops. crusts form on the fold behind the ear, with them peeling of a matte red color spreads along the scalp, the back surface of the auricle. The same spreads capture the auricle, the area of the external auditory canal.
Simultaneously with the fashion for beards, epidemics of the corresponding dermatitis arose in different countries. Erythema with oily scaling is especially pronounced on the cheeks. A chin with shaved skin is often covered with superficial folliculitis (a “hair salon” type of rash). There are cases when infection of the follicles becomes a favorable factor for exacerbating sycosis, which also leaves scars.
Causes of seborrheic dermatitis
The causes of seborrheic dermatitis have not yet been identified. Much attention is paid to the genetic factor, which is often combined with the symptoms of the disease. In medicine, different symptoms are distinguished, which also proceed in different ways. The manifestations of the disease in infants are associated with the activity of the sebaceous glands, which is based on the mother's androgens. In people of young and young age, the level of activity of the sebaceous glands is able to revive if the endogenous androgen acts.
Often against the background of seborrheic dermatitis, the production of sebaceous secretion is at a reduced level. But there are less free fatty acids in such epidermis, as well as squalene, paraffin esters. A little more triglycerides, cholesterol in the body. The statistics of seborrheic dermatitis are increasing with parkinsonism.
Experts looked for links between the disease and the development and activity of yeast fungi, the corresponding bacteria. But certain results were not achieved. There was a connection with a secondary bacterial infection. Also, no evidence could be found for an autoimmune mechanism of the disease. Associated factors such as stress are often highlighted.
Almost all people have a fungus like malassezia furfur. But not everyone is infected with this disease. For the development and growth of the fungus, many conditions are needed:
- bad habits,
- hereditary constituents of sebum,
- the course of hormonal changes
etc. These conditions have a bad effect on the body, but this is enough for the development of the fungus. It develops, grows, and subsequently causes disease. In adolescence, the level of hormonal levels rises, the sebaceous glands begin to affect the health of the body, and the risk of the disease increases markedly.
Seborrheic dermatitis on the face
Seborrheic dermatitis on the face is becoming more common. It is easy to identify, as an accumulation of scabs forms on the face, with a strong itching sensation. When the case is especially serious, the skin deteriorates not only on the face, but also on the areas behind the ears. If you do not start to fight the disease in time, then peeling can intensify, the surfaces of the scales begin to get greasy, they thicken, turn yellow, this is a warning of re-infection.
Often, seborrheic dermatitis on the face spreads to adolescents when puberty begins. With the normalization of sebum production, skin phenomena stop. But in some cases, beneficial factors remain. Most often, the disease develops in male patients.
The disease is considered cutaneous, but its manifestations are quite painful. The sebaceous supply of glands with seborrhea changes its chemical composition when compared with healthy people. The disease appears due to the fungus, when the vital activity of infections is disrupted, leading to concomitant problems.
In adolescents, seborrheic dermatitis on the face appears as a result of hormonal changes in the body. Adults begin to get sick for the following reasons:
- Poor nutrition.
- Infection of various types.
- Excess carbohydrate and fatty foods.
- Gastrointestinal problems.
- Thyroid disorder.
- Lack of vitamins.
Sometimes it is enough to exclude dangerous products from the menu:
All of them are an activator of sebum production.
In the treatment of this type of seborrheic dermatitis, corticosteroids are used externally. It is necessary to consult a doctor, strive to avoid skin atrophy.
The improvement in the health of patients with seborrheic dermatitis is especially noticeable in summer. In winter, along with a decline in immunity and a decrease in the required amount of immunity, deterioration is noticeable.
Seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp
Seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp is a special type of disease, with a recurrence of a chronic type, accompanied by the appearance of special symptoms on the scalp. In particular, where hair grows on the head, erythematous-squamous and follicular papular-squamous types of rashes grow. Medical statistics announce: more often the disease affects 3 - 5 percent of the population, especially people 18-40 years old. In children, seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp is very rare. It is believed that this is due to the course of sebum separation in different age groups.
The causes of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp lie in the abnormal development of the lipophilic yeast-like fungus Malassezia furfur. This is the name of the scientist who is credited with the proof theorem in 1874 about the etiology of the fungal basis of this disease. If the body has sufficiently activated the local and general immunity, then the fungi remain in a spore state. When certain conditions are created, they begin to actively multiply and grow. The background is a violation of the barrier functions of the epidermis, an increase in the separation of sebum.
Hyperactivation of the fungal microflora develops under the following factors:
- diseases in the endocrine system;
- hormonal disruptions, regardless of their causes;
- disorder of the nervous system;
- weakening of the immune defense;
- emotional outbursts or stress;
- unjustified physical activity;
- change of climatic zones.
Treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp is complex. Its tasks are to eliminate symptoms, correct ailments, which often become the root cause of the discussed skin disease.
A strict diet is required. The patient must follow a special hypoallergenic diet. The diet is based on foods that are high in zinc, vitamins A, B, C, selenium. Until the disease subsides, you will need to use special shampoos. They are produced for medicinal purposes and are based on keratolytic ingredients, zinc and substances that help eliminate excess sebum. Locally, it is customary to carry out etiotropic therapy for seborrheic dermatitis. It consists in the use of antifungal drugs, whose base is nizoral and miconazole. If the layer of scales has become very dense, compresses must first be made, based on vegetable oils and keratolytic ointments. In addition, physiotherapy procedures are shown:
- darsonvalization procedure;
- ultraviolet therapy.
Seborrheic dermatitis in children
Seborrheic dermatitis in children is a disease of the skin infection class. Symptoms vary, depending on the affected skin areas in the child. If the face is the focus of the lesion, then dry and oily seborrheic dermatitis can be diagnosed. The symptoms of this disease are usually:
- peeling of the skin;
- redness at the sites of growth of eyelashes and eyebrows;
- the appearance of scales around the wings of the nose, cheekbones;
- there is severe itching and pain where the lesions have occurred.
Fatty seborrheic dermatitis in children is accompanied by an abundant amount of secreted fat. On children's skin, the disease on the face is localized at the nasolabial folds. The dry variety is manifested, on the contrary, by drying out the skin. As a result, it begins to peel off, and it is very difficult to get rid of this phenomenon.
Seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp of a child leads to hair loss. In children, the disease causes characteristic symptoms such as diarrhea. In this category of patients, the affected area is very large.
Treatment of seborrheic dermatitis in children requires a complex method. Medication alone is not enough for children. A special diet will be required. The child does not eat ordinary foods. In particular, babies need milk with a special composition. It is necessary that it contains vitamins of different groups, especially - A, C, B. Also, like adults, selenium and zinc are needed. An excessive dose of products with their content is dangerous for children, complications arise. In older age, children follow a diet like adults. Medical shampoos may be prescribed if seborrheic dermatitis affects the scalp.
How to cure seborrheic dermatitis?
How to cure seborrheic dermatitis? A special system has been developed for this. Medicines are prescribed that are necessary to normalize the state of the nervous system, as well as those that treat the digestive tract. In the course of treatment, it is necessary to treat the affected skin with soda. Salicylic or boric acid is also used, diluted to a weak solution. At the same time, ultraviolet therapy is needed.
There are no modern effective drugs that normalize the condition of the sebaceous glands. During treatment, an orientation is created to correct the selected expressed symptom. When it is necessary to eliminate localization in the scalp, then antifungal therapy is prescribed. This helps shampoo, which includes substances:
- zinc pyritone,
A number of shampoos meet these objectives, such as:
- "Keto Plus",
To cure seborrheic dermatitis in the acute stage, daily use is required. The course can be interrupted only with an obvious decrease in symptoms. If it is obvious that the treatment is ineffective or reduced when using one of the shampoos, it is allowed to replace it with another.
Seborrheic dermatitis on the face requires a special approach. Especially often, doctors recommend a drug such as ketoconazole. This substance perfectly slows down and stops the growth of the accumulation of fungal bacteria. The experience of its use on patients has confirmed its effectiveness. It must be applied to the skin of the face, a kind of foam is created. The procedure should last three minutes, then the mixture is washed off. There are cases of small rashes. Then ketoconazole (cream, 2%) is prescribed. If the case is particularly difficult, then hydrocortisone is prescribed.
Seborrheic dermatitis, which occurs in the back and chest, should be treated with shampoos. In addition, drugs with antifungal action, immunomodulators are prescribed.
The relevant section in traditional medicine is well developed, also devoted to the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. Tea tree oil is a good antifungal agent. But he has little ability to fight inflammation. Decoctions of medicinal herbs are popular for moisturizing headbands. With their help, lotions are made that weaken the inflammatory process.
You may also be interested in the article on home treatment for dermatitis. But do not forget that a consultation with a doctor is required!
Diet for seborrheic dermatitis
Diet for seborrheic dermatitis will be the first advice that any doctor will give. The diet will have to be adjusted regardless of the degree of development of the disease. You have to adhere to a very strict menu. You will have to forget about some of your favorite foods. It will be necessary to replenish the part called "healthy eating". Then the balance in the body can be restored, and this is an unacceptable condition for the development of the pathogen fungus. What's in the new menu?
- Liquid. We need freshly squeezed juices, fruit drinks, natural herbal infusions, clean fresh water.
- Diet meat. This includes lean parts of pork and beef, white chicken meat. Rarely is turkey or rabbit pampering allowed. Lean fish are shown, especially if steamed.
- Vegetables. Pumpkin dishes are definitely recommended. Its pulp should not be bright. You can add dishes with zucchini, squash, cabbage and asparagus. It is imperative to eat seaweed. The rest of the vegetables are also acceptable, but in limited quantities.
- Dairy cuisine. Porridge is made from whole milk, diluted in half with water. In this way, oatmeal, barley, buckwheat are prepared. The use of cottage cheese, kefir, yogurt is allowed.
- Berries. You can eat them fresh and frozen, they also make fruit drinks. With seborrheic dermatitis, the benefits will be from the use of gooseberries, currants, cranberries, watermelons and cherries. You can not use jam.
A large list of products is prohibited. Dishes from carbohydrates are prohibited, not only cakes, sweets, but also buns, sugary drinks. We'll have to postpone:
- fried and fatty foods,
- pickled smoked products,
- fast food,
The author of the article: Kuzmina Vera Valerievna | Endocrinologist, nutritionist
Education: Diploma of the Russian State Medical University named after NI Pirogov with a degree in General Medicine (2004). Residency at Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry, diploma in Endocrinology (2006).