It Hurts In The Throat And You Want To Cough, What To Do And How To Treat It?

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Video: It Hurts In The Throat And You Want To Cough, What To Do And How To Treat It?

Video: It Hurts In The Throat And You Want To Cough, What To Do And How To Treat It?
It Hurts In The Throat And You Want To Cough, What To Do And How To Treat It?
It Hurts In The Throat And You Want To Cough, What To Do And How To Treat It?

Sore throat: how to treat?

Many colds begin with a sore throat. Most often, these diseases are caused by a respiratory viral infection, but a more serious pathology cannot be ruled out. A sore throat is a symptom that can bother not only an adult, but also a child. The problem should not be ignored, since a sore throat and nose often becomes the first signal of an impending illness.


  • Causes of sore throat and nose
  • What can be a sore throat?
  • Constantly sore throat, what is the reason?
  • If a child has a sore throat, what to do?
  • Sore throat as a symptom
  • How to get rid of a sore throat?
  • Treatment of a sore throat with folk remedies

Causes of sore throat and nose

Causes of sore throat and nose
Causes of sore throat and nose

The main respiratory organ is the nose. In this regard, the mouth performs an auxiliary function, disinfecting and warming up the air entering the lower respiratory tract. This is possible due to the active work of the blood vessels that feed the nasopharyngeal mucosa. It is on it that the inhaled air first gets, which goes a long way, starting from the nasal passages, moving along the nasopharynx and further into the lower respiratory tract. At this time, it is moistened, warmed, and cleaned of dust and microbes.

Microscopic cilia, which grow over the entire surface of the mucous membrane, are responsible for the air purification process. They move towards the exit from the nose. If the cilia are unable to "expel" dirt or microbes, then they provoke sneezing. This reflex helps to effectively cleanse the nasal cavity.

If some harmful particles from the external environment still penetrate further, then the next obstacle in their path is the lymphatic tissue. There is a lot of it in the nasopharynx, it forms the so-called lymphoid ring, which includes the tonsils.

The process of work of the tonsils can be described as follows:

  • First, air enters the pharyngeal tonsil. If its tissues begin to grow, then they speak of adenoids. In adults, the adenoids do not grow.
  • Then air enters the oral cavity, passing through the tonsils of the posterior pharyngeal wall. They sit on a tube that connects the nose and mouth to each other.
  • Palatine tonsils are next on the way of air masses. They can be seen with the naked eye if you open your mouth wide and look in the mirror.
  • The palatine tonsils perform the work of purifying the air together with the lingual tonsil.
  • Another stage that the air passes through is the paired tonsils, although they are mostly busy working to prevent microbes from entering the lower respiratory tract from the ear.

The pharyngeal wall is represented by mucous and fibrous membranes, the muscle layer is absent there, since it is not needed to ensure the respiratory function. The oropharynx is also riddled with nerve endings related to the cranial nerves. They are responsible for the sensitivity of this area.

So, a sore throat can occur for the following reasons:

  • The mucous membrane of the nasopharynx and / or oropharynx is too dry. This may be due to medication. Inhalation of air containing chemical compounds, paint, fragrances, tobacco smoke and other harmful substances promotes dryness of mucous membranes. This is especially true for people who have to breathe polluted air on an ongoing basis.
  • The mucous membrane of the respiratory system is too irritated. The most common cause is gastroesophageal reflux or reflux disease. In this case, hydrochloric acid is thrown from the stomach into the esophagus. Exacerbation of the disease is observed after taking alcoholic beverages, or if a person lies down to rest immediately after eating, taking a horizontal position.
  • The mucous membrane of the airways is inflamed. Inflammation is caused by infectious agents: viruses, bacteria or fungi. Sometimes the inflammation is of a non-infectious nature, that is, it is caused by allergens.
  • The blood supply system of the respiratory mucosa works with impairments.
  • A person develops a tumor of the fibrous layer of the oropharynx.
  • The part of the brain that is responsible for the sensitivity of the oropharynx and nasopharynx does not correctly process signals coming to it.

  • There was a malfunction in the functioning of the nerve endings, which are located next to the tonsils.

Of all the above reasons, the most common is an infectious inflammation of the tonsils. If it captures the palatine tonsils, then we are talking about tonsillitis, and if the back wall of the pharynx is involved in the pathological process, then the diagnosis of pharyngitis is made. This inflammation responds with a sore throat, in this way the body gives the person a signal for action. He calls for the initiation of treatment to prevent further spread of the infection to the lower respiratory tract, namely to the bronchi and lungs. To understand how to act, it is necessary to be able to distinguish one pathological condition from another.

What can be a sore throat?

What can be a sore throat
What can be a sore throat

A sore throat can occur abruptly, causing severe discomfort to a person. In this case, other symptoms of the disease will be absent.

Sometimes a person experiences a sore throat on an ongoing basis, periodically his health improves, and from time to time the discomfort, on the contrary, increases.

If there is inflammation and swelling of the mucous membrane of the throat, then this is always accompanied by the appearance of a dry cough and sore throat.

A wet cough is an attempt by the body to quickly get rid of a pathogenic bacteria or virus. To do this, it produces a certain amount of mucus, which captures a microbe or other irritant and effectively removes it from the respiratory system.

If a sore throat occurs suddenly, then the reasons may be as follows: ARVI, an allergic reaction of the body, the reflux of hydrochloric acid from the stomach, the ingress of aggressive chemicals into the oropharynx.

SARS, as the cause of sore throat. The fact that a sore throat is due to a viral infection can be judged by the presence of discomfort. It occurs on the condition that a person does not smoke, did not inhale polluted air, did not undergo treatment with new drugs and did not have contact with allergens (with animal hair, with household chemicals, with pollen of plants), was not in a very dusty room.

In this case, the following diagnoses are possible:

  • Acute tonsillitis, when a person's tonsils become inflamed.
  • Acute pharyngitis, when the pharyngeal wall becomes inflamed.
  • Acute rhinopharyngitis, in which the oropharynx and nasopharynx become inflamed. Acute rhinopharyngitis, in addition to sore throat, will indicate a runny nose.
  1. Symptoms of a viral infection:

    • Lachrymation, redness of the conjunctiva of the eye.
    • Frequent sneezing.
    • Severe discomfort in the throat.
    • An increase in body temperature to subfebrile values.
    • Dry cough.
    • Runny nose, while mucus secreted from the nose is clear and thin.
    • Itching in the nose and sneezing.
    • Redness of the throat, including the tonsils, uvula, and back of the throat. Also, the back of the throat will be grainy. These areas are represented by inflamed lymphoid tissue.
  2. Flu symptoms:

    • Pain in muscles and joints, body aches.
    • Sore throat.
    • High body temperature, which is difficult to bring down any antipyretic drugs.
    • Chest pain.
    • Dry cough.
    • No runny nose, or a slight separation of mucus from the nose.

    A sore throat can be caused by a mycotic lesion of its mucous membrane. Most often, fungal pharyngitis develops after intensive treatment with antibacterial drugs, or against the background of a pronounced decrease in immunity, as well as with blood diseases.

  3. Symptoms of a fungal infection:

    • Sore throat, the appearance of a sensation of the presence of a foreign body in it.
    • Pain while swallowing. The pain will radiate to the ear, neck, jaw.
    • Dry cough.
    • Redness of the throat. The tonsils and the back of the pharynx are often coated with a gray or yellow coating.
  4. Symptoms of a bacterial throat infection:

    • Sore throat, which quickly gives way to painful sensations.
    • An increase in body temperature to high levels (up to 39 ° C and above).
    • Feeling of the presence of a foreign body in the throat.
    • Increased sore throat during swallowing movements.
    • Headache.
    • Dry cough.
    • Redness of the throat, the appearance on the back wall of the pharynx of purulent masses of yellow or gray color.
What can be a sore throat
What can be a sore throat

Sore throat as a cause of sore throat. When the throat is severely sore, and the tonsils and lacunas are covered with pus, sore throat can be suspected. At the same time, the body temperature rises to very impressive levels. Bacterial sore throat is a very dangerous and contagious disease. Self-medication in this case is unacceptable, the patient needs the help of an otolaryngologist.

Young children with bacterial angina are best treated in a hospital setting, in the children's infectious diseases department. If therapy is not started on time, then the risk of developing complications from the kidneys and heart is high.

Reflux esophagitis as a cause of sore throat. The reflux of hydrochloric acid from the stomach into the esophagus can occur provided that a person has a good meal and lies down to rest. This is especially common in people with a weakened circular muscle that separates the esophagus and stomach. Although sometimes reflux esophagitis is a companion of diseases such as gastritis or stomach ulcers. In this case, the person will be disturbed by abdominal pain, frequent nausea and vomiting.

Allergy as a cause of sore throat. If there was contact with potential allergens, for example, with pollen of plants, new drugs, with animal hair or mold, then a sore throat may be the result of an allergic reaction of the body.

Allergic pharyngitis will be indicated by the following symptoms:

  • Cough and sore throat.
  • Runny nose and sneezing.
  • A slight increase in body temperature (rare).
  • Lachrymation.
  • Rash on the body.
  • Headaches.

Other pathological symptoms, such as body aches or chills, will be absent. Allergy symptoms are quickly stopped by taking antihistamines: Fenistila, Diazolin, etc. As soon as the opportunity arises, you should seek help from an allergist.

Trauma as the cause of a sore throat. Sometimes a sore throat can be triggered by trauma to his mucous membrane. Swallowing of foreign bodies often leads to injuries: fish bone, large particles of dust, etc. In addition to perspiration, a person will be bothered by a sore throat.

When the injured area becomes inflamed, there may be an increase in body temperature, increased pain, general malaise, the appearance of sputum with impurities of pus.

Constantly sore throat, what is the reason?

Persistent throat
Persistent throat

The reasons for persistent throat discomfort can be as follows:

  • Dry air. In order for a person to breathe comfortably, the humidity in the room should not be less than 50%. If it is below this mark, then after 2 hours you may encounter such an unpleasant symptom as a sore throat. In this case, there will be no signs of any disease. We are talking about increased body temperature, nasal flow and malaise in general.

  • Tobacco smoking. A bad habit like smoking tobacco can also cause a sore throat. There will be no other pathological symptoms indicating any disease.

  • Frequent use of nasal drops with a vasoconstrictor effect. If a person has a disturbed nasal breathing, and for a long time he is trying to correct the problem with vasoconstrictor drops, then a sore throat may appear. The reason lies in the fact that the drug flows down the back of the throat, causes vasoconstriction and provokes discomfort.

  • Living in settlements with unfavorable environmental conditions, work in hazardous production. If a person works in conditions of increased gas pollution, constantly breathes in exhaust gases or paints and varnishes, then he may have a sore throat, which is often accompanied by a cough without sputum discharge. There are no other pathological symptoms indicative of the disease. After a person is in the fresh air or drinks water, the sore throat decreases or disappears completely.

  • Pharyngeal neurosis. Pharyngeal neurosis is a disease that is expressed in a violation of the transmission of nerve impulses from the upper parts of the digestive tract to the brain. Exacerbations of neurosis most often occur after a cold. However, previously transferred syphilis and oncological diseases of the oropharynx and larynx can act as a provoking factor. Discomfort in the throat will be present on an ongoing basis, in parallel, the patient is worried about a dry cough and a foreign body sensation in the respiratory tract. The cough tends to get worse during nervous excitement or stress. The rest of the person will feel completely healthy. Drugs designed to relieve pain and discomfort in the throat will not bring relief with pharyngeal neurosis.

  • Diabetes. With diabetes mellitus, a sore throat can be observed, but this is not the only or leading symptom of the disease. The patient will also be bothered by frequent urination, especially during a night's rest. All diabetes mellitus wounds take a very long time to heal.

  • Goiter. This pathology of the thyroid gland is expressed in the formation of a node, which will cause discomfort and sore throat, which is associated with the pressure of the goiter on the trachea and pinching of the nerve endings. Sometimes a sore throat is the only symptom of a nodular goiter, especially when thyroid function is intact. Hyperthyroidism is indicated by a sharp loss of body weight, increased heart rate, increased appetite, increased nervousness. Signs of hypothyroidism are a slowdown in metabolic processes in the body, thickening and swelling of the skin, hair loss, obesity.

  • Excessive overstrain of the vocal cords. A sore throat can bother people who are forced to constantly strain their vocal cords due to their professional activities, for example, singers, announcers, teachers, actors. Sometimes the voice can become hoarse, or even disappear.

  • The presence of a tumor. If a person develops a tumor in the larynx or throat, then he will be disturbed by symptoms resembling a viral infection: sore throat, hoarseness, mild pain. At the same time, there is no increase in body temperature, headache, runny nose. Fatigue is possible, and sore throat and sore throat will gradually worsen.

  • Diseases of the digestive system. Among the diseases of the digestive system that can provoke a sore throat, there are:

  • Ulcers of the stomach and duodenum.
  • Inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis).
  • Inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis).
  • Gastritis with reflux esophagitis.
  • Hernia of the esophagus.

The cause of perspiration in this case is the throwing of hydrochloric acid from the stomach into the esophagus with further irritation of the pharyngeal mucosa. If the pancreas or gallbladder is inflamed, then bile will irritate the larynx. Symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, dyspeptic disorders, and a bitter taste in the mouth indicate the pathology of the digestive system.

If a child has a sore throat, what to do?

If a child has a sore throat
If a child has a sore throat

When a child complains of a sore throat, it most often indicates tonsillitis, or ARVI, or allergies. With ARVI, the baby is worried about a runny nose and redness of the eyes. If a child has tonsillitis, then his body temperature rises, physical activity decreases, sore throat appears, which intensifies during drinking and eating.

If the cause of perspiration is an allergy, then there may be a slight coughing, swelling of the face, reddening of the skin and the appearance of a rash on it, increased lacrimation. At the same time, the body temperature remains normal.

An allergy occurs after a child comes into contact with an allergen, such as an animal or plant, after taking medications or introducing a new food into the menu.

A child may complain of a sore throat if, for even a short period of time, he breathed heavily gassed air, tobacco smoke, inhaled vapors of paints and varnishes or household chemicals.

Other causes, for example, throat swelling, reflux esophagitis, laryngeal neurosis are quite rare diseases that lead to sore throat in children.

Sore throat as a symptom

Sore throat
Sore throat
  • Cough and sore throat are a symptom of a very wide range of diseases.
  • Runny nose and sore throat - ARVI or an allergic reaction of the body.
  • Increased sore throat during nervous tension, discomfort occurs in the form of attacks - laryngeal neurosis.
  • Sore throat after eating - ingestion of gastric contents into the esophagus and larynx.
  • Sore throat at night, discomfort accompanied by a cough - whooping cough or bronchial asthma.
  • Chemical burns, inhalation of contaminated air - perspiration occurs after spending time in appropriate conditions.
  • Sore throat in the morning - violation of nasal breathing during a night's rest, exacerbation of chronic tonsillitis, reflux esophagitis.

How to get rid of a sore throat?

What preceded the sore throat

Additional symptoms other than tickling

What's going on in the throat

Diagnosis, how to treat

Hypothermia, contact with a sick person

Redness of the conjunctiva of the eyes, sneezing, cough

Redness of the throat mucosa

Acute respiratory viral disease:

  • Gargle: soda-salt solution, Furacilin solution, decoctions of medicinal herbs.
  • Throat irrigation with sprays and aerosols: Orasept, Ingalipt, Tantum verde.
  • Using lozenges for sucking, for example, Faringosept or Strepsils.
  • Rinsing the nasopharynx with saline solutions.

Overcooling of the body, contact with a patient with a high body temperature (especially important for children)

Sore throat, high body temperature, difficulty swallowing food

Hyperemic tissue of the tonsils, the presence of purulent plugs in the lacunae of the tonsils

Bacterial sore throat:

  • Visiting a doctor, taking antibiotics prescribed by him.
  • Gargling with antiseptic solutions from the first point.
  • Compliance with bed rest.
  • Taking medications that lower body temperature (Nurofen, Paracetamol).

Contact with new household chemicals, pollen, animals, visiting the zoo

Runny nose, watery eyes, hoarseness

Redness of the throat, enlargement of the tonsils in size


  • The earliest possible termination of contact with the allergen.
  • Eating food that does not cause an allergic reaction.
  • Taking antiallergenic drugs: Zyrtec, Zodak, Loratadin.


Only a sore throat. Possible symptoms such as abdominal pain, indigestion, bitterness in the mouth

Without changes

Diseases of the digestive system:

  • Gastroenterologist consultation.
  • Sleep on an orthopedic pillow with high sides.
  • You need to take a horizontal position no earlier than 3 hours after the last meal.

During sleep, against the background of emotional stress

A sore throat accompanied by coughing fits

Without changes

Pharyngeal neurosis:

  • Neurologist's consultation.
  • Drinking warm milk with honey before bed.
  • Drinking mint tea before bed.

Inhalation of air in the room where the paintwork was carried out

Only a sore throat

Without changes

Acute atrophic pharyngitis: Consultation with an otolaryngologist

Vocal cord tension

Dry cough, hoarseness, loss of voice

Without changes

Professional laryngitis: Do not strain the vocal cords; for their early recovery, you need to gargle with antiseptic solutions

What to do if your throat is very sore:

  • Take an antihistamine medication.
  • Do not inhale tobacco smoke, do not consume alcoholic beverages.
  • Irrigate the throat with antiseptic sprays: Strepsils, Anti-Angin, Stopangin, Ingalipt. The drugs Septolete and Strepsils 2 in 1 have an analgesic effect.
  • Urgently visit a doctor or call him at home if there is a purulent plaque in the throat.
  • Minimize contact with potential allergens.
  • Flush the nasopharynx with saline solutions. For this purpose, both a normal saline solution and ready-made solutions with sea salt are suitable: Aqualor, Aqua Maris, etc.
  • All foods that can irritate a sore throat should be excluded from the menu. This applies to sour, hot, cold, pickled, bitter and spicy foods.
  • You need to sleep on a pillow that has sufficient height.
  • You can't talk too much so as not to strain your vocal cords.
  • Drink as much warm liquid as possible. It can be herbal teas, dried fruit decoctions, rosehip decoction, etc.
  • To soften your throat, you can drink warm milk and honey before bed.
  • You can take a mild sedative before bed, such as a motherwort or valerian pill.
  • Make an alcohol-based warming compress: soak a piece of gauze in vodka, attach it to your throat, wrap it with a scarf on top, then cellophane and warm it with a scarf.

Treatment of a sore throat with folk remedies

Treatment of perspiration
Treatment of perspiration

People's advice boils down to the fact that a sore throat can be reduced by taking a sufficient amount of fluid.

For this you need to drink:

  • Rowan infusion.
  • Tea with raspberries.
  • Rosehip decoction.
  • Tea based on medicinal herbs.
  • Infusion of parsley leaves.
  • Linden decoction with honey.

The following foods can be used to strengthen local and general immunity:

  • Lingonberries.
  • Cranberries.
  • Currant, strawberry and raspberry jam.
  • Lemon and ginger.

It is necessary to disinfect the air in the room with the following liquids:

  • Needle tincture.
  • Onion and garlic juice.
  • Eucalyptus tincture.

Traditional recipes for the treatment of throat and nose infections:

  • Squeeze the juice from the black radish, mix it in a 1: 2 ratio with milk, add 2 teaspoons of honey. Take a tablespoon 3 times a day after meals. Warm up slightly before use.
  • Squeeze the juice from cherries and black currants, mix in equal proportions, add a tablespoon of honey. You need to drink 2 glasses of this drink per day.
  • Prepare an infusion of mint leaves, gargle a sore throat with it several times a day.
  • Squeeze the juice from the beets, add a spoonful of apple cider vinegar to it. Gargle 3 times a day after meals.

The author of the article: Lazarev Oleg Vladimirovich | ENT

Education: In 2009, he received a diploma in the specialty "General Medicine" at the Petrozavodsk State University. After completing an internship at the Murmansk Regional Clinical Hospital, he received a diploma in Otorhinolaryngology (2010)

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