A lump in the throat: how to get rid of?
The feeling of a lump in the throat is just an unpleasant symptom that can be triggered by various factors. A lump in the throat is not an independent disease and does not belong to medical terms. However, people often turn to doctors of various specialties with such a complaint. The lump in the throat is indicated by patients in the office of therapists, gastroenterologists, otolaryngologists, pulmonologists and more.
- Lump in throat: what is it?
- Symptoms of a lump in the throat
- Causes of a lump in the throat
- Pathological causes of a different nature
- Diagnostic methods
- How to get rid of the feeling of a lump in your throat?
Lump in throat: what is it?
A lump in the throat - by this phrase, most people understand the sensation of a foreign object that interferes with normal swallowing movements. Most often, this lump is the accumulation of mucus in the throat. It not only disrupts the process of swallowing food, but also interferes with the normal respiratory function.
A lump in the throat can appear for various reasons, ranging from an allergic reaction of the body and ending with severe pathologies of the thyroid gland or digestive tract organs. To find out the reason for the appearance of a lump in the throat, you need to contact a doctor and undergo diagnostics.
Symptoms of a lump in the throat
The main manifestation of a lump in the throat is discomfort during breathing and swallowing food, and sometimes even saliva.
In addition, there are additional symptoms that may bother a person:
- Feeling of pressure in the throat.
- Perspiration in the oropharynx.
- Sore throat while eating.
- Increased anxiety, which negatively affects a person's mood.
- Increased blood pressure.
- Increased heart rate.
- Hypoxia, asthma attacks.
- Disturbances in the work of the digestive system, nausea.
- Pain in the region of the heart, in the chest. Irradiation of pain to the back and lower back.
- Decreased muscle strength.
- Fever and increased sweating, or chills.
- Heaviness in the legs.
Causes of a lump in the throat
A lump in the throat can occur for a variety of reasons. Sometimes this sensation is purely a neurological problem. In other cases, a lump in the throat is caused by constriction of the respiratory system and can lead to suffocation.
The most common cause of a lump in the throat, experts call diseases of the respiratory system. Moreover, the inflammatory process can be localized in the oropharynx, nasopharynx and even in the esophagus.
The group of psychogenic causes that can provoke a feeling of a lump in the throat include:
- Postponed stress.
- Emotional upheavals.
- Neurotic conditions.
- Violations of regime moments with insufficient time for rest.
The mechanism of the occurrence of a coma in the throat against the background of a neurological disorder is easily explained. During emotional overstrain, the level of adrenaline and norepinephrine increases in the blood. These hormones contribute to overexcitation of the nervous system, which leads to increased muscle tone. The brain sends them signals in a chaotic manner. This can lead to a spasm in the throat area, so the person feels a lump in the throat.
The list of pathological causes is very extensive. Most often, people suffer for a long time from a feeling of a coma in the throat, since such diseases do not go away on their own. For their systematization, experts identify five large groups.
Pathological causes of a different nature
Inflammation of the oropharynx
A lump in the throat with inflammation of the oropharynx occurs due to tissue edema. A person feels that something is bothering him, as the blood vessels in the affected area expand, blood flow occurs. Thus, the body implements a defense mechanism against harmful flora. Indeed, together with the blood, it directs immune complexes to the focus of inflammation, designed to destroy pathogenic microorganisms.
If the swelling is severe, then it can cause breathing problems and even provoke choking. A significant narrowing of the lumen of the pharynx is dangerous, since the patient will begin to develop respiratory failure.
The main reasons for a coma in the throat against a background of inflammation of the oropharynx include:
- Tonsillitis of acute and chronic course. Bacteria (staphylococci and streptococci) are the most common causes of the disease, although it can be viral in nature. The person suffers from sore throat, burning sensation and breathing problems. The mouth may smell unpleasant. Corks form on the tonsils, and films and other rashes form next to them.
- Laryngitis. The disease can be infectious in nature, or develop against the background of hypothermia. Laryngitis often affects people whose work is associated with overstrain of the vocal cords. Its main symptoms are hoarseness, pain, sore throat, and dry throat. The person suffers from a barking dry cough, which gradually turns into a wet one.
Pharyngitis. With this pathology, the mucous membranes of the pharynx become inflamed. Microbes are the most common cause of this inflammation. Sometimes throat discomfort occurs due to inhalation of contaminated air. Chronic pharyngitis symptoms: lump in the throat, perspiration and dryness, persistent cough. During the acute phase of the disease, the body temperature rises.
A lump in the throat can be caused by diseases such as:
- Diffuse enlargement of the thyroid gland. The proliferation of its tissues occurs against the background of hormonal imbalance. As a result, a person develops a diffuse goiter, which causes a coma in the throat.
- Thyroid nodular goiter. With the proliferation of thyroid tissue or with the formation of nodes in it, the patient will always experience some discomfort in the throat. This is due to airway pressure. Sometimes it is a lump in the throat that is the main symptom of a thyroid lesion, but people ignore it for a long time and do not go to the doctor.
Pathology of the gastrointestinal tract
Diseases of the digestive system, which can lead to a lump in the throat:
Gastritis. With this pathology, the gastric mucosa becomes inflamed. In addition to pain in the abdomen and in the chest area, a person suffers from heartburn. It develops due to hydrochloric acid entering the esophagus. Gastritis cannot be ignored as it leads to serious health problems, including esophageal cancer.
Reflux esophagitis. This disorder is characterized by the ingress of stomach contents into the esophagus. Sometimes it leads to suffocation by small particles of undigested food, which enter the respiratory system. Hydrochloric acid contributes to the appearance of bitterness in the mouth, irritates the esophagus and pharynx, and makes a person cough. Aspiration of food particles can be dangerous, especially during the night hours when a person is sleeping. Even a lethal outcome is possible.
Stomach ulcer. This pathology is characterized by the formation of a site of ulceration in the stomach. Hydrochloric acid begins to eat away at the tissues of the organ, which causes severe pain. With an ulcer, acid is often thrown into the esophagus, which causes discomfort in the throat.
Anatomical features often cause a lump in the throat.
The most common of them include:
Osteochondrosis. In addition to a lump in the throat, a person will be bothered by dizziness, pain in the neck, crunching when turning it, and headaches.
Hernia of the esophagus. It can appear anywhere on the organ. The reasons for the formation of a hernia: overeating, congenital defects of the esophagus, injuries. The most common site for hernia formation is at the junction of the esophagus into the stomach. Sometimes the disease is asymptomatic, but some discomfort in the throat still occurs. It will be intense if the hernia starts to put pressure on the vagus nerve. To cope with the violation requires the help of a surgeon.
Overweight. In obese people, a lump in the throat is represented by lipid deposition. This is a kind of fatty goiter, which interferes with breathing normally, presses on the neck. In general, obese people feel worse than people with normal body weight.
Swelling of the throat and larynx. Cancer causes a sensation of a lump in the throat if it is located in this area. In addition, the person complains of coughing, difficulty breathing. At first, the patient will find it problematic to eat hard food, and then even liquid food. The person will begin to lose weight dramatically.
Injuries to the esophagus and larynx. Swelling and inflammation can lead to a lump in the throat. This feeling persists until the tissues are fully restored.
Other causes of a lump in the throat include:
Allergic reaction of the body. The sensation of a lump in the throat occurs due to the fact that its tissues are swollen. In addition, a person has a sore throat, dry mouth. To cope with the problem, you will need to take antihistamines and bronchodilators. A severe allergic reaction, such as Quincke's edema, can cause choking and death. Therefore, such patients should be treated immediately.
Helminthic invasions. Infection with parasites does not often lead to a lump in the throat, but sometimes the worms lay eggs in this area. It is this lump that a person will feel. Thus, tapeworms, echinococci and other large worms can multiply.
Foreign object in the throat. If an object is stuck in the throat, it will irritate the tissues of the larynx and esophagus. Most often, large particles of food become such an object. Although small children can swallow toys or other objects.
Diseases of the heart and blood vessels. IHD and congestive heart failure can lead to a feeling of a lump in the throat.
Brain tumors. When its structures are damaged, a lump in the goal will arise due to irritation of certain parts of the brain. These sensations are false, but sometimes they are quite intense. Patients with this condition often suffer from dizziness.
A person who is worried about a lump in his throat is sent for examination to an otolaryngologist.
If the doctor does not find any pathology in him, then he will send the patient to another specialist:
- To a neurologist. The doctor examines the patient for organic lesions of the nervous system.
- To the endocrinologist. The doctor will assess the condition of the person's thyroid gland.
- To the oncologist. The doctor of this specialty excludes cancerous growths in the body.
Provided that no specialist has discovered a person's health problems, he needs the help of a psychiatrist or psychotherapist. It has been established that a lump in the throat can occur due to psychogenic factors.
To make the correct diagnosis, any specialist examines the patient, examines his anamnesis, listens to complaints and performs a survey.
Analyzes that can be assigned to a patient:
- General urine analysis.
- Examination of the oral cavity and tonsils.
- General blood analysis.
- CT and MRI of the spine. Most often, his cervical spine is examined.
- Examination of the vocal cords, epiglottis.
- Ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland.
- X-ray of the cervical spine.
- Examination of the neck and lymph nodes.
Doctors to whom a patient with a lump in the throat may be referred:
ENT doctor. He can detect diseases such as: pharyngitis, laryngitis, tonsillitis, postnasal syndrome, paratonsillitis.
Gastroenterologist. The doctor can identify diseases such as: reflux esophagitis, esophageal diverticula, hernia, diffuse spasm, throat burn, stomach ulcer, etc.
Endocrinologist. The specialist is engaged in the identification of thyroid pathologies.
Psychiatrist and psychotherapist. The doctor deals with the diagnosis of mental disorders.
Surgeon. The doctor can detect tumors localized in the pharynx, throat abscess, esophageal diverticulum, and other pathologies that require removal.
Rheumatologist. The doctor is engaged in the diagnosis of rheumatic pathologies, for example, systemic scleroderma.
How to get rid of the feeling of a lump in your throat?
To get rid of a lump in the throat, you need to eliminate the causes that led to its occurrence. This unpleasant sensation is not always caused by viral and bacterial infections, therefore, it is not always possible to cope with it with lozenges and throat sprays.
It will be easier for a doctor to determine the diagnosis if a person turns to him as early as possible and accurately describes all the symptoms that bother him.
Treatment by a gastroenterologist
With gastroesophageal disease, the esophageal sphincter loses the necessary tone, so food from the stomach is thrown back. This causes a lump in the throat. The stomach itself will produce more hydrochloric acid, so the symptoms of the disorder only intensify.
After the doctor performs diagnostics (esophagoscopy, laparoscopy, retroscopy), he will know how badly damaged the stomach, esophagus and intestines. This will allow you to prescribe the optimal therapy for the patient.
Drugs that can be prescribed to the patient:
Gastal, Maalox, Rennie, Phosphalugel. They reduce the acidity of gastric juice.
Omez, Ultop, Pariet, Lansoprazole. These drugs belong to the group of proton pump inhibitors. They are prescribed to reduce the activity of the glands that produce hydrochloric acid.
Metoclopramide, Cerucal, Passages. These remedies are prescribed when a person suffers from severe nausea.
Linex, Bifidumbacterin, Hilak Forte, Acipol. The drugs are indicated for admission to patients with intestinal dysbiosis. Thanks to their reception, it is possible to cope with flatulence and normalize the stool.
Festal, Enzistal, Mezim forte, Penzital. These are enzymatic drugs that normalize the digestion of food.
Smecta, Polyphepan, Activated carbon. Drugs from this list allow you to remove harmful substances and toxins from the body.
If it is not possible to cope with the pathology with conservative methods, then the patient is shown an operation.
Treatment by an endocrinologist
The endocrinologist prescribes therapy depending on the type of disease and the degree of its development.
To normalize the work of the endocrine glands and eliminate a lump in the throat, medications such as:
- Triiodothyronine, Thyrocomb. These drugs are prescribed for thyroid hormone deficiency.
- Tyrosol. This medication is indicated for use in patients with an overactive thyroid gland.
- Broad-spectrum antibiotics (Ciprofloxacin, Amoxicillin) and L-thyroxine are prescribed for patients diagnosed with inflammation of the thyroid tissue.
Long-term therapy is required to cope with the disease affecting the thyroid gland. It is necessary to strictly follow medical recommendations, since the drugs are used very serious. Exceeding the dose can cause serious health damage. To speed up recovery and quickly get rid of the feeling of a lump in the throat, physiotherapy is prescribed. Magnetotherapy and laser therapy are often used. Sometimes people will need to take hormones throughout their lives.
Treatment by a neurologist, psychiatrist, psychologist
A lump in the throat can occur in patients with mental disabilities. To get rid of this unpleasant symptom, you will need to take psychotherapeutic drugs.
A lump in the throat often occurs with such pathologies as: stress, hysteria, panic attacks. All these conditions overload the central nervous system, as a result of which it cannot send the correct nerve impulses to the smooth muscles of the pharynx. The patient develops a spasm that persists for a long time. Therefore, he complains of a lump in his throat.
Therapy for mental illness can be carried out with the following drugs:
- Drugs - neuroleptics: Aminazin, Teralen, Mazheplit.
- Antidepressants: Tryptisol, Lyudiomil, Moclobemide.
- Nootropics: Nootropil, Piracetam, Cinnarizine.
- Psychostimulants: Pantogam, Zoloft, Omaron.
Antidepressants and antipsychotics can cause mental and physical dependence in the patient. To prevent this, such drugs are prescribed in courses. It is strictly forbidden to exceed the dose.
If the patient suffers from increased nervous excitability, then it is enough for him to take sedative herbal infusions. These can be remedies such as: motherwort, valerian, mint, peony, St. John's wort. Their reception allows you to normalize sleep, eliminate anxiety. In addition to medicinal herbs, the doctor may recommend taking Afobazol. It is not addictive, does not affect concentration, and does not cause severe side effects.
Treatment by an otolaryngologist, therapist, pulmonologist
A lump in the throat often appears in people after contracting a viral or bacterial infection with the involvement of the respiratory system in the pathological process. Moreover, representatives of the pathogenic flora do not stop in its upper sections, but spread below, to the trachea, pharynx, bronchi. The feeling of a lump in the throat can disturb a patient with tracheitis, bronchiolitis, angina, oral and pharyngeal candidiasis.
The multiplication of microbes provokes an acute inflammatory reaction and the formation of edema. The lumen of the throat narrows, which leads to characteristic symptoms. In addition, the person suffers from a cough, during which phlegm leaves. It can contain various inclusions.
To cope with colds and get rid of a lump in the throat, the patient may be prescribed drugs such as:
- Antibiotics: Amoxiclav, Sumamed, Amoxicillin, Cephalexin.
- Immune system stimulants: Citovir, Echinacea tincture, Cycloferon.
- Allergy medications: Zyrtec, Loratadin, Claritin, Suprastin.
- NSAIDs: Nimesulide, Nise, Ibuprofen.
- Drugs to lower body temperature: Panadol and Paracetamol.
In order for the patient to recover faster, he may be prescribed physiotherapy methods of treatment, for example, ultraviolet irradiation or UHF on the affected area. This helps to relieve swelling and eliminate a lump in the throat. At home, you can use such treatment methods as: inhalation, applying compresses, rubbing.
Treatment by a neurologist
A neuropathologist deals with the treatment of cervical osteochondrosis. This condition often causes a lump in the throat. With osteochondrosis, nerve fibers that are responsible for the nerves of the respiratory system are impaired. Therefore, the throat may feel … … … an unpleasant sensation.
To cope with the discomfort caused by osteochondrosis, drugs that stop the inflammatory reaction and pain help. Therefore, patients are prescribed the following drugs:
- Antispasmodics: No-shpa, Spazgan, Spazmalgon, Baralgetas.
- NSAIDs: Ibuprofen, Nimesulide, Nise, Ortofen, Diclofenac.
Anti-inflammatory drugs can be used in various dosage forms: in the form of a gel, tablets, ointments, capsules, injections. To relieve your health as soon as possible, you should combine topical products with oral medications. Preparations with a warming effect have a good analgesic effect, for example, Finalgon, Kapsikam, Revmalgon.
To consolidate the therapeutic effect, patients with osteochondrosis are sent to physiotherapy. It is useful to engage in physiotherapy exercises, visit a massage therapist. Also, patients are often prescribed electrophoresis, magnetotherapy, acupuncture.
It is important that the patient receives not only symptomatic therapy, but also drugs that affect the cause of the disease. To restore tissues, he can be assigned chondroprotectors, for example, Artra, Dona, Alflutop. They are taken in long courses, but with interruptions.
Treatment by an oncologist
If a cancerous tumor is detected in the early stages of development, then it is possible to get rid of it in 95% of cases. To begin with, a person will need to see a therapist. If a doctor suspects an oncological process, he will refer the patient to an oncologist. The doctor will prescribe tests and other necessary procedures. When the diagnosis is confirmed, the patient is shown treatment. It can be done in two ways: surgery and radiation therapy.
Sometimes both methods are combined. First, the tumor is irradiated and then removed. Sometimes patients need chemotherapy after surgery. Less commonly, it is prescribed before surgery.
Video: program Live Healthy "I have a lump in my throat, why does this happen?":
To prevent the formation of a lump in the throat, the following recommendations must be followed:
- Timely treat diseases of the respiratory system, digestive system organs, etc.
- Do not overstrain the vocal cords.
- Quit smoking and drinking alcohol.
- Eat right, take vitamin complexes.
- Adequate time to rest.
- Spend as much time as possible in the fresh air.
- Gargle with a saline solution immediately after the appearance of unpleasant sensations in it.
- Exercise, but do not overexert yourself.
- Visit a therapist every year for preventive purposes.
- Monitor the humidity of the air.
- Visit a gynecologist once every six months.
The author of the article: Lazarev Oleg Vladimirovich | ENT
Education: In 2009, he received a diploma in the specialty "General Medicine" at the Petrozavodsk State University. After completing an internship at the Murmansk Regional Clinical Hospital, he received a diploma in Otorhinolaryngology (2010)